Bronze-level article

Paul Saladino

From RationalWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Paul Saladino
Potentially edible!
Food woo
Icon food.svg
Fabulous food!
Delectable diets!
Bodacious bods!
"It's clearly trying to kill you, kale is bullshit".
—Paul Saladino[1]

Paul Saladino a.k.a. CarnivoreMD (1977–) is an American YouTuber, anti-vegan activist, cholesterol denialist, conspiracy theorist and former carnivore diet advocate who promotes an expensive "animal-based diet" consisting of grass-fed beef, organs, fruit, honey and raw dairy.[2][3] In 2020, Saladino claimed to eat half a lamb testicle everyday and was recommending people to eat raw liver.[4] Saladino makes pseudoscientific YouTube videos arguing that the defence chemicals in vegetables such as cauliflower, chard and kale are toxic and will kill people.[1][5] Saladino also promotes beef organ vitamin supplements.[6]

Saladino was on a carnivore diet for a year and a half or less but still sells copies of his book The Carnivore Code which advocates a strict "nose-to tail" carnivore diet. He has since argued that a ketogenic carnivore diet ruined his health by giving him heart palpitations, low testosterone and muscle cramps but after having a "carbohydrate jesus" moment he added fruit and honey to his diet and his health improved.[2] Saladino is known to criticize certain foods but then add them to his diet. For example, in December 2020 he stated clearly that he cannot tolerate any dairy (pasteurized or raw) and all dairy "is out for him".[7] In October 2021, he also said he cannot eat any dairy.[1] However, less than a year later he was consuming raw dairy and promoting it on his YouTube channel without any explanation to his followers. As of 2023 he consumes raw butter, raw milk and raw cream on a daily basis.[3] He tells people to consume raw cheese and "10 ounces of raw milk kefir (homemade)".[8] He has also made contradictory statements about consuming honey, sweet potatoes and white rice.[9] His diet is expensive and unrealistic for most people. Saladino became a millionaire by promoting his diet and says he spends up to 4 hours a day surfing in Costa Rica.[10][11]

Saladino hosts the "Fundamental Health" podcast and has over 360,000 followers on YouTube.[12][13] In Costa Rica, he spends his time walking around supermarkets with his t-shirts printed with "Kale is bullshit" and "seed oils are bullshit" to seek attention.[1][14] Saladino also buys broccoli and kale, just to throw it around his luxury kitchen and call it "garbage" and "horrible bullshit".[15]

In 2023, Saladino removed CarnivoreMD from his social media accounts and was promoting fermented foods such as pickles.[16][17] Saladino says that he now eats 300grams of carbohydrates a day on his "animal-based diet".[18] He also exaggerates by claiming that he eats raw liver "all the time", which is impossible because if he ate it all the time, he would have died from Vitamin A toxicity.[19] Cardiologists have noted that Saladino's dietary advice of consuming large amounts of red meat is harmful long-term as it increases risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.[20]


Saladino obtained his MD from the University of Arizona.[21][22] He is Board certified in psychiatry.[22] Saladino has stated that he is a "licensed physician in California, but he no longer practices in any state and does not see patients". He makes YouTube videos and sells nutritional supplements.[3]

Saladino was educated in functional medicine, a type of alternative medicine pseudoscience.[23]

Heart & Soil supplements[edit]

Saladino is the founder of Heart & Soil supplements, an animal-based supplement company based in Austin, Texas which has been supported by Dave Asprey and Joseph Mercola.[6][24] His company sells a beef organ supplement for $52.00.[25] All of the supplements have their bone and organ ingredients sourced from "New Zealand farms".[6] This contradicts Saladino's dietary advice about eating locally.

The current director of Saladino's Heart & Soil supplement company is Brian Johnson aka The Liver King, a millionaire YouTuber who has publicly admitted to steroid use and lying to his followers.[24][26][27]

Diet history[edit]

There were many times that I would wake up in the middle of the night with arrhythmias and I thought that I was going to die from this.
—Saladino describing his bad health on the carnivore diet[28]
Saladino's claim that he transitioned to a "strict carnivore diet" after being a raw vegan is contradicted by his own interviews

Most of what Saladino has said about his diet history has been confusing and contradictory. He claims to have started on a paleo diet for 12 years but elsewhere said he was a raw vegan, then gone carnivore with honey but was apparently also on a strict "ketogenic carnivore diet" without consuming honey. He also excluded dairy on his "strict carnivore diet" because his body does not tolerate it to consuming it again without explaining why to his followers. He was also eating sweet potatoes and white rice and then apparently not eating them because he does not tolerate them at all.Do You Believe That? He started consuming fruit and honey after two years of his carnivore diet (or one and half) but also says he was consuming honey from the beginning. Nothing he says makes much sense. Below is Saladino's dietary history which is strongly referenced to his own interviews and videos.

