| Needles are scary|
|Pricks against pricks|
| Poetry of reality|
|We must know. |
We will know.
|A view from the|
shoulders of giants.
The HPV shot is a vaccine that immunizes against various forms of human papillomavirus (HPV), depending on which vaccine you get. There are three vaccines currently in existence: a nonavalent shot, a quadrivalent shot, and a bivalent shot. The vaccine is relatively recent; the first shot became available in the United States in 2006. The shot is so pivotal that it is currently on the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines. Additionally, HPV vaccines are recommended as part of routine vaccinations in all countries by World Health Organization. Inoculation to HPV is currently accessible in over 100 countries.
- 1 What is HPV?
- 2 The vaccines
- 3 Laws and public opinion
- 4 Effectiveness
- 5 Reactions and debunking
- 6 Conclusion
- 7 In a nutshell
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
What is HPV?
Human Papillomavirus is an incredibly common viral disease spread through skin-to-skin contact. Usually, but not always, this transmission is through sex. Terrifyingly, HPV can be transmitted as a cross-infection from routine hospital procedures even when disinfection protocols are followed. As a result, it's estimated that nearly 80,000,000 Americans have at least one strain of it, making it the most common STD in the United States. Additionally, more than half of infections in the US occur among those between 15 and 24 years of age. A study published February 28, 2007 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) estimated that the HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18) targeted by the vaccine are present in about 3.4% of women in the United States, as measured by vaginal swab. HPV typically goes away on its own, but occasionally it does not and is able to cause malignant complications. In fact, human papillomavirus is a group of more than 100 related viruses, more than 40 of which affect the genital area. About a dozen variants can also cause cancers, some of which include oropharyngeal, anal, penile, and vulvar cancers.The HPV viruses that are the most cancer-causing include variants 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68, some of which can be prevented by the HPV vaccine.[note 1] HPV is able to cause anogenital warts (also called genital warts), causing tiny warts to appear on the hands, feet, and in the genital area. Finally, the infection can also cause the development of precancerous cervical lesions—so it's vital to get the vaccine. Most who are infected with Human papillomavirus are asymptomatic, so you could have sexual intercourse with someone who's infected with human papillomavirus and they'd never know that they are infecting you.
High rates of HPV are present in other countries too. Over 70% of sexually active Canadians will have been infected by HPV once in their lifetimes. In Brazil, the rate of cervical HPV was at 25.41%, anal HPV was at 25.68%, oral HPV was at 11.89%, and penile HPV was at 36.21%, all high percentages. In Australia, it is predicted that the amount of Australians who have been infected by HPV in the past are at a whopping 80%, a supermajority of Australians.
Whilst there are treatments for anogenital warts, cervical cancer, and cervical changes — the health problems that can result from previous HPV infection — there is no cure for the virus itself. That's how truly pivotal HPV vaccination is. Furthermore, it is possible to treat genital warts while remaining infected by Human Papillomavirus, allowing transmission of the infection to other people. Unsurprisingly, a higher likelihood of infection with HPV is associated with having had sex when young, having had many sex partners, and/or having a sex partner who themselves has had many sex partners.
The HPV vaccine does not directly protect against other sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, herpes, hepatitis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, etc). However, diseases have increased transmission rates when the person's immune system is already weakened by another infection, so this vaccine, or any other vaccine for that matter, would in fact slightly reduce the chance of transmitting an unrelated infection such as HIV. The vaccine is recommended for use by boys, girls, men, and women ages 9 through 26, except for anyone who is undergoing pregnancy.
The vaccine is not by any means a substitute for cervical screening. HPV is known to cause 690,000 new cancer cases per year internationally, of this number more than 560,000 cases are cervical cancers. The vaccine gives you immense protection against most HPV-related cancers, but there are still HPV viruses that can give you cervical cancer of which aren't shielded off by any of the HPV vaccines. Recall that there are more than 100 HPV viruses, and at most, you can immunize yourself from nine of them. Regular cervical screening reduces your risk of developing cervical cancer by 90%. For people with cervixes, it is best that they inject themselves with the HPV vaccine and regularly get cervical screenings to receive the best protection from cervical cancer.
