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Psilocybin

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Psilocybin is a psychedelic prodrug found in nature. After ingestion, psilocybin is converted to psilocin, giving the drug properties paralleling to other psychedelics such as LSD and DMT. Several genera of mushroom (psilocybin mushroomWikipedia) contain the following psychedelic compounds: psilocybinWikipedia (how about that shit?), baeocysti, and psilocin.Wikipedia The effects of the drug are variable and depend on the setting, the mindset of the individual and the number of people present.

Popular culture[edit]

Psilocybin, much like LSD and other psychedelics, is often portrayed in popular culture as being more intense and vivid than they are. In truth, hallucinations produced by psilocybin are very much distinguishable from reality, and rarely take the form of fully realistic and detailed visions of fire-breathing lizard people that kidnap princesses and the like. Actual psychedelic experiences tend to be more along the lines of a six hour free association exercise than a re-enactment of Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas.Wikipedia This, combined with the fact that they're expensive, taste terrible, and are non-addictive, may explain the relative paucity of regular psilocybin users.

Studies[edit]

As medicine[edit]

According to a 2011 study, Johns Hopkins University found that the use of psilocybin could ease the anxiety of terminally ill patients, treat depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and help smokers quit.[1][2] Psilocybin has also been shown to be very effective in decreasing the severity, or eliminating completely, forms of debilitating cluster headaches.[3]

Studies involving animal models (such as rats) on psilocybin have shown that the drug actually does not impair brain function, but instead promotes the growth of new neurons in the hippocampus,[4] and regenerates damaged brain tissue. This has led many researchers to put forth the idea that psilocybin could be used to revive and repair damaged neurons in vegetative patients.

In human fMRI scans, certain cortices of the brain, however, such as the prefrontal cortex, are decreased in activity during the high (without directly impairing or damaging the prefrontal cortex physically). This does not mean it is damaging the brain—rather, neuronal signals that would normally go to the prefrontal cortex are "rerouted" to various other parts of the brain in a complex pattern of connectivity, creating a very unique pattern of unregulated thinking.[5] Many psychotherapists argue that this stimulates brain connectivity in the long term and in general improves critical thinking and symptoms of mental illness.[6] In all patients examined during the fMRI scan, activity in the prefrontal cortex went perfectly back to normal after the end of the trip, indicating that there is no lasting impairment of this part of the brain outside of the trip itself.

Multiple human studies published in MAPS's research journal have shown that in the long term, psilocybin can actually improve performance scores in intelligence tests, including the improvement of linguistic memory and word recall ability.[7]

Set and setting[edit]

See the Wikipedia article on Set and setting.

The effects of psilocybin — like other psychedelic drugs — depend on a) one's state of mind (e.g. are you depressed?) and b) the setting (e.g. Is there anyone supporting you?). Monitors have shown positive effects on subjects and have the ability to control the direction of the trip. Stress and anxiety, which cause a stressful experience, can be kept at a minimum.[8]

A Harvard University study titled "Reactions to psilocybin administered in a supportive environment" conducted by Timothy LearyWikipedia and others assessed the experiences of individuals on psilocybin in groups. Generally, those who have tried it before reported a more pleasurable experience compared to those who did it for the first time. In addition, those who tripped with fewer than six people reported a more supportive experience than those with eight or more people.[9]

In a study titled "Mystical Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin Lead to Increases in the Personality Domain of Openness", MacLean, Johnson, and Griffiths assess changes in personality traits in adults after a psilocybin trip. The researchers found significant increase of openness after high doses of psilocybin, despite adults' openness typically decreasing with age. The researchers conclude that the study opens a new avenue to other research on the drug to observe more positive cognitive effects.[10]

As described in an issue of Psychopharmacology, researchers conducted a double blind study and reported both positive and negative effects of psilocybin on 36 individuals who never tried the drug. The subjects were kept in a bed while soft music played while a monitor overlooked them. Two-thirds of those studied reported the experience to be the most or one of the most meaningful experiences of their lives. 79% of participants reported a greater increase in enjoyment of their lives in the following two months. Not all had great experiences. Eleven participants reported very strong fear and described the experience as "extreme".[11]

The above elaborated have biases of their own: scientists went out of their way to ensure that the human subjects had the most comfortable experience possible. Besides, purposely creating an environment that induced fear in the human participants would be a human rights violation.Wikipedia

Legality[edit]

  Legal
  Ambiguous/Partially legal/Decriminalized
  Illegal

In the United States, Psilocybin is listed as a Schedule I drug under the UN's Convention on Psychotropic Substances.Wikipedia Under this document, a Schedule I drug is a substance prone to abuse with no medical usage. On the contrary, studies do suggest medical use in improving cognitive abilities amongst adults. Interestingly, no UN treaty exists to prohibit the substance.[12]

In the UK and Canada, the drug is prohibited under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971Wikipedia and Controlled Drugs and Substances ActWikipedia respectively. In Canada, kits and mushroom growing products are legal to sell and buy. The drug itself is legal to buy and own with a prescription as it is labeled as a schedule III drug. Before 2008 in the Netherlands, the drug was legal because of a legal loophole. However, after 2008, it is still legal to grow magic mushrooms yourself, and dried 'magic truffles', which produce virtually the same effects, can still be bought.[citation needed]

With keeping the aforementioned research in mind, the altruistic benefits behind banning psilocybin appear nonexistent. The lack of knowledge about the drug, focus on the negative effects of the drug, and the stigmatization of hallucinogens are likely major contributing factors. In addition, a country's reputation and pressure from other countries are contributors as well. In Japan before June 2002, mushrooms were legal and commonly sold at shops. Japan Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry labeled the drug as a narcotic before Japan's World Cup, probably to prevent developing a bad image to foreigners.