Raw veganism[edit]

Saladino says he was a vegan for seven months of his life.[29] On this diet he said he was only eating raw fruit and vegetables and some nuts but was a "nightmare to be around" because he was farting so much. He says the diet gave him eczema and fatigue. He does not mention if he was supplementing or not but it is obvious that the diet was totally unbalanced. He concluded by saying that on his raw vegan diet he was so skinny that "he couldn't even get a date".[29] He said that after his raw vegan phase he "transitioned to a strict carnivore diet".[29] However, this is contradicted by his claim to have been on a 12 year paleo diet before his carnivore diet.[23]

Paleo diet[edit]

In July 2019, Saladino said that before he started his carnivore diet he had been on a paleo diet for 12 years and was eating 100% organic and although the diet was good for him it did not help his eczema.[23] He then said he went on a low-oxalate paleo diet and a lot of other types of paleo diets before finally trying the carnivore diet.[23]

Carnivore diet[edit]

Saladino started a carnivore diet in late 2018.[30] He said that after several months into the diet his electrolytes and kidney function were normal, he had more energy, strength in the gym and was sleeping well.[30] He described the diet as a "very positive" experience and said it improved his eczema and mood.[30] The type of diet he was promoting was the extreme "nose-to-tail" carnivore diet in which all parts of the animal are eaten, including muscle and organs meats such as the heart, liver, lungs, kidney, brain and skin. In November 2018, Saladino said that he eats every part of the animal as ancestral tribes did[note 1] and this is a key point in getting the carnivore diet "right".[32]

In July, 2019 Saladino said he doesn't consume any plants and he is sticking to his strict "nose-to-tail" carnivore diet.[23] In February 2020, Saladino authored the book The Carnivore Code which promotes a strict "nose-to-tail" carnivore diet.[33] The book tells people to adopt a diet of organ and muscle meats whilst avoiding all fruits, legumes and vegetables as these foods will apparently ruin your health as they are toxic. For example, Saladino authored chapters telling people to avoid flavonoids, lectins and oxalates which are found in plant foods. He also authored a chapter telling people that dietary fiber is a myth and why fiber is not necessary for a healthy gut.[33] He has not removed any of these chapters since adding carbohydrates to his diet.

In May, 2020 he released a near 10-minute video entitled "What CarnivoreMD eats in a day!" which described his diet as consisting of bone broth, bone marrow, raw liver, muscle meats, heart, kidney and lamb testicles, egg yolks and honey.[4] During this time, Saladino also claimed that a carnivore diet can heal many autoimmune diseases, including eczema but provided no scientific evidence.[34]

In July 2020, Saladino debated several paleo diet advocates including Loren CordainWikipedia. In the video, Saladino made the bold claim that he could get every nutrient on a strict "noise-to-tail" carnivore diet and he doesn't need to consume any plant foods.[35] At this time, Saladino also claimed he doesn't eat a "typical" ketogenic diet but did not mention his honey consumption. He cited a website from late 2018 which listed his daily carnivore diet as consisting of large amounts of beef steak, kidney, liver, 8 raw egg yolks, bone meal powder, sea salt, suet and natural mineral water.[35][36] His "nose-to tail" carnivore diet was put onto Cronometer (a nutrition tracker) and was found to be extremely low in vitamin C and manganese and low in Vitamin E and potassium. After his diet was publicly described as low in these nutrients, Saladino said that he takes magnesium and potassium supplements.[36]

However, by this time, Saladino had actually given up the carnivore diet. He said in a June 2020 interview that he had spent "a few months" adding carbohydrates to his diet and had given up being a strict carnivore after one and a half years.[37] In reality, Saladino was probably on a carnivore diet for less than that time.

Saladino advises people to avoid eating chicken on the carnivore diet which he claims is high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and recommends his followers to eat and hunt ruminants such as bison, cows, elk and sheep as they are low in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.[38]

Carnivore diet with dairy[edit]

In July 2019, Saladino said that his body does not tolerate A1 beta-casein found in cow's dairy products so he tried consuming A2 casein found in raw goat and sheep milk but his body cannot tolerate this either as within four days it triggered eczema on his hip and wrists.[39] He concluded by saying that he cannot tolerate dairy at all.[39] In December 2020 he also said all dairy "is out for him" as his cannot tolerate it.[7]

From 2021, Saladino has been consuming A1 dairy products and from 2022 has been promoting a diet high in cow's dairy including raw butter, raw milk and raw cream on a daily basis.[3] He also tells people to consume raw cheese and make their own raw milk kefir.[8] In March 2023, Saladino is promoting goat milk kefir in his video "Animal-Based at Trader Joe" but does not explain his previous comments about not being able to tolerate A2 casein.[40]

