Abrahamic religious glossary
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The Abrahamic religious glossary is a glossary of important terms in the Abrahamic religions as a whole and also within specific religions.
- 1 General terms
- 2 Christian terms
- 3 Jewish terms
- 4 Muslim terms
- 5 References
These terms are used by all the Abrahamic religions
Adam was the first human created by God. He lived in the Garden of Eden before he ate the forbidden fruit.
Eve was the wife of Adam and was created from his rib. She took the forbidden fruit and ate it when they lived in the Garden of Eden.
God is the most powerful entity of all in the Abrahamic religions. Christians call him (or her or it or them) God or their language's equivalent, though The Lord is a synonym. Jews call him Adonai, because they will not say יהוה (Eloah) when praying or reading the Torah. Hashem is used in contexts outside of religious services. Muslims call him Allah among many other names. He created the world.
The other underworldly realm. It's where the saved and holy go to rest in the afterlife. How one gets into heaven is a matter of debate amongst religious scholars and denominations, but usually involves some form of blind faith.
Hell is the underworld in Abrahamic mythology, it's where sinners and nonbelievers (aka the "damned") go to dwell in the afterlife. There is some disputes over what the nature of Hell is like among the different Abrahamic religions and sects, all that can be agreed upon is that is is a place of "spiritual separation from God."
The Immaculate Conception is the idea that the Virgin Mary was not conceived with original sin, as believed in by Catholics.t
The Holy Ghost is one of the three "persons" of the Trinity or "Godhead" (explained below). The Holy Ghost or "Holy Spirit" typically refers to the more impersonal aspects of God, the more "spiritual" aspects as it were. Oneness Pentecostals, being Unitarian, believe the Holy Ghost to be merely another aspect of the singular God.
Jesus is the supposed Messiah according to Muslims and Christians, but is viewed as a fraud and impostor by the Jews. Jesus is the central figure and namesake of Christianity and is the predecessor to Muhammad according to Muslims. He was supposedly crucified, went to Hell for three days, and resurrected to atone for mankind's sins.
The orthodox Christian dogma that God is somehow one being comprised in three persons. They are God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost. Commonly gets accused of being polytheistic by other Abrahamics. Muslims in particular call the Trinity shirk, loosely translated as either "idolatry" or "polytheism."
The somehow heterodox tenet that God is a singular person, with the three persons of the Godhead being merely different aspects of the same person: God. This is more classically monotheist than Trinitarian Christianity, but is somehow heterodox all the same.
Hanukkah, also spelled Chanukah, is a Jewish holiday commemorating when a small amount of oil burned until new oil could be made to supply a light in the Temple. Latkes and sufganiyot are often eaten over its eight days.
Sukkot is the 15th day of Tishrei. It is a Jewish holiday that commemorates when the Jews lived in sukkot, meaning booths, after the Exodus. Booths are built in which the celebrants will live and eat.
Yom Kippur is the Jewish holiday on the 10th day of Tishrei. It is a day of atonement where Jews go and pray at the synagogue.
Mecca is the holiest place in Islam, it's where Muhammad was born and where he started his religion. Every Muslim has a duty to partake in the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in their lifetime. All Muslims are buried in the direction towards Mecca.
Muhammad was the founder of Islam and the supposed "last prophet" fulfilling the prophecies put forth by Jesus or Isa according to Islamic lore. He was an illiterate merchant warlord who unified the Arabs and is ranked as being one of the most influential persons in history. Unlike Jesus he isn't viewed as divine, merely "divinely inspired."
Tawhid is the Islamic doctrine that there is "no god but god," ie monotheism in a nutshell. Islam ironically is closer to traditional Judaism in its theology and practices than Christianity is, and pure monotheism counts among the similarities.