RationalWiki's 2018 Fundraiser

There is no RationalWiki without you. We are a small non-profit with no staff — we are hundreds of volunteers who document pseudoscience and crankery around the world every day. We will never allow ads because we must remain independent. We cannot rely on big donors with corresponding big agendas. We are not the largest website around, but we believe we play an important role in defending truth and objectivity.

If everyone seeing this today donates $5, we will meet our goal for 2018.

Fighting pseudoscience isn't free.
We are 100% user-supported! Help and donate $5, $20 or whatever you can today with PayPal Logo.png!

Donations so far: $2951Goal: $5000

Confucius

From RationalWiki
(Redirected from Confucianism)
Jump to: navigation, search
Painting of Confucius, circa 1770.
Thinking hard
or hardly thinking?

Philosophy
Icon philosophy.svg
Major trains of thought
The good, the bad
and the brain fart
Come to think of it

Confucius (Pinyin: Kong fu zi) was an extremely influential Chinese philosopher from the late Zhou Dynasty, living in the sixth to fifth century BCE.

His teachings, later collected in the Analects, went on to form the basis of Chinese statecraft, starting in the Han dynasty and lasting until the overthrow of the empire in 1912. They continue to be very influential in China and surrounding countries, such as South Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, to the point where Samuel Huntington referred to most of East Asia (excluding Japan) as the "Confucian Civilization".

Confucianism[edit]

His philosophy (and quasi-religion) was founded on keeping harmony via hierarchy. He emphasized moral righteousness as coming from study and accepting one's roles in the "Five Relationships", which were:

  1. King - servant
  2. Parent - child
  3. Husband - wife
  4. Older sibling - younger sibling
  5. Friend - friend

Though the last item appears not to have a hierarchy by modern standards, Confucius still portrayed the "proper role" for such a relationship to be one friend being deferential and the other to be considerate. Other important Confucian ideas include li, the proper observation of traditional rituals, ren, "humanity", often expressed by a negative version of the Golden Rule ("Do not do to others as you would not have done to yourself") and filial pietyWikipedia's W.svg, respect for one's ancestors, and the traditional worship of ancestors in the Chinese folk religion.

Of the three pillars of Chinese thought, Confucianism was considered the one most important for public events and the public persona. By contrast, Taoism was for private life, while Buddhism was for the afterlife. The Confucian emphasis on social conformity, mutual obligations, and respect for authority remain strong forces in East Asian societies.

Confucianism as religion[edit]

[1] Confucianism is sometimes identified as a religion, and the existence of temples to Confucius in China and other East Asian countries would seem to support this. However, in contrast to conventional Western ideas about religion, Confucianism does not explicitly contain concepts such as supernatural explanations, a specific belief in the afterlife (see Lúnyǔ (论语) 11:11)[2] or holy rituals, and is equally compatible with religious beliefs such as Daoism, Buddhism and Shinto, or with secular world views such as communism; indeed, it could be argued that the five constant virtues of Confucianism, namely: benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and loyalty make Confucianism quite compatible with, or even a version of, humanism. Maoism is sometimes interpreted as a blend of Marxism and Confucianism.

Traditionally, Confucianism sees religious practice as beneficial to society. Confucianism exists in the context of a long tradition of Chinese folk religion that regards deceased family members as the most accessible functionaries in a vast celestial bureaucracy, and Confucius himself as well as later Confucian thinkers encouraged participation in folk religious practices. The concept of "ritual propriety" ( (礼)), meaning that an individual's interactions are in accordance with traditional mores, was cited as the most important virtue by the Confucian thinker Xúnzǐ (荀子) (313-238 BCE). This emphasis causes Confucianism to trend strongly conservative, and so traditional Confucianism greatly encourages religious practice. More modern thinkers who have been heavily influenced by Maoism frequently reject religion, but as Confucianism itself makes no explicitly supernatural claims this rejection is still generally considered orthodox.

Neo-Confucianism[edit]

Developed in the Tang Dynasty, neo-Confucianism was created as a rationalist form of Confucianism, and takes a naturalist stance. This philosiphy is essentially a blend of secular humanism and radical traditionalism. This version was founded due to the supernaturalistic beliefs in Taoism and Buddhism slowly merging into the philosophy. This version is effectively the state "religion" of many Maoist regimes, and was the state religion of the Joseon dynastyWikipedia's W.svg in Korea.

Historicity[edit]

Because of the supposedly small number of primary sources about his life, Confucius is used as a counterexample in the debate over the Historicity of Jesus. In fact, if you count every single epistle as a different source, Jesus has a lot more sources, which are also a lot closer in time to his death, and yet the historicity of Confucius is never put in doubt by anyone. Disregard the fact that Confucius was a government official, with a detailed list of descendants that was kept up to this day, and his life story is not centered around claims of supernatural events[citation needed]. Checkmate atheists!

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/
  2. http://www.confucius.org/lunyu/ed1111.htm