|Hail to the Chief?|
|Persons of interest|
“”I would build a great wall, and nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I'll build them very inexpensively — I will build a great, great wall on our southern border. And I will have Mexico pay for that wall. Mark my words.
|—Donald Trump (and it's gonna be YUUUGE)|
The Great Wall of America or Great Wall of Mexico is a planned physical barrier from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, proposed to separate the USA from Mexico and thus prevent immigration from Latin America into the USA. The idea is most closely associated with President Donald Trump, but a high physical barrier along the entire land border is not a new idea.
There is no physical reason why a wall is impossible, and large sections of the border are already secured by high fences, but construction of the remainder would be expensive, and the US government would need to acquire significant amounts of land from private owners and be able to carry out major construction projects in very remote areas. Trump, who estimates a cost of $8bn-$12bn, proposes to fund it either by taxing Mexican illegal immigrants or by directly getting Mexico to pay via
gunboat diplomacy threats and sanctions.
The wall and its associated security measures would have a significant economic and social impact, by making life harder for the many people who cross the border every day for work, study, leisure, or to visit relatives and friends. And the wall will have serious environmental effects, dividing and damaging animal and plant habitats. On the other hand, if you sell concrete in southern Texas or ladders in northern Mexico, you're good. It will also allow drug dealers to charge an even more ridiculous markup over production prices and as we all know El Chapo is good at building tunnels, so the big cartels will have no problem getting drugs into the US, while the small mom&pop cartels from across the street are crushed by the big box competition.
 Existing border defense
The current US-Mexico border is 1,989 miles (3,201 kilometers). Much of the border is already formed by natural barriers, principally the Rio Grande and Colorado River. There is also an existing barrier which comprises a number of separate walls and fences totalling 580 miles (930 km).
This was created as a result of various legislation including Rep Duncan Hunter's amendment in the Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 (H.R. 4437) and the Secure Fence Act of 2006 (H.R. 6061). The remainder of the border is guarded by patrols and surveillance
and the bravery of modern-day Minute Men.
 Trump's proposal
“”So, the president of Mexico, yesterday... Or the ex-president, or whatever — whoever — who cares. He said; "We will not even consider paying for the wall"!
You have to understand, because — OK, you ready? — who's gonna pay for the wall? [Crowd chants "Mexico!"] Who? [Crowd chants "Mexico!"] A hundred percent. A hundred percent.
So I get a call from one of the reporters yesterday, and they said; "The president of Mexico said they will not under any circumstances pay for the wall". They said to me, "What is your comment?".I said "The wall just got ten feet higher"! S'true. S'true.
|—Then-presidential candidate Donald Trump|
Trump's proposal, according to Politifact, is for a precast concrete wall costing $8-12bn, at least 35 feet (11 m) high, running around 1000 miles, leaving the Rio Grande and Colorado river as natural barriers. The US Government Accountability Office rates fencing costs at anything from $400,000 to $15.1m per mile, depending on topography and fence type. Estimates for fencing the remaining border run from $5.1bn to $25bn. In a detailed analysis, bearing in mind costs of labor, land, and materials, asset management firm AllianceBernstein cost it at $15-25bn. Although large sections of barrier already exist, these typically range from low vehicle fencing up to 18 ft high barriers, failing to meets Trump's stated requirements.
Bernstein estimates a 40ft high wall would need 17 million tonnes of concrete and 2.4 million tonnes of cement, which would mostly have to be sourced from near the wall; this could represent 1% of the total global demand for cement, pushing prices up. They found that this offered a major opportunity for construction companies in the southern US.
To fund it, Trump has suggested taking a slice from the $24bn of remittances sent by immigrants from the US to Mexico. One specific Trump proposal is to ban wire transfers from illegal immigrants (or anyone without identity documents showing lawful residency) until Mexico agrees to pay for the wall. Trump has also suggested a number of other tactics: impose trade sanctions; take action against Mexican state subsidies of Mexican industry; cancel visas; or raise visa fees to pay for the wall. Some of Trump's proposals would doubtless fall afoul of international agreements or law, but if Trump fulfilled threats to withdraw from NAFTA and other bodies, that might not be an issue.
