Paul of Tarsus

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Paul of Tarsus was the author of many letters addressed to various groups of first-century Christians. They comprise most of the New Testament, and as such are very influential in modern Christianity.

Paul, also known as "Saul," was a first-century Pharisee Jew who was fiercely opposed to the new sect of Judaism founded by Jesus Christ called the "Way" until his conversion following a vision on the road to Damascus, Syria. Paul modified the Way by stripping it of most of its original Jewish character, including temple worship and observance of Mosaic law, e.g., the prohibition against consuming pork. He took a major role in spreading this sect's theology throughout the northeastern Mediterranean world from Antioch (where it was first called Christianity) through Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy.

Meanwhile most of the original twelve Apostles, led by James the Just, stayed in Palestine while Peter wavered between the two sides and tried to figure out what to do. Titus, the son (and eventual successor) of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, solved Peter's problem for him by sacking Jerusalem in 70 C.E. and scattering or enslaving most of the Jews, including Jewish Christians, leaving Paul's network of gentile churches intact. It was these churches which eventually merged into the Catholic Church. Thus, Paul could be considered the founder of Christianity.


[edit] Historicity

There is no evidence for Paul outside the Bible. No records of him ever visiting the kings and other powerful authority figures he supposedly held audiences with, no Jewish records of a Christian-hunter gone rogue, etc. Even the usual suspects brought up in defense of a historical Jesus: Josephus, Tacitus, etc, have nothing to say on Paul. That said, seven of the documents attributed to Paul do appear from textual analysis to be written by the same person. This is considered reasonable evidence that some single individual performed the role, and we may as well call him Paul, as does the author of Acts, thought by scholars to have also written the Gospel According to Luke. Even proof of the common authorship of some of these books, though, does not prove that Paul ever met Jesus[1], nor that Jesus ever existed.

[edit] Conversion/relationship with the Christ

If [Jesus] were on earth, he would not be a priest.
—Paul of Tarsus (Hebrews 8:4)[2]

The problem with teasing out the historical facts about Paul's conversion and life is that he was fairly scanty in providing details about himself in the epistles and that Acts is a problematic source for Paul's life, given its contradictions with what Paul actually wrote in the epistles. Even if we restrict ourselves to only what Paul wrote about himself, we know from more modern examples that it's not unusual to "beef up" one's prior skepticism to make the conversion seem all the greater.[3] Thus, the following has to be taken with a grain of salt.

Paul was raised a Pharisee and later converted, becoming a Sadducee. According to the author of Acts of the Apostles, his early adulthood was focused on persecuting the new Christian Jews. The Acts author wrote that Paul had a vision while traveling to Damascus, where he saw the resurrected Jesus. Although he never met Jesus, he took from his vision the authority to speak as an apostle of the risen Christ, equal in stature to the apostles who accompanied Jesus during his earthly ministry. The details of the traditional version of Paul's conversion are from the Book of Acts, believed by many scholars to be primarily a work of fiction. In Paul's own words Jesus teachings have been "revealed" to him. Compare Acts 9:1-9 with Galatians 1:11-16.

Paul expounded on many issues that Jesus didn't bring up. Jesus had nothing to say about women being subservient to men. Jesus was circumspect on the question of whether his Jewish followers continued to be under the authority of Mosaic law. These doctrinal points seem to originate with Paul or with the way misogynists interpret Paul. Supporters of the patriarchy may also generalize to far from directions given to specific local churches addressing specific local conditions.[4] Some misogynist texts may be later interpolations.

Significant in Paul's writings is what he does not say. He seems to be completely unaware of a recent, historical Jesus. He makes no mention of Jesus' Galilean ministry, or that he was accompanied by twelve disciples. Although he refers to Jesus as having been crucified, he offers no information about the time, place and circumstances of the trial and crucifixion described in the gospels. He makes no references to Jesus' teachings as recorded in the gospels, even when it would clearly advance his argument to do so.

Paul's missionary efforts were focused primarily on Gentiles - some of whom were "God-fearers" (Gentile converts to Judaism) and Hypsistarians (pagan monotheists) - in Asia Minor and Greece. His missionary travels, his establishment of churches, and his writings would begin about 14 years after his conversion. Some 13 years later, between 60-67 CE, Paul was arrested and, according to tradition, was beheaded by Roman authorities.

