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Stellar metamorphosis

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Stellar metamorphosis is a crank hypothesis that claims that planets are old stars that have lost mass and thus the difference between a "star" and "planet" is baseless distinction.[1][2] In response, proponents of the hypothesis propose a unified term, "astron" and seek to establish processes by which this can take place. Proponents claim that stars lose mass, cool, the stellar plasma undergoes chemical reactions converting to molecules, and necessarily create life. The hypothesis is communicated almost exclusively via Youtube videos[3] and viXra,[4] a home for "papers" by authors too crazy to get the vetting needed for the generally reputable arXiv. Despite bold claims, the hypothesis is furthered by unfounded principles which are simply declared without evidence. While there have been attempts to make Stellar Metamorphosis an ostensibly quantitative model by tossing in equations, these equations go unexplained, untested, and uncompared with any actual observations by proponents.

Like many pseudosciences, since Stellar Metamorphosis is unable to stand on its own merits, a great deal of the published material exists solely as an attack on mainstream science, implicitly invoking the logical fallacy of bifurcation in which if the proponents can cast sufficient doubt on mainstream science, Stellar Metamorphosis becomes the alternative explanation by default. However, the attacks on actual science from Stellar Metamorphosis proponents are universally factually incorrect or represent severe misinterpretations of mainstream science.

Work on Stellar metamorphosis is largely driven by Jeffrey Wolynski. No known professional astronomers support the hypothesis of planet formation being star evolution itself. There is no peer-reviewed research concerning this "theory". Modern scientists support the hypothesis of gravitation forming the solar system out of dust and gas in a protoplanetary disk, also known as the nebular hypothesis,Wikipedia with a long history dating back to Sir Isaac Newton himself. There is a great deal of evidence supporting the standard model from the existence of the plane of the Solar System (the EclipticWikipedia), and observations of protoplanetary disks.[5]

Fundamentals of Stellar Metamorphosis[edit]

Wolynski's first "evidence" for Stellar Metamorphosis is that, if one were to plot the mass of known stars and planets as a function of their radius, it presents a generally smooth line. Anyone that passed high school physics would understand that this is because there is a fairly limited range of densities for objects due to the laws of physics. While there are certainly outliers (such as neutron stars), most objects in the universe fall into this range. However, Wolynski takes this as an indication that there must be progression along this line. Fundamentally, this is not absurd on its face as it is akin to seeing a sampling of the fossil record and understanding the progression. But whereas biological evolution makes numerous testable predictions, Stellar Metamorphosis does not and instead makes many claims that are easily contradicted by observations. Similarly, this "evidence" could be applied to any progression of objects and Stellar Metamorphosis has been parodied with the hypothesis of Sportsball Metamorphosis.[6]

Mass Loss[edit]

To explain how stars turn into planets, Stellar Metamorphosis must reconcile the extreme difference between the two in terms of mass. The obvious implication is that stars must lose mass. Wolynski claims that mass loss is a result of "solar wind, solar flaring, photoevaporation, impacts and coronal mass ejections"[7] but no effort is made to determine whether or not these processes can reasonably account for the mass loss required to make Stellar Metamorphosis a viable hypothesis for the timelines it claims. A simple back of the envelope calculation would show that such processes are orders of magnitude off as stars like the sun do not lose any appreciable amount of mass via these processes over trillions of years. Wolynski simply knows these processes result in some mass loss, so that must be good enough to explain whatever he needs.

Chemical composition[edit]

Stellar Metamorphosis must also explain how the chemical composition of stars differs from that of planets. Wolynski rejects nuclear fusion,[8] claiming it is pseudoscience despite fusion being directly observed in laboratories and observed from the sun via stellar neutrinos. This rejection of nuclear fusion requires that there be no new generation of elements; only recombination of existing elements into molecules which he proposes happens as the star cools into a planet. While generally true that molecules can form at lower temperatures (and are even observed in the atmospheres of low mass stars), Stellar Metamorphosis provides no actual chemical pathways or statistical analyses and simply devolves to an unscientific statement of "chemistry happens".

Age of the Universe[edit]

Since Stellar Metamorphosis does not involve chemical evolution of the universe, it no longer relies on a universe with a finite age. Instead, Wolynski subscribes to the notion of an eternal universe in which the elements are only remixed in an infinite progression of generation of decay.[9] However, this is flatly contradicted by observations which clearly show the chemical evolution of the universe as a function of time.[10] In addition, an eternal universe contradicts the second law of thermodynamics which states the entropy of a closed system must increase over time. In other words a universe without a beginning would have an infinite entropy. Despite Wolynski's claim his model abides by the Laws of Thermodynamics he clearly hasn't considered these ideas to the point that they can be considered robust.

