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Courage International

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Courage International (often referred to simply as "Courage") is the reparative therapy apostolate (lay ministry) of the Catholic Church. It was organized in 1980 by New York Archbishop Terence Cardinal Cooke. Its mission was bolstered in 1986 when it received pastoral letters issued by Joseph Ratzinger, who was then the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Courage also operates Encourage, a support group for friends and family members who can't cope with the thought of there being gay and lesbian Catholics.

Unlike Protestant ex-gay groups like Exodus International, Courage is relatively unknown among non-Catholics. However, a bit of light was splashed onto the movement's face in July 2013 when it was revealed that Antonin Scalia's son, Paul, is a priest that works for Courage. It was also revealed that the younger Scalia believes that being gay "is not an immutable characteristic or identity"[1] and that he doesn't think that it really exists.[2]

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