[edit] The four "Pauls" of the New Testament

Dear Corinthians, this is my third time writing to you, still no reply. I don't know how you do things in Corinth, but where I come from, that's considered rude.
—Paul's third epistle to the Corinthians.

People tend to talk of Paul of the New Testament as if he is one person but in reality based on style, theological content and bibliographical content scholars there are four different “Pauls” in the New Testament: three for the 14 Epistles originally credited to Paul and the Paul of Acts.[5]

[edit] Authentic or Early Paul (50s-60s A.D.)[6]

[edit] Disputed Paul or Deutero-Pauline (80-100 A.D.)[7]

[edit] Pseudo-Paul or the Pastorals (80-100 A.D.)[8]

[edit] Tendentious or Legendary Paul: Acts of the Apostles (90-130 A.D.)[9]

The Tendentious or Legendary Paul can be shown to be a literary creation where at best "maybe there was some authentic source material behind some of what appears in Acts somewhere" [sic] [10]. In other words Acts could be nothing more then the 1st to 2nd century equivalent of a Penny Dreadful Dime Novels starring people like Buffalo Bill, "Wild Bill" Hickok, and Annie Oakley i.e. a fictional account of an actual person. Ronald Reagan being being among the soldiers that liberated the Nazi Death camps would be a modern example[11]

This makes the Authentic or Early Paul our only truly potentially reliable source regarding the historical Paul.

[edit] The Authentic or Early Paul

So if the seven epistles credited to Paul are our only truly potentially reliable source regarding a historical Paul what can be said about him? Well according to James Tabor[12] "Here is what we most surely know (some assumptions Tabor makes that are not supported in the epistles themselves have been italicized):

  • Paul calls himself a Hebrew or Israelite, stating that he was born a Jew and circumcised on the eighth day, of the Jewish tribe of Benjamin (Philippians 3:5-6; 2 Corinthians 11:22).
  • He was once a member of the sect of the Pharisees. He advanced in Judaism beyond many of his contemporaries, being extremely zealous for the traditions of his Jewish faith (Philippians 3:5; Galatians 1:14).
  • He zealously persecuted the Jesus movement (Galatians 1:13; Philippians 3:6; 1 Corinthians 15:9).
  • Sometime around A.D. 37 Paul had a visionary experience he describes as “seeing” Jesus and received from him his Gospel message as well as his call to be an apostle to the non-Jewish world (1 Corinthians 9:2; Galatians 1:11-2:2).
  • He made only three trips to Jerusalem in the period covered by his genuine letters; one three years after his apostolic call when he met Peter and James but none of the other apostles (around A.D. 40); the second fourteen years after his call (A.D. 50) when he appeared formally before the entire Jerusalem leadership to account for his mission and Gospel message to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:1-10), and a third where he was apparently arrested and sent under guard to Rome around A.D. 56 (Romans 15:25-29).
  • Paul claimed to experience many revelations from Jesus, including direct voice communications, as well as an extraordinary “ascent” into the highest level of heaven, entering Paradise, where he saw and heard “things unutterable” (2 Corinthians 12:1-4).
  • He had some type of physical disability that he was convinced had been sent by Satan to afflict him, but allowed by Christ, so he would not be overly proud of his extraordinary revelations (2 Corinthians 12:7-10).
  • He claimed to have worked miraculous signs, wonders, and mighty works that verified his status as an apostle (2 Corinthians 12:12).
  • He was unmarried, at least during his career as an apostle (1 Corinthians 7:8, 15; 9:5; Philippians 3:8).
  • He experienced numerous occasions of physical persecution and deprivation including beatings, being stoned and left for dead, and shipwrecked (1 Corinthians 3:11-12; 2 Corinthians 11:23-27).
  • He worked as a manual laborer to support himself on his travels (1 Corinthians 4:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Corinthians 9:6, 12, 15).
  • He was imprisoned, probably in Rome, in the early 60s A.D. and refers to the possibility that he would be executed (Philippians 1:1-26)."