Formation of Life[edit]

Stellar Metamorphosis' vague process of chemistry continues and, according to Wolynski, aged stars will form life[11] unless the star evolves "too fast" for life to evolve. What defines "too fast" left as a tautology. Regardless, the insistence that a great deal of stars will turn into planets and evolve life lead Wolynski to numerous other unfounded claims including that aliens visit earth.[12]

Rogue Planets[edit]

Stellar Metamorphosis' equivocation between stars and planes implies that solar systems would actually be binary/multiple star systems of stars with vastly different ages.[13] This poses an obvious problem for Stellar Metamorphosis since, if these systems were composed of objects randomly wandering throughout the galaxy, we should find them entering orbit around the central star from all directions. Rather, we find stellar systems largely confined to a single plane - a statistical impossibility that Stellar Metamorphosis has never attempted to address. Instead, Wolynski skips to the other end of such a system in which the central star would lose mass via the unexplained Stellar Metamorphosis process, and the system would dissolve leaving the more highly evolved objects to wander the galaxy until they are captured into another stellar system. He goes so far as to claim that the time spent outside of the orbit of a young, hot star is the cause of ice ages.[14] No attempt has been made to determine the statistical average time it would take for the Earth to travel between stellar systems nor whether such a time period aligns in any way with the length of previous ice ages nor what the complete loss of a source of heat would do to a biosphere.

Formation of Stars[edit]

Another fundamental problem for Stellar Metamorphosis to address is where new stars come from before they purportedly turn into planets. Here, Wolynski again rejects the standard model for stellar formation in which nebulae can collapse under self gravitation[15] despite the ability for nebulae to do so being well understood from first principles and gravity through the Jeans mass.Wikipedia Wolynski's rejection of this is based on an absurd comparison of the collision of atoms to that of billiard balls[16] where, coincidentally, gravity is not a factor. Instead, Wolynski begins dipping into another branch of crank science, invoking concepts from Electric Universe proponents and claiming that the nebulae are plasma that is forced together by electric currents.[17] This is despite the fact that nebulae are relatively cool and thus not plasma and the fact that the currents necessary for electric universe phenomena have never been observed.

Age Determination[edit]

In an attempt to make the hypothesis sound more plausible, Wolynski has spent considerable time coming up with mathematical methods by which one can determine the true age of an object. These methods are often rooted in true scientific principles, such as that of gyrochronology,Wikipedia but the equations Wolynski creates are untethered to that basis. Unsurprisingly, the various equations Wolynski dreamed up are self-contradictory[18] returning results that are thousands of times different from one another for the same objects. Such discrepancies should have been obvious to Wolynski since he has even noted them in his own papers.[19]

Other methods Wolynski proposes lack even the pretext of a mathematical foundation.[20]

It is obvious to see why such equations fail when examining Wolynski's process for creating them:

As stars exhibit exponential decay, a mathematical relationship was developed with a constant to determine how old a star is based on its bolometric luminosity. For this example we will begin with the Sun being 65 million years old and having the bolometric luminosity of “1”. Epsilon Eridani has ~1/3 the luminosity of the Sun, and is 98 million years old. Therefore, for every 33 million years, a star’s bolometric luminosity drops off by 1/3.[21]

Here, we can see that the data used by Wolynski to fit this curve is only two data points based on the luminosity of the sun and Epsilon Eridani as a function of age. However, Wolysnki's ages are made up. No citation is even offered on how they were derived however they are often derived by assuming an age of the Earth (which Wolynski cannot settle on an actual age for) and then assuming that if some property is X times larger/smaller, the age must be X times larger/smaller as well. Thus, Wolynski is attempting to define a line with a single data point (the Earth) - something that anyone who passed middle school math should know is an impossibility without more information. Thus, Wolynski's equations are a case of Garbage in garbage out.

The pseudoscientific method[edit]

Wolynski's bastardized Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

Stellar Metamorphosis is a textbook case of pseudoscience and highlights many characteristics of it.

Principles, principles, principles[edit]

One of the most prominent ways Stellar Metamorphosis reveals itself as pseudoscience is that the claims are presented without evidence. Many of Wolynski's papers consist of a single principle which is just declared to be true without any supporting evidence, but still heavily cited in other papers as if it had actually been well established. For example an entire Wolynski paper:

The Principle of Diminishing Solar Abundances or the Solar Abundance Principle of Stellar Evolution

Abstract: A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.

