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“”The question of the existence of God is the single most important question we face about the nature of reality.
John Charlton Polkinghorne (b. 1930) is an English theoretical physicist and Anglican priest known for his views regarding the relationship between science and religion. He is also a writer, theologian, KBE, and a Fellow of the Royal Society. He was awarded the 2002 Templeton Prize.
Polkinghorne received his Master's degree in mathematics in 1956 and his PhD in physics in 1955 from the University of Cambridge under the direction of Paul Dirac. He taught at his alma mater where he helped develop theories about particle physics and helped discover the quark. After figuring that his best scientific contributions were behind him he decided to train for a position in the other important aspect of his life, Christianity, and became an ordained deacon in 1981.
On science and religion
Polkinghorne sees science and religion as two methods of viewing the same reality, including the belief that the body, mind, and soul are different parts of this same reality. He believes God is the reason why there is "something" rather than "nothing." Three of the most important reasons he cites for why he believes "theism better makes more sense of the world, and of human experience, than...atheism" are the "intelligibility" of the universe, where organisms evolved to survive the everyday can understand very advanced and unrelated-to-survival topics such as relativity; moral knowledge, where humans have developed strong morals; and the anthropic fine-tuning of the universe.
“”As a Christian believer I am, of course, a creationist in the proper sense of the term, for I believe that the mind and purpose of a divine Creator lie behind the fruitful history and remarkable order of the universe which science explores. But I am certainly not a creationist in that curious North American sense, which implies interpreting Genesis 1 in a flat-footed literal way and supposing that evolution is wrong.
In the scientific community
Polkinghorne is one of the most well-known, respected, and accomplished scientists who professes a belief in God that goes beyond basic deism — a status that elicits interesting opinions between himself and atheistic scientists. Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins considers him a more sophisticated and respectable theologian who understands and respects science, but still doesn't "understand what it is that is being added, either to their lives or to the storehouse of human wisdom, by bringing in this additional dimension [religion] of explanation" nor "why [he wastes his] time going into this other stuff [religion] which never has added anything to the storehouse of human wisdom, and I don't see that it ever will." Polkinghorne, however, isn't quite as big on Dawkins as Dawkins is on him, saying in a CBC interview that Dawkins' "very militant form of atheism" saddens him "because it seems to me it is so polemical, it is so argumentative. Its concern is not with truth but somehow to browbeat you into unbelief. And...so Dawkins for example continually puts up straw men to demolish."
Books on science and religion
Since he became a part of the Anglican clergy, Polkinghorne has been quite busy writing books on the relationship between science and religion.
- The Way the World is: The Christian Persepective of a Scientist (1984)
- One World (1987)
- Science and Creation (1989)
- Science and Providence (1989)
- Reason and Reality: Relationship Between Science and Theology (1991)
- Quarks, Chaos and Christianity (1994)
- Science and Christian Belief (1994)
- Serious Talk: Science and Religion in Dialogue (1996)
- Scientists as Theologians (1996)
- Beyond Science: The wider human context (1996)
- Searching for Truth (1996)
- Belief in God in an Age of Science (1998)
- Science and Theology (1998)
- The End of the World and the Ends of God (2000)
- Traffic in Truth: Exchanges Between Sciences and Theology (2000)
- Faith, Science and Understanding (2000)
- The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis (2001)
- The God of Hope and the End of the World (2002)
- The Archbishop's School of Christianity and Science (2003)
- Living with Hope (2003)
- Science and the Trinity: The Christian Encounter With Reality (2004)
- Exploring Reality: The Intertwining of Science & Religion (2005)
- Quantum Physics & Theology: An Unexpected Kinship (2007)
- From Physicist to Priest, an Autobiography (2007)
- Theology in the Context of Science (2008)
- Questions of Truth: Fiftyone Responses to Questions about God, Science and Belief (2009)
- The Polkinghorne Reader: Science Faith and the Search for Meaning (2010)
- Reason and Reality: The Relationship Between Science and Theology (2011)
- Science and Religion in Quest of Truth (2011)
- The Faith of a Physicist. pp. 52
- John Templeton Foundation: Participants
- Paul Dirac at the Mathematical Genealogy Project
- Socrates In the City: Sir John Polkinghorne
- The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive: John Charlton Polkinghorne
- Times Higher Education: On the side of angels. 19 February 2009
- Science and Christian Belief. pp. 21
- Closer to Truth: Polkinghorne, John
- Science and Theology, pp. 71–83
- Science and Theology, pp. 76
- Science and Theology, pp. 81–82
- Science and Theology, pp. 75
- The Times: Shining a light where science and theology meet. 19 September 2008
- The Byzantine Anglo-Catholic: Polkinghorne on Creationism
- PBS Faith and Reason: Richard Dawkins (interview)
- Digital Journal: From physicist to priest — John Polkinghorne talks about science and religion. Op-Ed