Note the date are based on material outside the seven epistles and so questionable. The only real temporal maker for any of Paul's exploits is in 2 Corinthians 11:32 where he states that "In Damascus the governor under Aretas the king kept the city of the Damascenes with a garrison, desirous to apprehend me" At best all this does is establish the latest Paul could have had his vision is 37 CE but there is nothing that really limits how early he could have had his vision. In fact as the Historical snarl: Aretas and Damascus section below show if this passage is true then Paul would have to had his vision no later then 33 CE.

Only two of the seven epistles (Philemon and Philippians) credited to Paul were supposedly written during his imprisonment...and it is not clear just where this is. People have suggested Ephesus while others have suggested Herod's Palace in Jerusalem or Rome itself. The idea Paul was in Rome comes from Acts which is of questionable value as a historical reference.

[edit] Evidence for Paul

Unlike the Gospels, Paul's secondary provenance is somewhat reasonable as there are two writers that clearly references him who have work that are generally dated to the late 1st early 2nd century: Clement of Rome and Ignatius. 1 Clement is especially interesting as despite its 80-140 CE date range 1 Clement 41:2-3 acts as if the Temple is still intact which implies a terminus post quem (ie the latest the work could have been written) of 70 CE.

A big deal is made by some mythists that Justin Martyr doesn't mention or know of Paul...but even in the 19th century there were doubts to that:

Epistle to Zenus and Serenus by Justin Martyr: "For we are ' altogether' carnal, and in us dwelleth no good thing. Wherefore we must call in the physician to heal us, And he that is thus minded shall be healed and escape disease"

Paul: Romans 7:14 KJV: For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.

Romans 7:18 KJV: For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not.

Moreover recent scholarship suggests Justin Martyr not only knew of Paul but used Paul's ideas and in some cases even quoted or paraphrased him.[13][14]

Similarly the John Frum movement shows just how asinine the idea of a fictional Paul is. Paul Raffaele's February 2006 Smithsonian article "In John They Trust"[15] talks about a schism in the John Frum movement with a Prophet Fred who Raffaele is told broke with the main leader,Chief Isaac, in 1999. Raffaele is also told by a man claiming to be Prophet Fred's brother-in-law that Prophet Fred “raised his wife from the dead two weeks ago.” Yet when Raffaele goes to the village Prophet Fred lives in he is told that Prophet Fred has gone to the island’s northern tip to preach. By the logic (if such a word can even be used for this argument) used by those saying Paul didn't exist then Prophet Fred can't exist:

  • We only have believers in John Frum saying Prophet Fred existed just as we only have believers in Jesus saying Paul existed
  • No non-believer in John Frum has actually met Prophet Fred just as no non-believer in Jesus had actually met Paul
  • Seven epistles appear to be of one hand and based on internal evidence are earlier then other epistles under the name Paul while Prophet Fred as far as we know hasn't written a single thing.

So there is less evidence that Prophet Fred existed in 2005 then for Paul around 50-70 CE, but (and this is the important part) there is no one as far as we know who is claiming Prophet Fred didn't exist.

So where is the consistent logic in saying the Paul who is credited with being the author seven of epistles said to be written-dictated by him didn't exist? That Paul (opposed to the one in Acts which can be shown to be on par with 19th century fictional stories staring real people) doesn't have anything that indicates that any contemporary would notice him. Rather we get a person who is trying to take the movement in a certain direction just as what happened previously with Manehevi, Neloaig, and Iokaeye only Prophet Fred seems to take steps to avoid potential conflict (Raffaele exact comment regarding Prophet Fred not being in the village he visits is "that he’s gone to the island’s northern tip to preach, most likely to avoid the celebrations")

Epistle Paul comes off as a 1st century John Ballou Newbrough with his effort in taking Christianity in a certain direction being on par with what the Oahspe movement was for its time; nothing more then a curiosity.

[edit] Historical snarl: Aretas and Damascus

One problem with Paul is his claim in 2 Corinthians 11:32 that "In Damascus the governor under Aretas the king kept the city of the Damascenes with a garrison, desirous to apprehend me"[16] based on other sources has some interesting historical issues.