All three HPV vaccines are presented in order regarding how many variations of HPV they defend the immunized patient from. Two out of the three were developed by Merck & Co (Both are known as Gardasil). There are no other vaccines than these three, anybody who says they got a different Human Papillomavirus vaccine is erred. The availability of these vaccines varies between countries—for instance, as mentioned previously, Gardasil® 9 is the only receivable HPV vaccine in the United States.
Cervarix® 2vHPV is a bivalent vaccine that immunizes the patient from Human Papillomavirus types 16 and 18, both of which are extremely deadly. The vaccine is obtainable through either a vial or a prefilled syringe. The HPV cancers this shot fortifies your body from consist of both cervical and anal cancers. Cervarix concurrently secures you from precancerous lesions in the genital areas. Human Papillomavirus types 16 and 18 are at fault for 70% of cervical cancers, plus 90% of anal cancers. So, this vaccine significantly decreases your chances of being diagnosed with anal and cervical cancers—although your best option would be Gardasil 9, as it protects you from 7 additional types of HPV. The shot has proteins of which are fabricated in virus-like particles, and the vaccine is made with MPL (Monophosphoryl Lipid A). Both MPL and the virus-like particles are affixed onto an aluminum compound; this is done to greatly proliferate immunity against types 16 and 18 of HPV. Typical side effects of the shot include muscle pain, redness and swelling, tiredness, headaches, and reactions at the location of said injection. These side effects are patently mild, hence the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Nonetheless, the protection is good but not perfect, for the shot does not provide protection against all HPV diseases, as mentioned previously. There are considerably more than just two HPV viruses—albeit, not a single vaccine is currently able to prevent all HPV diseases. People with cervices aren't going to be quite as immune if they've engaged in sexual activity prior to vaccination—ergo, the protection may not be gained by all participants. Thus, it's a good idea to continue receiving Pap smears, even after vaccination. For this shot, there is a two-dose schedule that must ensue before you are fully inoculated, as long as you are under the age of 15; if you are over that, you must get three injections as opposed to just two.[note 2]
Gardasil®,[note 3] protects against types 6, 11, 16 and 18 of the human papillomavirus (HPV). These strains of HPV have been associated with 70 percent of cervical cancer cases, and may also play a role in the development of other types of cancer. In June 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil—the first HPV vaccine—based on observance of elevated antibody levels in a double-blind clinical trial involving over 20,000 subjects. In addition to cancer, HPV can also cause other unwanted diseases such as genital warts. It is a common virus that is easily spread during sexual contact.
Gardasil® 9 is currently the only HPV vaccine accessible in the United States, specifically, because it protects you from Human Papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; aka, it shields you from five additional types of HPV. It is approved for people of all genders from ages 9 to 45, and it protects you from HPV viruses that cause genital warts, a plethora of cancers (such as cancers of the cervical, vaginal, and vulvic areas), and from some other conditions. For those aged 9-14, you only need two shots of Gardasil 9; but for those aged 15-45, and/or those who are immunocompromised of any age, they require three shots of Gardasil 9 to become fully immunized. As reiterated earlier, this is your best option as it immunizes you from the most amount of vaccine-preventable HPV viruses.
The only people who are unable to get the Gardasil vaccines are those who are severely allergic to yeast, as yeast is one of the ingredients used in both the quadrivalent and 9-valent vaccines. Surely, all the conservatives who decry the shot being dangerous have severe yeast allergies and are acting in total rationality. Pregnant people also aren't able to get the shots until gestation ceases.
Nevertheless, all three vaccines protect you from Human Papillomavirus types 16 and 18, which together cause the majority of HPV cancers. HPV types 6 and 11 cause 90% of genital warts, which are both thwarted off by the two Gardasil shots. HPV types 16 and 18 cause about 70% of recorded cervical cancers (which is by far the most frequent HPV-related disease), and these are covered by the Cervarix® bivalent shot and the Gardasil® 9-valent shot. Rates of cervical cancers in the world are ominously high, and the hysteria against HPV vaccination only serves to proliferate this problem. HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 all are labeled as high-risk HPV (high-risk human papillomavirus), meaning they can cause several types of cancer easily.
