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The Bahá'í religion is a medium-sized, but global, religion founded by Baha'u'llah, a nineteenth-century Persian man exiled to the Ottoman Empire. The Baha'i Faith has various holy writings including the Kitab-I-Iqan and the Kitab-I-Aqdas. Though emerging from Islam, the religion regards most of the major faiths as paths to God (Sikhism and Taoism are not so honored), and sees religious wars therefore as unnecessary and unsightly to God. Each legitimate religion has been founded by a prophet—the list of prophets includes Abraham, Krishna, Zoroaster, Moses, Buddha, Jesus, and Muhammad — with each new prophet superseding his predecessors, in a process that Baha'is expect to continue into the indefinite future.
Because Baha'is accept the Prophet Muhammad, but deny that he is the final prophet, countries like Iran consider them heretical Muslims and persecuted them brutally. Baha'is cannot attend standard schools in Iran, and have had to set up their own university there, called the BHIE (which stands for Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education). Baha'is identify as non-Muslims as they believe God has brought a new revelation.
Historically, the Baha'i religion emerged from a short-lived mid-19th century millennarian movement in Iran called Babism (hence the Baha'i calendar begins in 1844 CE), which in turn emerged from the equally millennial Shaykhi sect of 19th-century Shi'ism.
Due to disputes over succession, the Bahá'í religion has split into a number of factions, few of which survive. The most well-known group, and the only one of any size, goes by the name of "the Bahá'í Faith" (note the diacritical marks); the other factions generally call the largest faction the "Haifan Bahá'ís," after their headquarters in Haifa in Israel.
Bahá'í can be spelt many different ways. This is because transliteration practices have evolved over the last century or so, while the Baha'is are kind of stuck with translations made by the great-grandson of their founder. Some spellings (e.g. "Behaism") have been made radioactive through their use by schismatic groups or critics (a sure sign a critic is biased/insane is if they use Bahaism, that spelling being common within the conspiracist crowd who think the Baha'i Faith is linked to Zionism and Israel and the like.). Since outsiders can rarely be bothered with the diacriticals, the use of the Baha'i "house style" is a reliable sign that a text was authored by Baha'is.
The Aqdas or Kitab-i-Aqdas ("the Most Holy Book" or "the book of laws" in Farsi; translation varies) is the most important holy book of the Baha'i religion. It is believed to have been completed by Baha'ullah in 1873, and it was first published in Arabic in 1891.
Despite one of the translations of the name as "the book of laws", the text covers many subjects apart from criminal and civil law, including spiritual doctrines concerning the nature of God, the administration of the faith, ethical and social principles, and prophecies.
Although the book is referenced in all of the other scriptural texts of the Baha'i faith, an official English translation did not become available until 1992.
Practices and beliefs
Baha'is believe that this era will see the emergence of world unity, including a world government, and that this has been willed by God. This carries a strong anti-racism component, and indeed, the Baha'is are consciously and proudly multi-ethnic.
Another tenet of the Bahai faith is the unity of science and religion. It is stated that "Religion without science is superstition, but science without religion is materialism, which also has its dangers."
Much as Islam sees itself as the most recent and ultimate of a series of divine revelations that includes those that originated as Judaism and Christianity, so too Baha'is believe that their faith is a natural successor of other religions. The Bahá'í Faith, however, is somewhat more accommodating of other religions than Islam, and makes a point of at least attempting to present itself as compatible with non-Abrahamic faiths as well.
It is very strongly organized in an administrative sense, with a well-defined hierarchy and regular meetings in most cities where there are more than a handful of Bahá'ís. Indeed, Baha'is may be "disenrolled" for falling afoul of these bodies, and those who deny their legitimacy are declared to be "covenant breakers" who must be shunned. A person may only be declared a covenant-breaker for actions which are seen as challenging the unity of the Bahá'í religion, not for matters such as failure to obey Bahá'í law or conversion to another religion. Bahai's are well known for their interfaith events: they emphasize the unity of religions, which is the reason why they host so many interfaith events. Bahá'í Doctrine tends to emphasize Abrahamic beliefs, most notably the concept of one God, and to downplay doctrinal conflicts among the various religions and faiths which it wants to honor and succeed (explicitly including Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam).
- Ba'ha is the traditional greeting of Zone Theorists.
- See the Wikipedia article on Bahá'u'lláh.
- Compare: Freedman, Samuel G. (2010-01-22). "Bahai on Trial in Iran Worries Brother From Afar". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/us/23religion.html. "They have endured beatings, insults, arrest, vandalism, dismissal from jobs, denial of education and other forms of religious bigotry inflicted by the Iranian Muslims who consider Bahaism an intolerable blasphemy for its belief in a 19th-century prophet and his new revelation emerging from Shiite Islam."
- See the Wikipedia article on Babism.
- See the Wikipedia article on Shaykhism.
- The Baha'i Faith: Its History and Teachings - Page 324, William McElwee Miller - 1974
- God speaks again: an introduction to the Bahá'í Faith
- A concept they call progressive revelation. See the Wikipedia article on Progressive revelation (Baha'i).