To understand them a little history lesson is in order

In 64 BC, the Roman general Pompey annexed the western part of Syria and Damascus was into the league of ten cities known as the Decapolis which in turn were incorporated into the province of Syria and granted autonomy[17][18]

In 23 BE Herod the Great was gifted lands controlled by Zenodorus son of Lysanias by Caesar Augustus which may or may not have included Damascus as well[19] Most maps show Damascus as NOT being part of Herod the Great's empire. In the sources that say Herod the Great gained control of Damascus that control is either given back to Syria upon his death or is part of the Herod Philip got (it is admittedly muddled here)

In 6 CE the control of Herod Archelaus' lands is given to Syria[20]

Before Herod Philip's death his wife and Herod Antipas agreed to divorce their spouses and marry each other. This marriage may have happened as early as 24 CE[21]

After Herod Philip's death (no later then 34 CE) his lands are given to Syria which are controlled by Lucius Vitellius the Elder (he supported and was good friends with Caligula)

So we are left with six possibilities:

  1. Aretas controlled Damascus after the war with Antipas ie 37-40: extremely unlikely based on social-political factors. Caligula wouldn't have given a willful barbarian lands controlled by one of his friends and supporters.[22]
  2. Aretas controlled Damascus during the the war with Antipas ie 36: again extremely unlikely as Lucius Vitellius the Elder controlled those lands and would not have left a garrison of men where it could outflank his armies or ravage his lands.
  3. Aretas controlled Damascus before the war with Antipas but after Philip died ie 33/34 -36: again extremely unlikely as Lucius Vitellius the Elder had been given the lands of Philip.
  4. Aretas controlled Damascus before the war with Antipas when Philip was alive ie between 28-33 CE: Philip did have his wife "stolen" from him by Antipas who daughter had been "abandoned" by Antipas so an alliance between Phillip and Aretas is possible. Also some sources claim that Damascus had been given to Herod the Great meaning it would have been part of the portion of the kingdom Phillip gained (other sources say it wasn't but we go with those that say it was for the sake of the argument). A flanking maneuver to surround Antipas lands would militarily make sense. If Paul's story is true this seems to be the most likely time it could have occurred...except it creates a greater likelihood of conflict with when Jesus ministry was; a 34-36 Jesus ministry would created a real mess regarding Paul's vision.
  5. Paul is misremembering/exaggerating events and Aretas never controlled Damascus
  6. The 2 Cor. 11:32-33 passage is "a marginal 'gloss' copied into the text, or even a later insertion ie it was NEVER written by Paul.

In truth, "neither from archaeological evidence, secular-historical sources, nor New Testament texts can Nabartean sovereignty over Damascus in the first century AD be proven."[23]

If we give this passage of Paul the benefit of a doubt then he seems to have pulled a Ronald Reagan and misremembered events and simple escaped Damascus sometime before 40 CE and simply latched on to Aretas as the main ruler he could remember when writing the passage. But this means that Paul could have seen Jesus as early as 24 CE which would totally screw up the Gospel timeline.

[edit] His travels

Paul states that immediately after his conversion (c. 33 CE) he traveled to "Arabia" and later to Damascus, rather than to see the other apostles in Jerusalem, something which he postponed for three years (Galatians 1:17-18) as one would expect. Acts doesn't flat out contradict this as it claims that Paul went immediately to Damascus, but it neglects entirely to mention the three-year interval between the conversion and Paul's first visit to Jerusalem, making it seem as if he went to Jerusalem soon after his conversion (Acts 9:8, Acts 9:26).

Paul records that after three years (c. 36 CE) he went to Jerusalem for 15 days, seeing no apostles except Peter (AKA Cephas[24]) and James (Galatians 1:18, 19). Paul then wrote in Galatians 2:1 that he returned to Jerusalem after 14 years (c. 50 CE), though offering no explanation of what he did during those 14 years. However, given that he wrote that his purpose of this second journey to Jerusalem was to tell the city's congregation about the gospel that he had been preaching (Galatians 2:2), preaching (and probably continuing his correspondence with far-flung congregations) is a good guess. How much of this reflects actual history, rather than Paul trying to burnish his credentials as a Christian authority (to give weight to his admonishments to the Galatian congregation), is unclear because of the scarcity of verifiable details. Paul's assurances that he's not lying (Galatians 1:20) is essentially just an argument by assertion and, when combined with his claims about his status, an argument from authority. The very fact that Paul felt it necessary to insert such a "trust me"-passage in his letter and to warn against false teachers among the Galatians spreading rumors about him (Galatians 5:7-12:1) suggests that his status and authority at the time was far from rock solid. On this second trip to Jerusalem, Paul met with James, Peter, and John[25] who confirmed Paul's role as minister to the Gentiles and asked that he continue to deliver the collection (Galatians 2:9, 10). However, contrary to Acts, where Paul is extremely respectful towards the Jerusalem congregation, in Galatians Paul describes the James/Peter/John Jerusalem trio as people "who seemed to be pillars" (in the KJV version), suggesting that Paul didn't actually consider their authority to be genuine.