HPV vaccines are injected into the body just like any other vaccine. The inoculation stimulates antibodies, and this causes a build-up of immunity to HPV. The vaccines are currently based on virus-like particles (VLPs). This may sound hazardous at first, but since VLPs lack the virus's DNA, they are unable to be pathogenic. VLPs have a strong semblance to the natural virus, and they are extremely immunogenic, which is precisely why the vaccine has such a high efficacy rate.
Laws and public opinion
The public has been somewhat ambivalent when it comes to the Human Papillomavirus vaccine. Since there is an omnipresence of stigma regarding sex, a vaccine that immunizes constituents from an STI has received rather lukewarm responses, especially among conservative crowds. Despite a goal of immunizing 80% of the United States population to various HPV viruses, only 54% of the population of the United States is vaccinated as of 2019. Unsurprisingly, studies show that misinformation about the vaccine vastly influenced parents' views of the inoculation to HPV. In the United States, public opinion seems to waver with HPV vaccine policies based on its scientific certainty or uncertainty. Only five jurisdictions in the United States (Rhode Island, Virginia, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico) require HPV vaccination for school attendance.
Unsurprisingly, requirements to get vaccinated to attend school in the United States were found to increase the usage of the HPV vaccine, likely because there was no opt-out option with the introduction of a mandatory vaccine passport. What this indicates is that mandatory vaccination once again proves to be an effective solution to anti-vaccine hysteria.
The opinions of HPV vaccination in Europe are particularly eye-raising, as vaccine misinformation, concerns over the safety of immunization, issues of trust, and a wide variety of other problems dominate in Europe. It has become tremendously bad in this continent; for example in Romania, the campaign for HPV vaccination that started in 2008 was discontinued in 2014 due to public mistrust. Vaccine hesitancy does not in all cases result in vaccine refusal, but nonetheless, it's still a fallacious attitude to the vaccine.
In case that wasn't enough to agonize you, a survey conducted by JAMA Pediatrics found that as many as 25%, or one-fourth, of parents who refused to inoculate their children with the HPV vaccine, cited adverse reactions as the main reason for refusal.
The rates of those who are up-to-date with the HPV vaccine in the United States, aka those with at least 2 doses of the vaccine, have begun to stagnate over time, with HPV-UTD rates in most US states below 50%.
As of the year 2017, only 22 states in the United States had laws that authorized pharmacists to inoculate cohorts with the human papillomavirus vaccine in the 11-12 age group, which is particularly absurd because the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention themselves specifically aims at vaccinating preadolescent children.[note 4]
An actual issue with the HPV vaccine concerns not the vaccine itself but the unequal access to it. Lower and middle-income countries receive much fewer doses compared to their richer counterparts. This certainly curtails efforts to eradicate most cervical cancers as many people are unable to have access to the vaccine. In response, the two companies that sell vaccines—both Merck and GlaxoSmithKline—reduced the prices for the vaccines to less than $5 (USD) per dose in poorer countries.
A study conducted in 2012 concluded that less than half of poor and minority adolescents in the United States underwent vaccination for HPV; only 20 percent of these adolescents even completed the vaccination series. The low rates of HPV vaccination in poor and minority adolescents could possibly inflame class and racial disparities in cervical cancer incidence.
The HPV vaccines, as they all currently stand, have shown to be very effective in those that are injected with them. Bear in mind that the vaccine is somewhat new; it would be absurd to expect studies on the HPV jab spanning several decades, as the vaccine first became available in 2006. Despite these difficulties, as it currently stands, the HPV vaccine has been shown to work wonderfully well; sometimes even better than previously anticipated.
The nonvalent vaccine, Gardasil 9, provides almost 100% protection for all the HPV virus types it covers; those being HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58-as long as you receive doses at the precise intervals-and if you haven't been exposed to any of these nine HPV viruses beforehand. It is anticipated that the immunity shall be long-lasting, and the vaccine still offers nearly 100% protection after major vaccine studies in 2003. The vaccine has also shown to reduce the rates of pre-cancer in the cervix and genital warts.