Ketogenic carnivore diet[edit]

I wasn't actually ketogenic at all
—Saladino in 2019 claiming he had never been ketogenic on his carnivore diet[23]

Saladino's statements about being in ketosis on his "ketogenic carnivore diet" are contradictory. In a 2019 interview with Mark Sisson, Saladino said he "wasn't actually doing it in a ketogenic way" and that he had never done "full keto" in his life.[23] He said that when he first started the carnivore diet he did not want to get keto flu so he did "carnivore with honey" from the beginning. This contradicts other interviews he has given where he claimed he added fruit and honey to his diet after two years.[23]

After two years of a ketogenic carnivore diet of just meat organs fat and salt, i quit that ketogenic diet and I added fruit and honey to my diet.[2]

The above comment was made by Saladino in August 2022.[2] What he is claiming is clearly not accurate, and is contradicted from former interviews he had given (as cited above). Saladino claimed that he gave up the strict carnivore diet and had to add fruit and honey to his diet because he was suffering from muscle cramps, lack of sleep, heart palpitations, low testosterone, and sexual health problems.[2]

In late 2022, Saladino came out against ketogenic diets and has said they are harmful long-term.[41] Based on his own contradictory statements, it is unlikely that he was on a "ketogenic carnivore diet".

Joe Rogan podcast[edit]

In October 2020, Saladino was a guest on Joe Rogan's podcast where argued for a strict carnivore diet.[42] In the podcast Saladino did not mention his personal fruit consumption and commented that "there are no nutrients in plants that you cannot get from animal foods", he also stated there is no benefit from eating fruit and vegetables and questioned why people eat plants.[43] This was despite the fact by this time he had been consuming fruit for many months.

Saladino's 2023 "animal-based" grocery haul which includes more fruit than animal products

Honey, sweet potatoes and white rice[edit]

Saladino has made contradictory statements about consuming honey, sweet potatoes and white rice. Between April and June 2020, Saladino was feasting on honey, sweet potatoes and other carbohydrates.[37] He stated:

I have found that while ketosis is clearly a very valuable intervention, it works best for me to cycle in and out of this. This way I remain metabolically flexible and my electrolytes stay much more balanced than long term straight ketosis on a zero carb carnivore diet. Can you eat carbohydrates while staying carnivore? I think you can with honey and I’ve been enjoying having this in my diet on some days.[37]

Saladino had admitted to eating sweet potatoes for months in June 2020 and commented that sweet potato is "pretty good for me" and it is a "cool idea" for people to explore it.[37] However, in November 2020 he stated that "some people might be able to tolerate sweet potatoes, I don't tolerate them at all".[44]

In June 2020, Saladino admitted that he had been eating white rice with his "carnivore diet" for months and there "was no limit to the amount of white rice that he could eat".[37][45] By November 2020 he changed his mind and said "white rice has not been so great for me".[44] As of 2023, Saladino no longer mentions how he was consuming white rice for months and none of his followers seem to mention it to him.

In October 2021, Saladino said that he does eat sweet potatoes and squash and included them in his "grocery haul".[1]

In 2023, Saladino added white rice on his website to a "bullshit" list of foods:

White rice has indeed had the bran and germ removed. Health pundits will tell you it’s now good for you, but I call bullshit.
—Paul Saladino[46]

He doesn't mention that he was eating lots of white rice only a few years ago.

Animal-based diet[edit]

Since giving up the carnivore diet due to health concerns, Saladino promotes an "animal-based diet" which includes lots of fruit.

In September 2021, Saladino was eating a diet that consisted of bananas, papaya, rambutan, honey, salt, organs and ribeye steaks.[47] In 2022 his diet contained dates, raw cow's milk, raw heart, raw liver, grass-fed beef, raw butter, raw cream, bananas, olives, papaya, pineapple, avocados and berries.[3][1] Saladino says he does not eat fish, legumes, nuts, poultry, seeds or vegetables.[1][48]

As of 2023, Saladino says he consumes orange juice, honey, raw milk, maple syrup, raw butter, heart, 8 oz burger, mango and cheese, ground beef and bone marrow. He also takes beef organ supplements.[49] In a recent "animal-based" grocery haul, Saladino is promoting dozens of bananas, apples, apricots and grapes with two beef steaks and pasteurized cream.[50] Although he does eat a lot of red meat, it is debatable if Saladino's diet should be termed "animal-based".