Paul related that thereafter Peter came to Antioch, at which time there was a strong disagreement between the two regarding the necessity for Gentiles to observe "the law",[26] a dispute which continued during Paul's subsequent visit to Jerusalem (Galatians 2:11-21). In fact, Paul wrote that his travelling partner and associate, Barnabas, was won over by the "Judaisers" (Galatians 2:12-13) and since Paul made no mention of having "reconverted" Barnabas to his point of view, it's not far fetched to suggest that Paul did not fare well in his dispute with the Jerusalem faction over the adherence to Jewish customs. By contrast, Acts 15:2-22 offered an entirely different rendition of the same events that downplayed the argument with Peter and finished the Jerusalem encounter with an outright endorsement of Paul by James. Rather than the conflicting story presented by Paul which suggested the theological disputes in the early Christian community surrounding such things as the retention of Jewish customs,[27] Acts instead tried to paper over these differences and present a harmonious picture where Paul, Peter and James were all essentially in agreement and that the main problem was some malcontents among "certain of the sect of the Pharisees" (Acts 15:5).

In Romans 15:25, Paul wrote of his intention to return to Jerusalem (c. 57 CE), which is where Acts put the date of his arrest (Acts 21:33) and subsequent journey to Rome for an appeals trial. Here, Acts abruptly broke off, but Christian tradition has it that Paul was ultimately executed in 67 CE.

Acts details many travels that Paul does not mention. For example, Acts 11:27-30 refers to a trip to Antioch for the purposes of delivering a collection for famine relief.

[edit] The collection

If one is looking for a motive for participation in the early Christian church, one need look no further than the collection. It was Paul's promise to "remember the poor" that apparently allowed an agreement between him and the "pillars" in Jerusalem (Galatians 2:9-10).

In his letters, Paul gives instructions to several churches to prepare a collection for Jerusalem in anticipation of his arrival (1 Corinthians 16:1-3, 2 Corinthians 8:1-15, 2 Corinthians 9). Paul thanks Philippi for their aid (Philippians 4:10-19) and mentions a contribution for Jerusalem made by Macedonia and Achaia in Romans 15:25-28.

It was apparently while delivering this collection that Paul was arrested in Jerusalem, and it is claimed he mentioned it at his trial in Acts 24:17.

[edit] In Acts

"The book of Acts has been all but discredited as a work of apologetic historical fiction."[28] The best one can hope is that "maybe there was some authentic source material behind some of what appears in Acts, somewhere" [sic][29].

However, Acts resembles so many non-canonical works that obviously are not historical either (such as Acts of Peter, Acts of Paul, Acts of Andrews, Acts of John, and Acts of Thomas) and has a structure exactly like a novel of the period[30] that even that hope sputters and dies.

Not only is Acts filled with historical fantasy regarding the behavior of the Romans and Jews, but nearly everyone seen in Luke simply vanishes from the record, and when it comes to Paul's actual "trial transcripts" the detailed Jesus of Luke also vanishes to be replaced by the vague Jesus of the epistles[31]

At best, the Paul in Acts is nothing more than the ancient equivalent of a penny-dreadful or dime novel starring people like Buffalo Bill, "Wild Bill" Hickok, and Annie Oakley ie a historical person used in a fictional story.