Merck manufactures the HPV vaccine (Gardasil) and sells it for $360 ($120 per shot in a three-shot series). Its package insert explains the limitations of the vaccine and describes its testing for safety and efficacy.
In a decade after 2006 in the United States, quadrivalent type HPV infections fell by 86 percent in AFAB teenagers and by 71 percent in AFAB twentysomethings. It also has shown that rates of genital warts and cervical precancers have fallen in correlation with the HPV vaccine. This situation is also observable in other nations with HPV vaccine programs. Studies of the bivalent (Cervarix) and quadrivalent (Gardasil) vaccines over a period of a decade have shown no sign of decreasing protection.
In AFAB individuals in-between the ages of 14 to 19, the four variants of HPV covered by the quadrivalent vaccine were at 11.5 percent from 2003 to 2006, and fell to 4.3 percent from 2009-2012. That is a decrease of 64 percent in just a few years. Concurrently, those four variants saw an 18.5 percent prevalence amongst AFAB individuals in-between the ages of 20 and 24 from 2003-2006, and this fell to 12.1 percent in 2009-2012; a decrease of 34 percent.
Putting all of the seemingly perpetual data aside, it may still seem unnecessary to get vaccinated from HPV to many people, particularly for those who aren't sexually active. Some might even go to proclaim that "alternatives" are better. So then, what is with these proposed "alternative" ways of avoiding HPV infection? Do they hold any water?
Alternative means of protection against cervical cancer include abstinence, and condom use, which does not provide absolute protection, but does significantly reduce the likelihood of HPV transmission. This still is inferior compared to HPV vaccination as these methods of HPV prevention are never guaranteed to protect you. Let's be in earnest, which do you suppose is less risky—taking a vaccine, or praying to god that you won't become very horny after a while?
However, these aren't the only supposed alternatives; HPV infection can be detected via a Pap smear, which is effective if done regularly—but it does not prevent infection, rather it allows for treatment to prevent progression from infection to cancer. So Pap smears aren't better than vaccination because they cannot hinder any HPV infections. Furthermore, HPV is transmitted via skin-to-skin contact, which does not require sexual activity to take place. Finally, rape is entirely possible, and in that terrible situation, you cannot be protected from HPV without the vaccine.
An issue that should be obvious by now is that all of these alternatives are inherently flawed. None of these "alternatives" will create antibodies,[citation NOT needed] nor will they ever be recommended in place of the vaccine. So, you shouldn't sacrifice HPV vaccination for any of these things.
Omitting all the aforementioned, debunked alternatives, the following is a list of real alternatives to the HPV vaccine.
Reactions and debunking
The long-term consequences of the HPV vaccine are not known and there have not yet been any long-term studies-however, as it currently stands, the vaccine has shown no signs of being hazardous. Children in the 9-year-old age group have been monitored for 18 months, and there have been no studies of possible longer-term risks of the vaccine. Between June 2006 and March 2014, there were 25,063 reports of adverse events compared to 67 million vaccinations with 92.4% of the adverse effects being non-serious. Under clinical trial conditions, the reports of adverse or severe reactions were not any higher for those receiving the vaccine versus those receiving a placebo.
Despite an absurdly excessive amount of research that of which has proven every one of the three currently available HPV vaccines--Gardasil® 9, Gardasil®, and Cervarix®, do not cause serious, life-threatening adverse effects, are effective and safe and are forms of cancer prevention, this has been unable to halt cranks from contending that the vaccine is tremendously dangerous and not worth receiving. A common tactic is to point to a random reaction to the vaccine as proof that this shot must be prohibited. Some of the side effects of which are caused by the HPV vaccine include headaches, redness at the spot of injection, nausea, syncope, etc.But what is commonly ignored is that the side effects which occur after a vaccination shot are totally normal, and they occur as immune responses to the administration of a said vaccine. However, because the HPV vaccine has been stamped as a threat by the anti-vaccination crowd, adverse reactions may seem like a confirmation of their erroneous beliefs.
