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The Tsars (or Czars) were the rulers of Russia and Eastern European countries. The term derives from the Latin term for Emperor (Caesar). The last Russian Tsar was Nicholas II who was overthrown in the first Russian uprising of 1917 and later murdered along with his family by the Bolsheviks.
The term has come to be attributed to high ranking public officials such as the drug Tsar (head of the Office of National Drug Control Policy) and
Card Czar terrorism Tsar. When Obama took office, some republicans took his naming of "Tsars" to be purposeful foreshadowing of literal dictatorship.
If one wants to be completely pedantic in any discussion of Russian history from 1721 and onward, one can point out that technically the Tsardom ended in 1721 and the legal title of all future monarchs was "Imperator" (Ру. Император, "Emperor"), though the term "Tsar" continued to be used frequently even afterwards.