In April 2023, Saladino added fermented cucumbers to his diet and incorrectly claimed that "pickles are definitely an animal-based food".[17]

Saladino claims to be the first person in the world to have made a liver smoothie made from beef organs, raw kefir, bananas, blueberries, raw honey and sea salt.[51]


Saladino had a blood test in July 2020.[52] In October 2020, he revealed publicly on the Joe Rogan podcast that his "LDL was very high, it was 533 mg/dL" and that any "mainstream doctors hearing this are wanting to throw daggers at me".[42] There is a broad consensus in the medical community that an optimal LDL should be below 100 mg/dL.[53][54][55][56] His total cholesterol during this time was 647 mg/dL.[52] An optimal total cholesterol should be below 200 mg/dL.[55]

Saladino in July 2022 disputed his 2020 LDL score by claiming the reason it was so high back then was because he did an intense workout a few days before his blood test and there was an "incident" were he was exclusively eating honey.[52]Do You Believe That? It is unlikely he was exclusively eating honey. After incorporating more fruit, rice and sweet potatoes into his high-saturated fat "animal-based diet", Saladino's LDL dropped to 164 mg/dL (which is still high). Saladino claims this is the lowest his LDL has been in 4 years.[52] In regard to his high LDL he said he believes "it is a very poor predictor of cardiovascular risk" and he doesn't worry about LDL.[55] Saladino's LDL-P score (direct measure of low density lipoprotein particles) was also high at 1925 (an optimal LDL-P is below 1000).[57]

Bizarre claims[edit]

Saladino argues against the scientific consensus on most nutritional topics and has made a number of bizarre and pseudoscientific claims unsupported by evidence-based medicine, including:

Toothpaste is "bullshit" because it contains fluoride which is bad for the stomach. All toothpaste in general is not needed and "is all bullshit". Children should not be given toothpaste containing fluoride.[58] Saladino failed to provide scientific evidence for these claims. He cited an off-topic study on aged rats and the pineal gland that used a fluoride-free diet for 4 or 8 weeks. The paper is irrelevant to humans.[59]

As of 2023 there is no reliable data from clinical trials showing that fluoride in toothpaste can affect the pineal gland in humans but the view has been promoted by conspiracy theorists such as Kanye West.[60]

The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Association of Pediatric Dentistry recommend that children use fluoride containing toothpaste to prevent tooth decay.[60][61] Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States and there is strong evidence that fluoride has proven effectiveness in caries prevention.[62]

Saladino's advice for children not to use toothpaste containing fluoride is irresponsible (nearly all toothpastes contain fluoride).

Saladino argues that humans only need to consume a small amount of polyunsaturated fat (n-3 and n-6 PUFA) and they should eat lots of saturated fat. He argues against diets high in polyunsaturated fats as he believes that wild animals contain less polyunsaturated fats than domesticated animals. He has claimed that "evolutionary humans have only ever seen very very low amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in our diet because wild animals don't have polyunsaturated fatty acids to the level that domesticated animals do".[63]The claim is false, and the opposite to what he claims is true. Studies since the 1960s up to the present have shown that domestic meats have higher saturated and lower polyunsaturated lipid levels than wild meats.[64][65][66][67][68] For example, wild game contains five times more polyunsaturated fatty acids than domesticated livestock.[69][70] The polyunsaturated fatty acid profile is higher in meat from pasture-fed and wild animals, compared to pen-fed animals.[71] A 2011 paper noted that "all of the domestic meats had higher saturated and lower polyunsaturated lipid levels than the wild meats."[64]

Chickens have way more polyunsaturated fats in their body than wild birds. Here Saladino is referring to Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Saladino links to a 2004 study in which 192 broiler chickens were fed a combination of 4 levels of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. Saladino claims that "basically this study says that if you feed a chicken corn it will have way more polyunsaturated fatty acid in its body than a wild bird".[72] He also claims that if someone consumes "mainstream chicken fed corn" it is no different than drinking vegetable oil because both are high in n-6 PUFAs.The claim is false and Saladino misrepresents the study that he cited. The 2004 study does not mention corn. If Saladino had read the paper he would have noted that the "gradient of dietary PUFA was achieved by blending different quantities of tallow, linseed oil and fish oil".[73] Linseed oil and fish oil are high in n-3 PUFA (omega-3). It is not a bad idea to put linseed oil in chicken feed as it has been shown to enrich chickens with n-3 PUFA and improve the immune status of chicken flocks to resist diseases.[74] Saladino does not appear to be aware that the saturated fat content of commercial broiler chickens has increased over time.[75][76] A 2016 paper that investigated the fatty acid composition of wild bird meats found that the saturated fat content was lower and the PUFA content was higher than store-bought meats.[77]

LDL cholesterol does not cause or increase the risk of heart disease.[78][79][80]There is strong evidence that high LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) causes atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In 2017, the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel documented a huge volume of medical evidence to date on the topic. They noted that "we have based our conclusions on the totality of evidence from separate meta-analyses of genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized clinical trials. This evidence base includes over 200 studies involving over 2 million participants with over 20 million person-years of follow-up and more than 150 000 cardiovascular events. Together these studies provide remarkably consistent and unequivocal evidence that LDL causes ASCVD".[81] Saladino has not attempted to refute any of the 200 studies in the EAS review.

