|How the sausage is made|
In most parts of the world, a state is an organization that has a monopoly on the "legitimate means of coercion" within a defined boundary. These were considered the only important actors in international affairs, but globalization has shaken up the field. Classic examples of states include Iran, Finland, and (for historical reasons) the United States.
State and nation
A state should not be confused with a nation. A nation is a group of people bound by a common culture, history, religion, language, and/or ethnicity, bound by borders. Many nations, such as the Germans or the French, have their own states. However, others do not, such as the Basque and the Kurds. Moreover, it is possible to have a state without foundation in a single nation, as was the case with many African states upon independence. One could also argue that Switzerland, with its four languages and geographical location, could be considered a "multi-national state". Another example of a multi-national state would be the UK with its four nations of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland and the various cultures contained within them.
A state founded upon a single nationality is called a "nation-state". Forming a nation-state became the primary means of legitimacy for states after 1918. Many of the most stable states still rely on this theory, homogenizing pesky national minorities when necessary.
Within some federations, such as the United States, the term "state" also refers to the semi-sovereign constituent subdivisions of the federation.[note 1] Examples of this usage include Kentucky, Tennessee, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and New York. This, more than anything else, has led to confusion about the terms "nation" and "state" within the US.
State and government
In the United States, the terms state (as defined here) and government are used interchangeably. However, in parliamentary systems (e.g., Canada), the government refers to the executive — what in the US is called the "administration." This also leads to confusion, as there is no terminological distinction between the state's apolitical machinery and the political leaders in the government or administration.
Monopoly of force
Having the monopoly of force, a State can do many things that, when done by normal people, are generally condemned as unjust, illegitimate, or immoral. For example:
- Murder[note 2] and mass murder,[note 3] even of admitted innocent people.
- Detention and torture.
- Several forms of theft.
- Printing money or, in the digital era, creating new money from thin air.
However, before giving in to libertarian lamentations, it must be kept in mind that all those things are done for a greater good, have been legitimated by the majority of people (who were allowed to vote) a long time ago, or are legitimated by the state itself. Therefore, one can not apply to the state the same judgment parameters applied to every other situation.
- Rachael Revesz (March 2017). "US admits it conducted Mosul air strike 'at location' where '200' civilians died". Independent.
- Lizzie Dearden (June 2017). "US-led coalition admits killing at least 484 civilians in air strikes against Isis in Syria and Iraq". Independent.