Conservative fear-mongering has brought about a multitude of different accusations too--archetypically ones that point to a random condition (e.g., Guillain-Barre syndrome) and immediately claiming that the HPV vaccine itself can cause these conditions to materialize. While this may be a brilliant scare-tactic that is effective temporarily, when looked at skeptically these arguments almost instantaneously fall apart at once.
To make matters worse, there's one other substantial problem; physicians don't avidly encourage HPV vaccination. A study conducted in 2015 found as much as 27 percent or more than one-fourth of physicians do not strongly encourage the HPV vaccine or give HPV vaccine recommendations to AFAB individuals (26 percent refusal) and AMAB individuals (39 percent refusal). In case that wasn't enough to rankle you, 59 percent take a risk-based approach to HPV vaccination. And 51 percent do not recommend same-day vaccination, which can easily allow the HPV vaccine to be neglected.
A repeated myth presented by those who oppose the HPV vaccine is that the injection has links to infertility. For example, from 2014 to 2017 there were three reports that somehow the HPV vaccine resulted in the loss of fertility, specifically premature menopause/premature ovarian failure (POI). Nonetheless, it was later determined to be nothing more than gossip. There was indeed a temporal association of these three cases to inoculation, but there was no causal association between the vaccine and ovarian failure. There is no evidence that the vaccine can cause infertility. For example, a study conducted in 2018 on 199,078 people who of which were able to conceive found absolutely zero association between HPV vaccination and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). In truth, despite what you may commonly hear, when it comes to infertility the same goes for HPV itself--HPV infection is not known to engender infertility, in contrast to most STIs when left untreated. In a nutshell, various strains of HPV are able to increase one's risk of developing cervical cancer, and removing precancerous or cancerous cells can affect one's fertility.
In an ironic twist for those who trumpeted a casual association between infertility and the HPV vaccine, the shot is theorized to literally improve fertility rather than reduce it, since the inoculation will be able to prevent precancerous and cancerous cells from developing in the cervix as a result of previous HPV infection.[note 5]
A more monotonous myth is one that speculates that the immunity the vaccine provides wanes over time—claiming that the antibodies produced supposedly become ineffective, ergo making your protection from HPV diminish in just a few years. In that hypothetical case, it could be argued that the vaccine is not something to bother taking. Sadly for this myth, there is not a shred of evidence to suggest the vaccine's protection wanes over time. In fact, the antibodies that are gained from HPV vaccines are actually rather strong. The vaccines are known to be extremely immunogenic and more than 98% of patients develop an antibody response a little over a month after the full completion of an HPV vaccination series. [note 6] In one of the many examples, a study done on the quadrivalent vaccine for 14 years showed no signs of waning protection in inoculated people.
You also must consider for a nanosecond how silly it is to suggest that all research on a vaccine-research that has concluded the HPV vaccine to be overwhelmingly safe—managed to never notice supposed weak protection or rapidly diminishing protection. If that were to have been the case, literally every single medical institution would have taken action immediately once it became evident that the vaccine was sub-par.
Anti-vaccination votaries tend to habitually proselytize a link between vaccination and chronic diseases, which includes autoimmune disorders (which are typically chronic) and ergo argue that to prevent said chronic condition one must abstain from inoculation. As anticipated, this couldn't be further from the truth.[note 7] Studies on the HPV vaccine, in particular, show no correlation and causation between autoimmune disorders and HPV immunization. The reports of autoimmune disorders occurring after HPV vaccination among AFAB individuals are consistent with the rate of autoimmune disorders among all people in this age group.[note 8]
A commonly recited myth regarding HPV vaccines is a rather licentious one-some conservatives oppose the use of Gardasil on young girls on the basis that it could discourage sexual abstinence and ergo promote promiscuity. This led to political issues for Rick Perry, who initially supported mandatory vaccinations against HPV before members of his base pressured him to change his mind. The Promiscuity argument is not unique to HPV, Conservatives have a long history of using the threat of disease to push for their own values on human sexuality, or opposing important medical advances for similar reasons.