Consumption of unprocessed red meat does not cause or increase risk of cancer.[82][83]Although few clinical trials have been conducted, there is consistent epidemiological evidence and mechanistic data that red meat increases cancer risk. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified unprocessed red meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A)".[84] This conclusion was based on all of the available data from 22 experts in 10 countries.[85] The American Institute for Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK and World Cancer Research Fund International have stated there is probable evidence that unprocessed red meat is a cause of cancer.[86][87][88] The American Cancer Society have stated that the "evidence that red and processed meats increase cancer risk has existed for decades, and many health organizations recommend limiting or avoiding these foods."[89]

Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, chard, kale (and all cruciferous vegetables) are "bullshit" and should be avoided because once chewed they produce sulforaphane (an isothiocyanate) which is toxic to humans. Kale is "trying to kill you".[1][90][91]Although there are epidemiological studies, very few clinical trials have been conducted on isothiocyanates. No serious adverse effects of isothiocyanates in humans have been reported in the medical literature.[92] Clinical trials on isothiocyanates are limited but the epidemiological evidence is consistent in suggesting a reduced disease risk.[93][94]

Phytochemicals like sulforaphane are antioxidants that cancel out free radicals, thus they are beneficial in the human diet. Sulforaphane which is found in cruciferous vegetables neutralizes toxins, reduces inflammation and may reduce cancer risk.[95] Consumption of cruciferous vegetables is recommended for cancer prevention.[96][97] The American Institute of Cancer Research recommends that people consume cruciferous vegetables regularly.[98] They have also noted that "Brussels sprouts pack fiber and are filled with nutrients and phytochemicals with the potential to stave off cancer. These compounds bolster antioxidant and DNA defenses and promote healthy cell signaling."[99]

Contrary to what Saladino says, there is no evidence that cruciferous vegetables such as kale will try and kill you.

A diet high in saturated fat is good for you and is a "health food".[100][101][102]There is strong evidence from epidemiological studies and clinical trials that higher intakes of saturated fat increase the risk of heart disease.[103][104] A 2019 review by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) who evaluated data from 47 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that higher intakes of saturated fat increase risk of heart disease and there is no need to change current advice that saturated fat should not exceed around 10% of food energy.[103][105]

Oatmeal is "total bullshit" and should be avoided because it contains lectins and phytic acid which decrease the absorption of calcium and zinc. Oat milk is "horseshit".[90][106] There are no adverse effects reported in the medical literature of people consuming oatmeal. For most people consuming a balanced diet, lectins and phytic acid are not a problem. If one is really concerned about phytic acid in oatmeal it can be eliminated by soaking the oats overnight with a tiny amount of apple cider vinegar or lemon juice. Lectins are water-soluble so they can be significantly reduced by cooking and/or soaking.[107] Saladino does not mention that oats contains beta-glucans which have cholesterol-lowering and antidiabetic effects, as well as containing avenanthramides which have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic properties.[108][109][110][111][112][113]

Garlic and turmeric are bad for the gut and will destroy your health.[1][90][114] Saladino claims that garlic is problematic because it produces allicin and contains sulphur compounds which "cause serious damage to the gut".[90] There are some adverse effects reported in the medical literature for garlic consumption including abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea and flatulence but for many people this does not occur. Garlic may also trigger allergic responses in some individuals, including asthma.[115] The sensible thing to do if this occurs is simply not to consume garlic. No adverse effects have been reported on pregnancy outcomes. Saladino's claim that garlic can cause serious damage to the gut is not supported by any clinical evidence. Saladino does not mention that Garlic is rich in antioxidants that may reduce cancer and heart disease risk. Although there are limited clinical trials, there is consistent epidemiological evidence showing that garlic consumption is strongly associated with a reduced risk of gastric and intestinal cancer.[116][117][118]

"Humans do not need supplements". Saladino says that he takes no vitamin supplements as he lives an "ancestral" and "evolutionary" life and although he makes supplements at his company Heart & Soil the supplements should be considered as food.[119] Most people that are eating a balanced diet do not need to take vitamin supplements. Those who may need vitamin supplements include women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and the elderly.[120][121]

Saladino ignores the fact that there is long list of medical issues that predispose people to vitamin deficiencies. For example, individuals who have or are at risk for osteoporosis or those diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (like Crohn’s or ulcerative colitis) may benefit from supplementation.[122]

