K-Pg extinction event
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The Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (aka the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, abbreviated as either the K-T extinction event or the K-Pg extinction event) was a major mass extinction event that took place around 66 million years ago, and lead to the deaths of a large number of organisms around the globe, including all of the dinosaurs (except birds).
Causes of the extinction
There may have ultimately been multiple different causes for the K-Pg extinction event, but what is widely agreed upon is that the major catalyst for the extinction was a 10–15 km asteroid or comet that hit what is now the Yucatán peninsula of Mexico, and formed the Chicxulub crater. Other causes may have included the Deccan Traps[note 1] Strangely enough, the extinction ratios of clades affected by the extinction suggests that the extinction was ultimately due to the re-entry of ejecta into the atmosphere after the impact occurred.
Alternate extinction hypotheses
There is some residual debating regarding the exact causes of the K-Pg extinction event, with some people believing that the event was actually caused by something other than the asteroid impact, in general the evidence favors a combination of factors including the Deccan Traps and the impact, but the impact was definitely the main factor. While it has been debated whether or not dinosaurs experienced a decline prior to the terminal Cretaceous extinction event, a study published in the journal The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences conducted a thorough analysis for the first time and found that the data supports a long term decline prior among non-avian dinosaurs prior to the aforementioned end-Cretaceous extinction event.
Freshwater biomes were in general less affected by the K-Pg extinction event than their terrestrial or marine counterparts, with amphibians in particular not being generally affected by the extinction event, with only a few extinctions among them. Terrestrial organisms were hit hard however, with the extinction of every bird outside of Neornithes, all pterosaurs, all non-avian dinosaurs, entire clades of mammals (marsupials used to be the dominant mammals in North America, but after the K-Pg extinction event only a few marsupials remained, among them Peradectes, with the mammals above the K-Pg boundary layer that dominated North America being eutherians). The oceans were hit hard as well, with almost every marine reptile outside of sea turtles going extinct, not to mention the extinction of the ammonites.[note 2]
Some people like to claim that some dinosaurs survived the end-Cretaceous extinction event, using a femur of a hadrosaur found in Paleocene deposits, dated roughly to 64.2 Ma, as evidence to support this postulation, but it is more likely that the hadrosaur fossil is simply a case of reworking. Reworking occurs when water cuts into old sediments, mixing up old sediments with new sediments, and heretofore jumbling together all the remains found in those sediments. While it is indeed possible that some non-avian dinosaurs survived the K-Pg extinction event, the evidence for survival is weak, and the probability therefore remains low.
- History of the Earth
- Palaeocene — the first epoch of the Paleogene period of the modern Cenozoic era
- Dinosaurs - The most notable taxon to be rendered extinct by this extinction event, excluding neornithine birds.
- A period of flood basalt eruptions that were one of the largest eruptions in Earth's history
- Just like in 2 Samuel 12:26
- Hildebrand, A. R.; Penfield, G. T.; et al. (1991). "Chicxulub crater: a possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico". Geology. 19 (9): 867–871. Bibcode:1991Geo....19..867H. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0867:ccapct>2.3.co;2.
- Petersen Sierra V., Dutton Andrea, Lohmann Kyger C. (2016). "End-Cretaceous extinction in Antarctica linked to both Deccan volcanism and meteorite impact via climate change". Nature Communications. 7: 12079. Bibcode:2016NatCo...712079P. doi:10.1038/ncomms12079.
- Sheehan, P. M.; Fastovsky, D. E. (1992). "Major extinctions of land-dwelling vertebrates at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Eastern Montana". Geology. 20 (6): 556–560. Bibcode:1992Geo....20..556S. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0556:meoldv>2.3.co;2.
- Hou, L; Martin, M; Zhou, Z; Feduccia, A (1996). "Early Adaptive Radiation of Birds: Evidence from Fossils from Northeastern China". Science. 274 (5290): 1164–1167. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1164H. doi:10.1126/science.274.5290.1164. PMID 8895459.
- Sullivan, RM (2003). "No Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 35 (5): 15.