It should be obvious that this concern has no bearing on reality. Various studies have concluded that promotion of the HPV vaccine, including in schools, has no connection to increased teenage sexual activity. A study conducted in Canada, particularly with regards to a school HPV vaccine program that was implemented from 2003 to 2013 in British Columbia, found that sexual activity stayed the same or even decreased after patients were immunized with the vaccine.[note 9] Given this, one could only assume that the people opposing the HPV vaccine secretly have a fetish for genital warts.[citation NOT needed]
This also ignores that HPV infections can and do occur from non-sexual activity. Even if you are completely abstinent, you could still catch HPV from other means, so even if you are a completely isolated, self-centered loner it's still to your advantage that you and everyone else gets vaccinated.
This myth ignores yet another fact-The reason that people are commonly vaccinated at a young age is simple; it immunizes cohorts to HPV before their sex life begins. Once you get infected by one of the variants that the HPV vaccine covers, it's over; you can't get immunized from that particular variant (however, the vaccine is still recommended as there are other HPV variants you can still become immunized to). Plus, the vaccine produces the strongest immune responses in preteens, therefore it's best that you get inoculated between the ages of 9-12.
In a nutshell
A common rebuttal might entail an anti-vaxxer mentioning that at most nine strains of HPV are prevented by the jab. This blatantly ignores the fact that of these nine strains, all have been linked to over 90 percent of genital warts cases and over 70 percent of anal and cervical cancers. You also must consider that for a disease that has over 100 known strains, it is quite the feat to assail nine deadly viruses of the group with merely two or three doses of Gardasil 9.[note 10]
Certain individuals might attempt to impugn the HPV vaccine via unabashedly proclaiming it causes blood clots. However, there is no increased risk of blood clots in those inoculated with the HPV vaccine. In one notable example, a study that involved half a million vaccinated Danish found no increased risk of blood clots. Another study was conducted in Denmark and Sweden, which also found no increased risk of blood clots among the vaccinated. Blood clots can happen to anyone for a myriad of reasons. Vaccines do not increase the chances of someday getting a blood clot.
Complex regional pain syndrome
Complex regional pain syndrome (abbreviated as "CRPS") is a variant of chronic pain that affects a certain area (usually on an arm or leg) that tends to develop after surgery, injury, stroke, or heart attack. Because it is chronic, this condition cannot be cured. Despite the definition that was just given, some people purport that the HPV vaccine caused CRPS in some patients.[note 11] There is no evidence to suggest that the HPV vaccine causes complex regional pain syndrome. Here's the thing about complex regional pain syndrome; it's indeed a rare event, and it typically develops after a surgery, injury, stroke, or heart attack-but we don't actually know what causes it. So to say that the vaccine causes complex regional pain syndrome is already incorrect ab initio because no one clearly knows what the cause of CRPS is. The site of injection can be painful for many, but the pain goes away on its own. Because it does this, it isn't chronic.[citation NOT needed]
Some try to bring up that HPV vaccine research was initially done on pre-cancers that resulted from HPV, but not cancers themselves. This might seem like a reasonable exposé of HPV vaccine research, until one realizes that anybody who uses this argument probably has no understanding of time. HPV cancers can take decades to develop, so initial clinical trials were managed using pre-cancers as the endpoint of the research. After continued monitoring and more research, it was confirmed that the rates of HPV cancers decreased among those vaccinated with the HPV shots.
Another claim that's made by those who flaunt anti-vaccination quackery professes a linkage between HPV vaccination and Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is easy to debunk; studies conducted by the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GAVCS) have found no increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome in recipients of the HPV vaccine. Guillain-Barré syndrome is brought up by opponents to any vaccine as a scare tactic, so you might come across this claim if you monitor anti-vaccine spaces.
Some who oppose HPV vaccines have taken their farcical logic to such a degree that they resort to alleging the vaccines can cause death. Indeed, there have been cases of deaths after inoculation, but this assumes that the death was caused by the vaccine, and there is no evidence to suggest this. Remember, 100.00% of people will die within two centuries of been born.[citation NOT needed]
Again, HPV-related cancer kills thousands of people each year, and HPV spreads so easily that even abstinence is not a guarantee of protection.