In 2019, Saladino admitted to taking magnesium and potassium supplements so his claim that he does not take any supplements is false.[36] It is also bizarre to claim that his supplement company is making food rather than supplements as the beef organ capsules he is selling are sold in bottles which contain the words "dietary supplement".[123]

Vegetable and seed oils are toxic. Seed oils "destroy your mitochondria and lead to chronic disease".[124] There is no clinical evidence that seed oils destroy mitochondria or cause chronic disease. Clinical trials and cohort studies have shown that seed oils such as canola and corn oil significantly improve cardiometabolic risk factors such as reducing LDL-c and total cholesterol.[125][126][127][128][129] Clinical trials have shown that by lowering the intake of dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated vegetable oil it can reduce cardiovascular disease to around 30%.[130]

Dietary fibre does not increase gut microbial diversity.[131] Saladino fails to provide any evidence for this claim. Studies have shown that higher fiber intake is associated with increased gut microbial diversity, so like with most things, the opposite to what Saladino claims is true.[132][133][134][135] A 2021 review noted that "If the diet is rich in fibre, the quality of the gut microbiota improves (increased diversity, stability and reduced mucus degrading bacteria), and the mucus layer is re-established".[136]

"There are many foods frequently touted as super healthy for humans, that I strongly believe are a net negative (e.g. leafy greens and whole grains)." Saladino does not back this claim up with any evidence. There is strong evidence in the medical literature that wholes grains decrease colorectal cancer risk.[137][138] A 2019 review which looked at 135 million person-years of data from 185 prospective studies and 58 clinical trials found that high consumption of whole grains reduced all-cause and cardiovascular related mortality, incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke incidence and mortality, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal cancer.[139]

Drinking beer and India pale ale (IPA) gives you "manboobs" because they contain phytoestrogens.[140] As usual, Saladino fails to back up this claim with any evidence. Beer and IPA contain incredibly low doses of phytoestrogens.[140] There is no evidence from the medical literature that they cause "manboobs".

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a "myth" that has been debunked. "There is so much evidence now suggesting that TMAO is not a problem for humans".[141] Contrary to what Saladino claims there is a strong medical consensus that high TMAO concentrations increase risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and all-cause mortality. Practically every systematic review to date on the topic has found increased disease risk from high TMAO concentrations.[142][143][144][145][146] Saladino ignores all of these reviews.


In 2020, Saladino filed a lawsuit against another former carnivore diet advocate and YouTuber Frank Tufano after he made defamatory videos of Saladino that are alleged to contain "sexually graphic and homophobic" images. Tufano also registered a domain name in Saladino's name to divert traffic from his website. Saladino has accused Tufano of unlawful registration of a domain name, deceptive trade practices and defamation.[147][148]

See also[edit]