In fact, it has been suggested the Luke-Acts we know of (which is actually longer then the version in any Bible) was in response to Marcion of Sinope's preaching c 120- 125 CE if not his bible of c 140 CE[32]

Paul proclaims himself to be an apostle of Jesus in Galatians 2:8, 1 Corinthians 9:1-2, and in several other instances. However, according to Acts 1:21, to be considered for inclusion by the other apostles, one must have "been with us the whole time the Lord Jesus went in and out among us," making Paul ineligible. This just one of the many things in Acts that suggests that it is nothing more then a fiction with Paul as a main character.

Paul in fact regarded his claim to apostleship to be just as valid as that of anyone. He notes, concerning "important" men in the church, "...those men added nothing to my message" (Galatians 2:6). However, Acts has Paul acknowledging "those who had traveled with [Jesus] from Galilee to Jerusalem" (Acts 13:31) to be of greater importance. Also note that Paul believed no one could dispute that his vision of the living Jesus after the crucifixion was as significant as other sightings of the resurrected Jesus, which casts doubt on the claim that anyone actually saw a resurrected Jesus.

Acts has Paul on many occasions assert that he considers himself a Jew, at one point noting, "I have done nothing wrong against the law of the Jews or against the temple..." (Acts 25:8). In his own letters, however, Paul frequently denies the significance of Jewish law. In one instance he admits he does not have "a righteousness of [his] own that comes from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ" (Philippians 3:9).

By the varied speeches attributed to Paul in Acts, he is portrayed as a great orator. However, Paul himself notes the accusation by some that "in person he is unimpressive and his speaking amounts to nothing" (2 Corinthians 10:10).

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

[edit] References

  1. Though the bible does not claim that Paul ever met the physical Jesus prior to his execution
  3. Lee Strobel claims to have been a staunch and sinful atheist, despite giving a rather incoherent description of these supposed beliefs. Compare with several of the Satanic Panic frauds, such as Mike Warnke or John Todd and their bullshit autobiographies.
  4. What did St Paul say about women?
  5. James Tabor 08/14/2014 "The Quest for the Historical Paul" Bible History Daily
  6. James Tabor 08/14/2014 "The Quest for the Historical Paul" Bible History Daily
  7. James Tabor 08/14/2014 "The Quest for the Historical Paul" Bible History Daily
  8. James Tabor 08/14/2014 "The Quest for the Historical Paul" Bible History Daily
  9. James Tabor 08/14/2014 "The Quest for the Historical Paul" Bible History Daily
  10. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 363
  11. Ronald Reagan in fact spent the entire war stateside and was never in Europe when the camps were liberated
  12. James Tabor 08/14/2014 "The Quest for the Historical Paul" Bible History Daily
  13. Saint Justin Martyr Online Encyclopædia Britannica
  14. Rodney Werline (1999). The Transformation of Pauline Arguments in Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho. Harvard Theological Review, 92, pp 79-93. doi:10.1017/S0017816000017867.
  15. Raffaele, Paul (February 2006) "In John They Trust" Smithsonian
  16. 2 Corinthians 11:32 KJV
  17. Warwick Ball (2002). Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. p. 181.
  18. Skolnik, Fred; Michael Berenbaum ( 2007) Encyclopaedia Judaica Volume 5 Granite Hill Publishers pg 527
  19. Burns, Ross (2007) Damascus: A History Routledge pg 52
  20. Samuel Rocca (2005) The Army of Herod the Great
  21. Christiane Saulnier in G. J. Goldberg's John the Baptist and Josephus
  22. Riesner, Rainer (1998) Paul's Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing pg 73-89
  23. Riesner, Rainer (1998) Paul's Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing pg 83-84, 89
  24. Note that it is not certain that Peter and Cephas are the same person, but the general consensus seems to be that they are.
  25. As no further detail is given, we can't know which John is being referred to, but John son of Zebedee is one likely candidate
  26. Mainly Jewish dietary customs and circumcision.
  27. A struggle in which the Pauline view eventually won out, hence why, for instance, Christians don't have to be circumcised and can have all the shrimp cocktails and pork sandwiches they like.
  28. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 359
  29. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 362
  30. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 364-8
  31. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 375-6
  32. Tyson, Joseph B.(2006) Marcion and Luke-Acts: A Defining Struggle annotated edition Edition University of South Carolina Press ISBN-13: 978-1570036507
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