  Legalized for medical use
  Decriminalized
  States with decriminalized cities
  Prohibited for any use

United States[edit]

The United States has witnessed a massive push to decriminalize psilocybin. This movement is adjoined to efforts for the decriminalization of all drugs and the end of the war on drugs. Since 2017, CaliforniaWikipedia residents have sought decriminalization of medical Psilocybin.[13][14] Two cities in California, Oakland[15][16]and Santa Cruz[17]have decriminalized the use of psychedelic mushrooms that contain psilocybin in them so far. Oregon passed a measure to legalize Psilocybin on November 3, 2020. Measure 109, otherwise known as Psilocybin Mushroom Services Program Initiative, or the Psilocybin Services Act[18], was a ballot measure which allowed regulated use of psilocybin-producing mushroom and fungi.[19] Washington D.C. voted to decriminalized all entheogens in November 2020, which includes ayahuasca, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, and morning glories.[20] D.C.'s Initiative 81 went into effect on March 15, 2021. In January 2021, Washtenaw County, Michigan decriminalized psilocybin mushrooms.[21] That same month, Somerville, Massachusetts decriminalized all entheogenic plants, including psilocybin mushrooms.[22] Cambridge, Massachusetts followed suit in February 2021, one month later.[23][24] In April 2021, Northampton, Massachusetts became the third city in the state to decriminalize psilocybin.[25]

Legal notice from the RW Morals Committee[edit]

P.S. However, if you live in a jurisdiction where the consumption of Psilocybe cubensis is legal then — hey, they're just mushrooms, man.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. http://news.yahoo.com/s/yblog_thelookout/20110615/ts_yblog_thelookout/far-out-magic-mushrooms-could-have-medical-benefits-researchers-say
  2. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20150615-could-psychedelic-drugs-make-smokers-quit
  3. http://www.neurology.org/content/66/12/1920.short Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23727882
  5. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/6/2138
  6. http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2014/07/psilocybin_in_brain_scans_magic_mushrooms_mimic_sleep_and_enhance_associations.html
  7. http://www.maps.org/news-letters/v07n1/07110bag.html
  8. Shewan, D.; Dalgarno, P.; Reith, G. (2000). "Perceived risk and risk reduction among ecstasy users: the role of drug, set, and setting". International Journal of Drug Policy 10: 431–453. 
  9. "Reactions to psilocybin administered in a supportive environment". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 137 (6): 561–73. 1963. PMID 14087676. 
  10. "Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness". Journal of Psychopharmacology 25 (11): 1453–61. 2011. PMC 3537171. PMID 21956378. 
  11. Smith M. (Jul 12, 2006). "Medical News: Psilocybin Viewed as Therapy or Research Tool". Medpagetoday.com. Retrieved 2011-02-12. 
  12. Schaepe, Herbert (13 September 2001). "UN's INCB Psilocybin Mushroom Policy". Erowid.org. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  13. https://www.oag.ca.gov/system/files/initiatives/pdfs/17-0024%20%28Legalize%20Psilocybin%29_0.pdf
  14. https://ballotpedia.org/California_Psilocybin_Mushroom_Decriminalization_Initiative_(2018)
  15. https://www.npr.org/2019/06/05/730061916/oakland-city-council-effectively-decriminalizes-psychedelic-mushrooms. NPR. Published in 2019. Retrieved on 5 December 2020.
  16. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2019/06/05/oakland-california-legalizes-magic-mushrooms-and-peyote/1347888001/. USA Today. Published in 2019. Retrieved on 5 December 2020.
  17. https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/30/us/santa-cruz-mushrooms-psychedelics-trnd/index.html. CNN. Published in 2020. Retrieved on 5 December 2020.
  18. https://ballotpedia.org/Oregon_Measure_109,_Psilocybin_Mushroom_Services_Program_Initiative_(2020)]. Ballotpedia. Published in 2020. Retrieved on 5 December 2020.
  19. https://www.oregonlive.com/politics/2020/11/oregon-becomes-first-state-to-legalize-psychedelic-mushrooms.html]. The Oregonian. Published in 2020. Retrieved on 4 December 2020.
  20. "Magic mushrooms officially decriminalized in DC", Pusatory Matt, WUSA. Published March 16, 2021. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  21. "Washtenaw County says cases involving natural psychedelics will no longer be charged", Jordan Jerilyn, Metro Times. Published January 12, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  22. "Somerville Is First Mass. Community To Move To Decriminalize Psychedelics", Becker Deborah, WBUR-FM. Published January 15, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  23. "War on use of mushrooms, cacti and ayahuasca has been called off in Cambridge by council order", Levy Marc, Cambridge Day. Published February 4, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  24. "Cambridge Votes To Decriminalize Psychedelics And All Controlled Substances", Becker Deborah, WBUR-FM. Published February 5, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  25. "Why some Mass. communities are moving to decriminalize psychedelics", Taliesin Julia, Boston.com. Published July 21, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.