According to stellar metamorphosis stars cool and die to become rocky differentiated worlds many billions of years into their evolution, and they are called exoplanets/planets. This means the abundances of lighter elements diminishes considerably as the star evolves, leaving the heavy elements and the elements which have combined into stable heavier molecules behind. This principle can be applied to all stars, even the evolved ones mislabeled “exoplanet/planet”. The oldest stars will have very little helium and the majority of the hydrogen will have combined into stable molecules or evaporated into interstellar space. This can also be used to determine how old a star is. The more hydrogen/helium the star has, opposed to other heavier elements, the younger it is.

"As stars evolve into rocky differentiated worlds, the ratio of lighter elements to heavy elements diminishes considerably."[22]

As we can see, Wolynski simply claims Truth without any attempt at supporting it. Since it is offered without evidence, it may thus be dismissed by Hitchen's Razor. While Stellar Metamorphosis can loosely be described as a hypothesis, its proponents have yet to make a single novel testable prediction from it. Since proponents have failed to make any novel testable predictions, Stellar Metamorphosis can be fairly put in the category of Not even wrong. However, opponents have proposed tests based on the implications of Stellar Metamorphosis and found it is contrary to basic observations as shown above.

Lame Attacks on Mainstream Science[edit]

Pseudoscientists frequently try to make their claims seem more plausible by attacking mainstream science and claiming it is flawed. Wolynski fits this paradigm to a tee, making numerous claims about what mainstream science says that are clearly at odds with reality. While one may be attempted to apply Hanlon's razor and simply attribute this to stupidity on Wolynski's part, these basic errors have been pointed out to him but Wolynski has refused to correct them.

Orbital Kinematics[edit]

While Wolynski completely ignores the statistical impossibility that stable systems could form under the Stellar Metamorphosis paradigm, he spends some time trying to attack mainstream physics based on perceived flaws in its orbital mechanics. In one case, Wolynski discusses the exoplanet XO-3b[23] which has an orbit highly inclined to the equator of its parent star. The mainstream model of planetary formation has planets forming in a disk around the forming proto-star, all aligned on a fairly narrow plane. Thus, seeing a planet on a highly tilted orbit should be rare, but not impossible as Wolynski claims. He states that such a deviation has "no explanation" from the planetary disk model. However, this is flatly untrue as astronomers have long held that planetary interactions are commonplace in the early formation of solar systems and can throw planets into various inclined orbits. This was reference for XO-3b in particular[24] a full 5 years before Wolynski decided not to do any homework and made his claim.

Supernova[edit]

Wolynski has made many claims regarding the mainstream position on supernovae which holds that they are caused by the sudden gravitational collapse of a star which has exhausted all available nuclear fuel. Wolynski makes the bizarre claim that astronomers have never observed the progenitor of a supernova.[25] Yet his own citation for this claim[26] is about the detection of a progenitor. Numerous other supernovae had their progenitors directly imaged including SN 1987AWikipedia, SN1993J and SN2003gd,[27] SN2004et,[28] SN2005gj,[29] SN2006my,[30] SN2008bk,[31] SN2009hd,[32] SN2009kr,[33] SN2011dh[34] SN2012aw,[35] SN2012ec,[36] SN2015bh,[37] SN107eaw,[38] SN2017ein,[39] and SN2018aoq.[40] In all cases, progenitors have been identified as supermassive stars as predicted by mainstream astronomy.

Wolynski's rejection of the mainstream explanation for supernovae is rooted in an argument from incredulity in which he asks "Why would an extremely stable object [a star] implode/explode?"[41] The answer is given by a cursory glance at the Wikipedia page on SupernovaWikipedia (HINT: It's gravity) but Wolynski pretends that mainstream science has no answer. Instead, he pretends that supernovae could be caused by the collision of two "large objects" but doesn't bother to do any sort of sanity check to ask whether or not the speeds that would be required for to produce enough energy to outshine an entire galaxy are observed anywhere in the universe.

