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Against allopathy
Alternative medicine
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Clinically unproven
A physician who treats himself has a fool for a patient.
—Dr. William Osler (1849-1919)[1]

Self-diagnosis, as the name would suggest, is when one attempts to diagnose oneself or family and friends when experiencing certain symptoms, typically with the help of symptom checkers found in books and, increasingly, the Internet.

Symptom checkers may be useful for finding what one should do (e.g. whether to go to a pharmacy, book an appointment with their doctor, call an ambulance, etc.), but in and of themselves they are useless and potentially dangerous as they may result in the individual using ineffective treatments whilst snubbing help which is effective. Alternatively, the nocebo effect may make the person's condition feel even worse, resulting in a feeling that they are in mortal danger and thus seek emergency help even though they don't need it. This of course results in people who genuinely are in mortal danger having to wait longer for treatment.

The problem with this is that even when the symptom checker one is using is from a trustworthy source, the vast majority of people have no medical training and thus may have difficulty noticing things that a professional doctor or nurse may notice (it doesn't help that some different diseases may have similar symptoms) and also may not have access to equipment which may help them determine the cause of the symptoms.


Psychiatric self-diagnosis (often incorrect) is popular, often focusing on mental conditions which have attracted a certain amount of media attention in recent years, such as Asperger's syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and various personality disorders. Often such self-diagnoses serve as a scapegoat for other problems with people's lives or behaviour. More far-fetched examples include self-diagnosing with multiple personality disorder, "otherkin" and "therian" conditions, and other purported phenomena such as indigo children. This tendency to over "diagnose" disorders tends to diminish the apparent legitimacy of mental health conditions which, of course, is of no help to people who are actually mentally disabled or ill.

Some people with are professionally diagnosed with these disorders are sympathetic to people who self diagnose. The expense of seeing a doctor in the US is so high that many undiagnosed people or people suffering from mysterious symptoms had to make do with the internet. Women[2][3] have tales about struggling to get doctors to take their symptoms seriously. African Americans have huge issue with untreated and undiagnosed mental illnesses due to mental health issues being stigmatized in their communities.[4] Minors with unhelpful or downright awful parents may not be able to see a doctor in order to seek proper diagnosis and treatment. Self diagnosis on the internet can simply be a symptom of people desperate for answers.

Harassment over whether someone is faking an illness or disability is an issue on social media. Professionally diagnosed autistic people can be harassed over the validity of their diagnosis if they defend self diagnosis.

Comparison with factitious disorder[edit]

People who self diagnose are sometimes accused of being attention-seeking snowflakes.[5] They may be accused of having factitious disorder (formerly known as Munchausen syndrome), a condition in which a person fakes illness in order to receive sympathy.

However, people with factitious disorder tend to lie and say that they have a professional diagnosis when they do not. They don't say they are self-diagnosed.[6][7] People who self diagnose tend to be honest about it.

Hi, teens![edit]

If you're young and your parents don't listen to you, you may feel like self-diagnosis is the only way to find answers.

Some people do self-diagnose and later have their diagnoses confirmed by a professional. It's also true that you don't need a medical degree to read the DSM 5. However, it's easy to misdiagnose yourself, and miss out on getting the help you need.

Here are some potential risks of self diagnosis:[8][9]

  • You might misdiagnose yourself, and miss out on proper treatment. For example, if you mistakenly conclude you're autistic when you actually have ADHD, you might never get the chance to try possibly life-changing medication.
  • You might miss overlapping conditions. For example, you might correctly identify your panic disorder, but not realize that you also have asthma and need an inhaler. To further complicate things, some physical conditions cause psychiatric symptoms, so it's important to get checked if you can.
  • You might needlessly scare yourself. You may accidentally over-diagnose yourself (e.g. assuming you have social anxiety and a sleep disorder and PTSD when it's really only PTSD), or you may think you have a much scarier disorder than you actually do (e.g. mistaking a stress headache for a brain tumor).

Here are some ways to research wisely:[10]

  • Write a list of your symptoms. Add things as you think of them.
  • Stick to reputable websites. Avoid forums, or biased sources (e.g. Autism Speaks). If you do look there, be skeptical.
  • Find many sources. Don't just rely on one or two.
  • Take your time. Identifying a new condition should take more than 5 minutes. Identifying a lifelong, pre-existing condition may take more than a month.
  • Search conditions that are related to each other. For example, if you notice some signs of sensory processing disorder, also check out ADHD and autism.
  • If you rule out a related condition, figure out why. For example, "I suspect bipolar disorder instead of BPD because my mood swings are longer and I don't fear abandonment."
  • Print out any self tests that you take. Write your answers in pencil. You can show your answers to the doctor.

You can take your symptom list and self-test sheets to show your doctor. Use tentative language, and ask for the doctor's opinion. Your research can be helpful, as long as you remember that you aren't trying to do the doctor's job for them.

If you don't understand why the doctor is saying something, speak up about it. They may have a reason you aren't aware of. It's also possible that they are misinterpreting you. (Their ability to diagnose you is only as good as the information you give them.) Ask questions and explore the possibilities. The worst case scenario will be that the doctor is a terrible listener, in which case you may be able to get a second opinion.

WikiHow even has diagnostic resources for autism, including how to tell your parents[11] and how to prepare for an assessment.[12] You can adapt these for any condition (not just autism).

Finding information on potential conditions you may have is a good start. Just make sure you do your best to get the help you need (if possible), and avoid a misdiagnosis.

See also[edit]