 Other advocates
“”China built a wall, and they have almost no Mexicans.
 Major problems with a wall
“”The strength of a wall is neither greater or less than the courage of the men who defend it.
Mexico has not been keen on suggestions that it pay for the wall. Former Mexican presidents Felipe Calderon and Vicente Fox have both said Mexico wouldn't pay a single cent, while President Peña Nieto doesn't seem enthusiastic and has also condemned many of Trump's other remarks about Mexico. 
The plan would inconvenience tourists, workers, students, and others who cross the border daily. The existing border divides a number of American Indian nations as well as splitting the campus of the University of Texas at Brownsville into two halves. The mayor of McAllen, Texas, has said that Mexicans spend $1.3bn annually in his town, crossing the border for better prices and an increased range of goods, so making it harder to cross the border would have a significant economic impact.
The existing border wall has also been attacked on aesthetic grounds as "a confusion of fencing, corrugated metal sheets, concrete slabs, surveillance cameras, drones and other structures and devices" that "is dismal, inefficient and inelegant", and the new wall is likely to be similarly ugly.
Another problem is that land would be required for the wall, and much of that on the US side belongs to private citizens, who may object to its seizure, causing additional delays and expense. The actual location of the border is complicated by frequent floods which change the location of rivers along the border. While existing sections of wall tend to be by their nature near populated areas, completing the wall would require building in isolated areas including the deserts of Arizona and the mountains of New Mexico, which would pose significant difficulties in transportation (of both people and huge volumes of concrete), construction, and maintaining a labour force.
Granted, the people who support the barrier don't tend to be the kind of people who are particularly concerned about endangered species, unless of course it's about creatures that aren't endangered nor a species, but it would also have significant environmental impact, affecting the ranges of endangered species including Arroyo toads, California red-legged frogs, black-spotted newts, Pacific pond turtles, and the jaguarundi. Other species such as ocelots which are rare in the US but commoner in Mexico would suffer north of the border. This would also affect the $463m per year that wildlife tourism brings to the Rio Grande valley. The route passes through protected wildlife reserves. Construction will also affect desert plants such as saguaros. However, the existing border security apparatus and illegal tracks made by people smugglers each already have a significant effect on the ecosystem.
 Local opposition
A survey in July 2016 found widespread opposition from people living near the border, with 86% on the Mexican side and 72% on the American side opposing the wall. If there was significant opposition from residents, that could impede construction or even lead to civil disobedience or sabotage.
Even if a barrier was built, it would not be foolproof. Tunnels can obviously be used to go underneath, and are already used by Mexican drug smugglers to access the USA. There are also private airplanes used by smugglers, though they are easier to detect than tunnels.
 Famous walls in history
“”Men build too many walls and not enough bridges.
|—Joseph Fort Newton|
While the basic idea of simply fencing off people you can't stand has been infused with new life recently, the practice itself is ancient. Thanks to the stubborn wall-erecting psyche of mankind, history has been left replete with examples of all the times walling people out never worked.
The precedent is the Great Wall of China, an 8,850 km (5,500 mile) barrier which includes 6,259 km (3,889 miles) of wall plus various other earthworks and natural barriers; this was built and rebuilt in several stages from the 7th century BCE to the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). It is uncertain if a US-Mexico border wall would take less time to construct.
The Roman Empire constructed a number of famous barriers — including Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall — two lines of fortification between England and Scotland. Many of these proved short-lived, though they were successful in their primary goals, stopping livestock theft.