Wolynski also claims that supernovae remnants and planetary nebulae the same phenomena.[42] This is based on a pathetically cursory examination of these phenomenon in which Wolynski engages in cherry picking, comparing the morphology of a roughly spherical supernova remnant to a roughly spherical planetary nebula and claiming they must be the same thing. This betrays his stunning and willful ignorance of how actual astronomers characterize such phenomena. Since supernovae are massively energetic events, the energies of the nebulae are orders of magnitude higher, with the ejecta having a significantly higher velocity. In addition, the energy from a supernova causes fusion via the r processWikipedia and the decaying isotopes can be observed in supernovae remnants which will not be present in planetary nebulae. If categorization of these objects were in any way difficult for someone that knew the basic categorization criteria, then astronomers should be evenly split on what to call a particular object, but no such confusion actually exists.

Quantum Mechanics[edit]

Wolynski rejects the entirety of quantum mechanics.Wikipedia[43] This is rooted in his desire to reject nuclear fusion which requires quantum tunnelingWikipedia to overcome the Coulomb barrierWikipedia. He rejects quantum mechanics because he believes that it states "that an object can exist in many places at one time" and because he as a full sized (but small brained) human can only be in one place at a time, quantum mechanics must be wrong.

The notion that a single particle can be at multiple places at a single time well established by the variation on Young's double slit experiment which passed single photons through the double slit at a time, finding that they still exhibited an interference pattern requiring that the single photon went through both slits at the same time and thus interfered with itself. However, quantum phenomena only apply at very small scales and/or relativistic velocities. Attempting to "disprove" quantum mechanics by appealing to macroscopic physics is an intentional misapplication of the theory.

Black Body Radiation[edit]

They (protoplanetary disks) are evidence for planet destruction and collision events. The disks radiate strongly in the infrared, meaning the material is liquid hot like magma.[44]

While it is true that hot, liquid objects like magma will glow strongly in the infrared, that does not imply that any object glowing in the infrared is "liquid hot" (a categorization fallacy). In reality, the physics of thermal emission says that warm bodies emit Black-body radiationWikipedia which to some extent follows a Planck Distribution. From this is is seen objects from 100's of K upwards emit strongly in the infrared. Humans, buildings and other warm bodies also emit in the infrared which allows ThermographyWikipedia to map thermal emission by imaging long-wave infrared light, and yet buildings are not "liquid hot like magma".

If theory conflicts with observations, the observations must be wrong[edit]

Wolynski also demonstrates his break from scientific principles by refusing to acknowledge any evidence that is presented that contradicts his hypothesis and stating that the observation must be wrong. For example, Wolynski claims that giant stars (which do not fall neatly into his linear evolution) don't exist and that their calculated size is the result of an error measuring parallax.[45] Here, he makes the outrageous claim that

The red giant star Betelgeuse is not hundreds of light years distant and the size of our inner solar system it is right next door as normal red dwarf star about .05 light years from us.

It is impossible that there could be a sufficiently large error in measurement that this would be possible since, at that distance, Betelgeuse would have a parallax of 63 arcseconds which would be measurable even by amateur astronomers (consider the Hubble Space Telescope has a resolution of ~0.05 arcseconds). Secondly, giant stars are discernible from main-sequence stars independently of their luminosity, based on their spectra[46] and thus could not be confused simply due to distance.

Dated Sources and Dubious Experts[edit]

To help give the appearance that a pseudoscientific hypothesis is more well supported than it really is, pseudoscientists will frequently cite other authors out of context to make it appear that the other author agrees with them. This is especially fun for them to do when the author is deceased and cannot refute the claim and in such cases, is often quite easy to do since such works often come from a much earlier time when the fundamentals of the field were not well established and legitimate doubt did exist on certain topics. Examples of this can be seen wherein Wolynski claims support from George-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1788),[47] Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)[48] (who, Wolynski claims, proposed Stellar Metamorphosis 67 years after his own death), and Alexander Oparin (1894-1980).[49]

Word play[edit]

Many of Wolynski's papers consist merely of pointlessly redefining terms to suit his new model and to maximize the confusion for anyone not well informed on the topic. For example:

In establishment dogma, a star is classified as a Population I (young) or a Population II (old) star. This method of dating stars is based off false understanding of the universe. It assumes all stars were born from a Big Bang Creation event, thus the old stars are the ones with mostly helium and hydrogen and the young stars have more heavy metals.[50]

