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Cherry picking, when used figuratively, refers to selective extraction of points in an argument in order to refute or affirm them while ignoring others which will not support the point(s) being made. It derives from the obvious reluctance to harvest unripe, or overripe, fruit and to select only those which will make profit (or pie).
Often, cherry-picked factoids or references will be over-extrapolated and oversold to give the impression that they are representative, when they are not.
Ultimately, all cherry picking is anecdotal evidence, because it only uses one or two examples to make a point.
It often occurs that religious fanatics are not altogether in agreement with the holy books and teachings to which they claim to adhere; thus, they are often found cherry-picking points from these holy books, harping on the ones with which they agree and hand-waving away those with which they disagree. Examples:
- Creationists comb the Bible for quotes that appear to have anticipated scientific truths, such as Hebrews 1:11 (claimed to anticipate the Second Law of Thermodynamics) and Isaiah 40:22 (claimed to anticipate knowledge of the ellipsoidal shape of the earth and the expanding universe), while ignoring those that blatantly clash with science.
- On the other hand, the Catholic Church prefers broad allegorical interpretations of Bible stories, and generally downplays the significance of the Bible so as to assert a role for its own "Magisterium;" but when it comes to the Eucharist, they insist upon the literal interpretation, making cannibals and vampires out of partakers in the sacrament.
Cherry-picking is common among historical revisionists who may try to smear a group they disagree with by finding a couple people on the other side who were "bad" while only presenting a few people on your own side who were "good". A golden example of this would be pundits among the hard-right who claim that the dixiecrats weren't conservative because Southern politician and segregationalist J. William Fulbright wasn't as right-wing as his constituents, therefor segregationalist Democrats were liberals, so long as you ignore the vast majority of Southern Democrats at the time who were famously conservative.
 Pharmaceutical industry
In the pharmaeutical industry, a "cherry picking protocol" can be part of the drug discovery process. Say you're looking for a drug that'll neutralize Protein XYZ. You take several thousand chemicals whose effects are unknown, and dose a small number of cells in a culture medium with each chemical individually, putting each chemical/cell culture combo in its own separate miniature test tube. You then pass them under a detector that can tell if the cells were affected or not, which records which tubes had a response you're looking for and which didn't. The act of separating out the tubes that had a response, for further testing, is called "hit picking" or "cherry picking."
 Automotive industry
A mechanic who chooses to work on newer units in relatively pristine condition, leaving the more intractable and less convenient jobs for others to swear at, could be said to be cherry picking.
 See also
- Anecdotal evidence
- Quote mining is a form of cherry picking the statements of others
- The genuine points used in construction of straw man arguments are typically cherry-picked
- Selective reporting is a form of cherry picking that plays up the significance of rare events
- Confirmation bias is the tendency of people to cherry pick only facts that fit their pre-existing views
- Iron Chariots on cherry-picked Bible verses
- The favorite weapon of deniers, cherry picking, Skeptical Science