The Berlin Wall was another popular construction, in the days when Republican presidents called for walls to be torn down. It spanned 96 miles and cost $25m ($200m at 2015 prices) but construction was aided by cheap conscript labor and proximity to East German industry. Notably, this wall was meant to keep people in, not out, and at that it was almost entirely successful. The wall was famous for its escape attempts, including two different escapes using a sports car (the same sports car), a hot air balloon, a stolen tank, and just good old smooth talking. It failed when a
local drunk communist party official accidentally announced that refugees from East Germany would be allowed to leave through all border checkpoints, and mistakenly said the border crossings at the wall were included and it would happen that day; half of Berlin showed up, and no officer was willing to be on record as ordering the use of lethal force, so the restrictions effectively ended.
Israel has spent several years building a border fence around Palestinian territories — ironically images of this have been wrongly claimed to depict a non-existent Mexico-Guatemala wall (that border is largely open, aside from natural hazards). The Israel border fence has been credited with reducing suicide bombings, suggesting it has stopped terrorists getting into Israel, although this has been contested as factors like the Hamas ceasefire probably played a role.
 Nutjob Plan B
More imaginative solutions include offering bounties for anyone who shoots an illegal immigrant although it's not clear they need the encouragement as white supremacists already form armed vigilante groups to patrol the border.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 This is what Trump's border wall could cost US, CNBC, 9 Oct 2015
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 See the Wikipedia article on Mexico–United States barrier.
- ↑ http://www.reuters.com/video/2016/02/13/trump-the-wall-just-got-ten-feet-higher?videoId=367388523
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 How Trump plans to build, and pay for, a wall along U.S.-Mexico border, Miriam Valverde, Politifact, July 26, 2016
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Bernstein Materials Blast: Who Would Profit from The Trump Wall?, AllianceBernstein, 15 July 2016
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Pay for the Wall, donaldjtrump.com
- ↑ Donald Trump threatens to pull US out of WTO, FT, 24 July 2016
- ↑ Trump fumes as Cruz steals wall mojo, Politico, 2016
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Building the Border Wall, buildingtheborderwall.com
- ↑ http://www.azquotes.com/quote/734060
- ↑ US-Mexico Border Fence / Great Wall of Mexico Secure Fence, Global Security
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 The Environmental Impact of the US-Mexico Border Wall, Newsweek, 2016
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 The Environmental Impacts of a Border Fence, Jeffrey P. Cohn, BioScience, Volume 57 Issue 1, Pp. 96.
- ↑ Wall Already Runs Along Parts of US-Mexico Border, Voice of America
- ↑ Inside Mexico's Drug Tunnels, Time
- ↑ Mexican Drug Smugglers Try Flying the Unfriendly Skies, Wired, Mar 2009
- ↑ http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/105991-men-build-too-many-walls-and-not-enough-bridges
- ↑ See the Wikipedia article on Great Wall of China.
- ↑ Border Disorder, Dan Evon, Snopes, 2016
- ↑ Fact Sheets: Israel's Security Fence, Jewish Virtual Library, 2016
- ↑ See the Wikipedia article on A Tale of Two Springfields.
- ↑ See the Wikipedia article on Child Abduction Is Not Funny.
- ↑ Half of US-Mexico border now patrolled only by drone, The Guardian, 13 Nov 2014
- ↑ ALIPAC President Thinks Idea of Shooting Illegal Immigrants for Bounty is "Humorous", blueenc.com, 19 Feb 2007
- ↑ Armed Vigilante Activities in Arizona, Anti-Defamation League, 2005
|United States 2016 presidential election articles on RationalWiki|
| Topics: Affordable Care Act - Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission - DAESH - Gun control - Illegal immigration - Koch Industries - United States Electoral College - Trump's Wall
Parties: Democratic Party (primaries) - Green Party - Libertarian Party - Republican Party (primaries • Convention • Tea Party)
Candidates: Bush (R) - Carson (R) - Christie (R) - Clinton (D) - Cruz (R) - Huckabee (R) - Jindal (R) - Johnson (Lib) - Kasich (R) - Paul (R) - Perry (R) - Sanders (D) - Stein (Green) - Trump (R) - Walker (R) - Webb (D) • Running mates: Kaine (D) - Pence (R)
Winner: Donald Trump