In reality, Stellar populationWikipedia I and II stars are defined not by the ages of stars but by their measured metallicity (abundances of elements heavier than helium). It is an interpretation that pop I stars (the more metal-rich) are younger than the pop II stars - disagreeing with that interpretation does not require one to redefine these terms, which are observational. To ignore the distinction between pop I and II shows the shallow nature of stellar metamorphism: why are pop II stars found more in the Galactic Halo and globular clusters while pop I stars mostly inhabit the disk? This is a real question for a model of stellar evolution; redefining terms, however, is a pointless distraction.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Introduction to Stellar Metamorphosis Youtube
  2. The Sun is a Planet by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org 016-08-22 19:38:38.
  3. Introduction to Stellar Metamorphosis Youtube
  4. The Sun is a Planet by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org 016-08-22 19:38:38.
  5. The Protoplanetary Disk of HL Tauri from ALMA
  6. Sportball Metamorphosis by SportyMcSportball reddit
  7. The Mass Loss Principle by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  8. Heterolysis During Stellar Metamorphosis by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  9. The Eternal Universe Principle by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  10. The Chemical Evolution of the Universe by Baker et al. arXiv
  11. The Principle of Biostellar Evolution by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  12. Extraterrestrials Have Been Visiting Earth by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  13. The Principle of Stellar Adoption and Rejection by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  14. Snowball Earth and Stellar Metamorphosis by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  15. Gravitational Instability Forming Structures is Nonsense by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  16. Rocks do not Self-Assemble in Outer Space by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  17. The Charge Separation Principle of Stellar Birth according to Stellar Metamorphosis by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  18. A Review of Ages in Stellar Metamorphosis by Roberto Jambon and Hunter Pearce. viXra 2020-09-16
  19. Stellar Metamorphosis: Venus's Age with D/H Ratios Factored as Opposed to Earth and Other Bodies by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  20. Whole Star Magnetochronology by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra.org
  21. Determining the Ages of Stars Mathematically Using Luminosity by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra 2016-09-16 07:42:26
  22. The Principle of Diminishing Solar Abundances by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra 2016-03-31 15:16:49
  23. Stellar Metamorphosis: XO-3b, the Eccentric Star by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  24. Planet's strange orbit points to planetary billiards by Devin Powell. New Scientist
  25. The Failure of the Gravity/Fusion—Centric Model of Astronomical Phenomenon by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  26. Massive young star explodes 'before its time' by Rachel Courtland. New Scientist
  27. The Disappearance of the Progenitors of Supernovae 1993J and 2003gd by Maund et al. arXiv
  28. On the Progenitor of the Type II Supernova 2004et in NGC 6946 by Li et al. arXiv
  29. A massive hypergiant star as the progenitor of the supernova SN 2005gl by Gal-Yam & Leonard. Pub Med
  30. A Late-Time View of the Progenitors of Five Type IIP Supernovae by Maund et al. arXiv
  31. Supernova 2008bk and Its Red Supergiant Progenitor by VanDyk et al. arXiv
  32. The Massive Progenitor of the Possible Type II-Linear Supernova 2009hd in Messier 66 by Elias-Rosa et al. arXiv
  33. The Massive Progenitor of the Type II-Linear SN 2009kr by Elias-Rosa et al. arXiv
  34. The Progenitor of Supernova 2011dh Has Vanished by VanDyk et al. arXiv
  35. Red and dead: The progenitor of SN 2012aw in M95 by Fraser et al. arXiv
  36. Supernova 2012ec: Identification of the progenitor and early monitoring with PESSTO by Maund et al. arXiv
  37. Catching a star before explosion: the luminous blue variable progenitor of SN 2015bh by Boian & Groh. arXiv
  38. The Dusty Progenitor Star of the Type II Supernova 2017eaw by Kilpatrick & Foley. arXiv
  39. Observations of SN 2017ein Reveal Shock Breakout Emission and A Massive Progenitor Star for a Type Ic Supernova Xiang et al. arXiv
  40. Progenitor candidate for the type II-P supernova SN 2018aoq in NGC 4151 by O'Neill et al. arXiv
  41. Stars Do Not End as Internal Explosions/Implosions by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  42. Planetary Nebulae are Supernovae by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  43. Quantum Mechanics is a Sociological Phenomenon by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  44. Main Concepts for Explaining Star Evolution (Planet Formation) According to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra 2015-07-25 10:42:43
  45. Red Giant Stars are Not Giants by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra 2013-05-27 11:41:28
  46. An exercise for students with spectra of giant stars by Michael Richmond, RIT
  47. George-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1788) Proposed Stellar Metamorphosis by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  48. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Proposed Stellar Metamorphosis in 1783 by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  49. Giving Alexander Oparin’s Origin of Life Postulates a Future by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra
  50. Establishment Dogma Versus Stellar Metamorphosis: New and Old Stars by Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski. viXra 2014-06-16 07:41:22