  1. Tribal peoples also eat a lot of plantstuff. Even the InuitWikipedia would consume the stomach contents of ruminants.[31]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Whole Foods Grocery Haul, with Dr. Paul Saladino
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Why I QUIT Keto
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 CarnivoreMD: What I eat in a day
  4. 4.0 4.1 What CarnivoreMD eats in a day!
  5. What If Plants Aren't Good For You?
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Heart & Soil supplements
  7. 7.0 7.1 Controversial Thoughts: Should you include dairy in your Animal-Based diet?
  8. 8.0 8.1 Animal-Based Guide
  9. Paul Saladino#Honey, sweet potatoes and white rice
  10. Day in The Life, with CarnivoreMD
  11. This is how much fruit I eat
  12. "Fundamental Health with Paul Saladino, MD"
  13. CarnivoreMD
  14. carnivoremd2.0
  15. I ate a vegetable…
  16. carnivoremd
  17. 17.0 17.1 Pickles
  18. Dr. Paul Saladino's Animal-Based Diet 101: A step-by-step guide
  19. How Paul Eat's Raw Liver
  20. Is The Carnivore Diet Safe? Or Does It Cause Cancer and Heart Disease!.
  21. Paul Saladino Biography
  22. 22.0 22.1 Paul G. Saladino, M.D.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 Paul Saladino: Is Nose-to-Tail Carnivore the Optimal Human Diet?
  24. 24.0 24.1 Heart & Soil Supplements
  25. Beef Organs
  26. YouTube ‘primal living’ guru Liver King, who built a $100M fitness empire, admits he’s actually on steroids
  27. The Liver King Lie: Misrepresentation, justification, and public health implications
  28. The Carnivore Diet with Paul Saladino
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Yes, I Was Once a Raw Vegan
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Carnivore Diet Outcome: Does It Work?
  31. "Rethinking the Paleo Diet: Would You Eat the Contents of a Deer’s Stomach?" - Smithsonian Magazine
  32. The Carnivore Diet: 4 Keys to Doing it Right
  33. 33.0 33.1 Saladino, Paul (2020). The Carnivore Code Unlocking the Secrets to Optimal Health by Returning to Our Ancestral Diet. HarperCollins Publishers.
  34. How CARNIVORE DIET healed ECZEMA, BLOATING, GAS, and much more with Dr. Paul Saladino
  35. 35.0 35.1 Is a Carnivore Type Diet the Real Paleo Diet? With Loren Cordain, PhD
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Dr Paul Saladino’s Nose-To-Tail Carnivore Diet
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 I Ate Carbs! Does That Trigger You?
  38. I don’t include chicken in my animal-based diet
  39. 39.0 39.1 Paul Saladino: Is Nose-to-Tail Carnivore the Optimal Human Diet? (from 1:00:18).
  40. Animal-based at Trader Joe’s
  41. Long term keto is harmful for humans
  42. 42.0 42.1 #1551 Paul Saladino
  43. Paul Saladino on the Negative Effects of Eating Too Many Plants
  44. 44.0 44.1 Controversial Thoughts: Which Plants are Most/Least Toxic?
  45. Paul Saladino - Why I Quit the Carnivore Diet & Eat Rice + Fruit Now
  46. Paul Saladino's bullshit list
  47. How I Eat In a Day! 2021 Update
  48. Why I don't eat fish, chicken or pork!
  49. Full Day of Eating 2023 Update!
  50. Animal-based Whole Foods grocery haul
  51. I made a LIVER SMOOTHIE!!
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 52.3 July 2022 Bloodwork Review!
  53. Cholesterol Management Guide
  54. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know
  55. 55.0 55.1 55.2 Cholesterol Numbers and What They Mean
  56. What Are the Normal Cholesterol Levels According to Age?
  57. Lipid Panels
  58. My thoughts on toothpaste
  59. Fluoride-Free Diet Stimulates Pineal Growth in Aged Male Rats
  60. 60.0 60.1 Insufficient evidence to support Kanye West’s claim that fluoride in toothpaste harms the pineal gland
  61. American Academy of Pediatrics: Fluoride Remains a Powerful Tool to Prevent Tooth Decay
  62. Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting
  63. Why Saturated Fat is Healthy and Excess Linoleic Acid is a Metabolic Nightmare
  64. 64.0 64.1 Meat Lipid Profiles: A Comparison of Meat from Domesticated and Wild Southern African Animals
  65. The fatty acid composition of adipose and muscle tissue in domestic and free-living ruminants
  66. Comparative studies on fatty acid composition of wild and domestic meats
  67. The analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat by capillary gas-liquid chromatography
  68. Fat animals-fat humans
  69. Fatty-Acid Ratios In Free-Living and Domestic Animals: Possible Implications for Atheroma
  70. Fatty Acids Composition of Elk, Deer, Roe Deer and Wild Boar Meat Hunted in Latvia
  71. Studies on the Fatty Acid Composition of Intramuscular Lipids of Cattle, Pigs and Birds
  72. Why Saturated Fat is Healthy and Excess Linoleic Acid is a Metabolic Nightmare
  73. Fatty Acid Content in Chicken Thigh and Breast as Affected by Dietary Polyunsaturation Level
  74. Dietary source of polyunsaturated fatty acids influences cell cytotoxicity in broiler chickens
  75. Modern organic and broiler chickens sold for human consumption provide more energy from fat than protein
  76. It's supposed to be lean cuisine. So why is this chicken fatter than it looks?
  77. Fatty acid composition of birds and game hunted by the Eastern James Bay Cree people of Québec
  78. LDL is not causing heart disease
  79. Why I don’t worry about my “elevated” LDL
  80. Why I don't worry about my cholesterol
  81. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. 1. Evidence from genetic, epidemiologic, and clinical studies. A consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel
  82. Does red meat cause cancer?
  83. Misconceptions on red meat and cancer
  84. Mechanistic evidence for red meat and processed meat intake and cancer risk: A follow-up on the International Agency for Research on Cancer Evaluation of 2015
  85. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat: What about environmental contaminants?
  86. "Does eating processed and red meat cause cancer?" (in en). 25 June 2019. 
  87. "Red Meat (Beef, Pork, Lamb): Increases Risk of Colorectal Cancer" (in en-US). 
  88. "Limit red and processed meat" (in en-US). 
  89. Rock, Cheryl L.; Thomson, Cynthia; Gansler, Ted; Gapstur, Susan M.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Patel, Alpa V.; Andrews, Kimberly S.; Bandera, Elisa V. et al. (2020). "American Cancer Society guideline for diet and physical activity for cancer prevention". CA 70 (4): 245–271. doiWikipedia:10.3322/caac.21591. PMID 32515498. 
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 Paul Saladino's Bullshit list
  91. Controversial Thoughts: How broccoli could be bad for you
  92. Isothiocyanates
  93. Are isothiocyanates potential anti-cancer drugs?
  94. Isothiocyanate from Broccoli, Sulforaphane, and Its Properties
  95. Sulforaphane benefits: How broccoli and Brussels sprouts may help reduce your cancer risk
  96. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention
  97. Broccoli and other cruciferous veggies can significantly lower cancer risks
  98. Broccoli and Cruciferous Vegetables: Reduce Overall Cancer Risk
  99. Brussels Sprouts: Nutrition Facts
  100. How We've Been Lied to About Saturated Fat
  101. Saturated fat from animals is GOOD for you
  102. Why Saturated Fat is Healthy and Excess Linoleic Acid is a Metabolic Nightmare
  103. 103.0 103.1 Saturated fats and health
  104. Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease
  105. SACN's 'Saturated fats and health' Report
  106. Paul Saladino on oatmeal
  107. Lectins
  108. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan
  109. Effect of 6 weeks' consumption of β-glucan-rich oat products on cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolaemic overweight adults
  110. A Review of Health-Beneficial Properties of Oats
  111. Global review of heart health claims for oat beta-glucan products
  112. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review
  113. Avenanthramides are bioavailable and have antioxidant activity in humans after acute consumption of an enriched mixture from oats
  114. Controversial Thoughts: Turmeric is BS!
  115. Garlic
  116. Aged Garlic and Cancer: A Systematic Review
  117. Association and mechanism of garlic consumption with gastrointestinal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis
  118. Phytochemicals of garlic: Promising candidates for cancer therapy
  119. Humans do not need supplements
  120. Vitamin and mineral supplements - what to know
  121. Do I need vitamin supplements?
  122. What patients — and doctors — need to know about vitamins and supplements
  123. Beef organs
  124. How Seed Oils Destroy Your Mitochondria and Lead To Chronic Disease, with Tucker Goodrich
  125. The effects of Canola oil on cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis with dose-response analysis of controlled clinical trials
  126. Corn oil improves the plasma lipoprotein lipid profile compared with extra-virgin olive oil consumption in men and women with elevated cholesterol: Results from a randomized controlled feeding trial
  127. Corn Oil Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Compared with Coconut Oil in Adults with Above-Desirable Levels of Cholesterol in a Randomized Crossover Trial
  128. Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality
  129. Cooking oil/fat consumption and deaths from cardiometabolic diseases and other causes: prospective analysis of 521,120 individuals
  130. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association
  131. My Feelings About Fiber
  132. Gut microbiome diversity and high-fibre intake are related to lower long-term weight gain
  133. The Impact of Dietary Fiber on Gut Microbiota in Host Health and Disease
  134. Dietary fiber intake, the gut microbiome, and chronic systemic inflammation in a cohort of adult men
  135. Dietary Fibre Modulates the Gut Microbiota
  136. Interactions between dietary fibre and the gut microbiota
  137. Wholegrains, vegetables, fruit and cancer risk
  138. Wholegrains, vegetables, fruit and cancer risk
  139. Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
  140. 140.0 140.1 Layne Norton on Paul Saladino
  141. TMAO is not a problem for humans
  142. Schiattarella GG, Sannino A, Toscano E, Giugliano G, Gargiulo G, Franzone A, Trimarco B, Esposito G, Perrino C. (2017). "Gut microbe-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide as cardiovascular risk biomarker: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis". European Heart Journal 38 (39): 2948–2956. doiWikipedia:10.1093/eurheartj/ehx342. PMID 29020409. 
  143. Guasti L, Galliazzo S, Molaro M, Visconti E, Pennella B, Gaudio GV, Lupi A, Grandi AM, Squizzato A. (2021). "TMAO as a biomarker of cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Intern Emerg Med 16 (1): 201–207. doiWikipedia:10.1007/s11739-020-02470-5. PMID 32779113. 
  144. Zhang H, Yao G. (2023). "Significant correlation between the gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide and the risk of stroke: evidence based on 23 observational studies". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 (7): 731-740. doiWikipedia:10.1038/s41430-022-01104-7. PMID 35468932. 
  145. Gut Microbiota Metabolites and Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Disease Events and Death: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
  146. Gut microbiota-associated trimethylamine N-oxide and increased cardiometabolic risk in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis
  147. Homophobic slur charged in lawsuit of bicoastal carnivores’ fight for diet dominance
  148. Saladino, MD v. Frank Tufano (7:20-cv-09346)