Imagine you are in a burning building. Sure, there's some bizarre scenario if you leave you would slip on the stairs and die, but do you believe you are safer staying put in a burning building and hoping the firefighters put it out before you burn to death?
In dramatic (or rather, unsurprising) contrast to what the right-wing has argued, all three HPV vaccines are not hazardous in the slightest. Depending on which vaccine you get, you are either protected from two, four, or nine variants of HPV, and of these, they are the most dangerous viruses in the HPV group. The vaccine has been tested for years and it's evident that the jab is overwhelmingly effective and safe; vaccines do not impair fertility, they don't result in neurological problems such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, they don't cause blood clots, they won't make you more promiscuous, and they won't kill you. The hysteria against the HPV vaccine is not just connected to anti-vaccination movements but the panic can also be attributed to poor education on sex, that leads people to not consider HPV as a major threat to health. Perhaps the most terrifying aspect of this is not that people deny the seriousness of HPV, but that so many people are outright oblivious to the mere existence of HPV, and thus are not inclined to get vaccinated. If you want to try your hardest at eradicating cancer to some degree, get the HPV vaccine.
In a nutshell
|"How the HPV vaccine works" (WHO Regional Office for Europe)|
|“The HPV Vaccine, and Why Your Kids Should Get It” (Healthcare Triage)|
- Vaccine hysteria
- Religiously motivated medical neglect
- Conservapedia:HPV vaccine FAQ
- Sexually transmitted disease
- Politicization of science
- "The 14 most cancer-causing HPV types include types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68. Types 16 and HPV 18 are most commonly associated with the development of cancer, together accounting for about 70% of invasive cervical cancers. However, not all infections with HPV 16 or 18 do progress to cancer. In addition, HPV 16 is strongly associated with anal cancer and throat cancer."
- "Bivalent HPV vaccine:37 For girls and boys aged 9–14 years, a 2-dose schedule (0.5 mL at 0 and 5–13 months) is recommended. If the age at the time of the first dose is ≥15 years, 3 doses (0.5 mL at 0, 1, 6 months) are recommended."
- Not to be confused with Gardasil 9.
- But alas, conservatives are *so* pro-life and all.
- "It’s now thought that the vaccine can improve fertility by preventing the development of precancerous and cancerous cells in the cervix."
- "HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic. More than 98% of recipients develop an antibody response to HPV types included in the respective vaccines 1 month after completing a full vaccination series."
- This doesn't just go for HPV vaccines, literally, not a single vaccine can cause chronic diseases.
- "We did not find a significantly increased risk for autoimmune disorders following HPV4 vaccination in this large population of girls aged 12–17 years, including in those with pre-existing immune-mediated diseases. The association was also unaffected by time since vaccination. Moreover, our results were robust to numerous sensitivity analyses."
- Shockingly, promoting STI vaccines results in students adhering to more precautions and/or safer sex! Isn't that just absolutely unbelievable?
- Again, your age will dictate whether you receive two or three doses of the HPV shot.
- Yes, the most dangerous injury, stroke, heart attack, or surgery; a vaccine.
- https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/public/index.html, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/safety-availability-biologics/gardasil-vaccine-safety, Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- World Health Organization. (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/325771. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO
- World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé. (2017). Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017 / vaccins contre les papillomavirus humains : note de synthèse de l’OMS, mai 2017. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (19), 241 - 268. World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/255354
- "Major milestone reached as 100 countries have introduced HPV vaccine into national schedule", World Health Organization". Published on 31 October 2019. Retrieved on June 26, 2021.
- Ultrasound scan as a potential source of nosocomial and cross-infection, NIH
- HPV and Fertility, healthline
- "Genital HPV Infection - Fact Sheet", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on June 27, 2021.
- "Diseases & Related Conditions", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on August 20, 2021.
- "Human Papillomavirus (HPV)", New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved on July 30, 2021.
- JAMA 297(8):813-819, February 28, 2007
- "Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines" National Cancer Institute. Retrieved on June 25, 2021.
- "Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer" World Health Organization. Retrieved on June 25, 2021.
- de Martel C, Plummer M, Vignat J, Franceschi S, Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site, country and HPV type.Int J Cancer. 2017; 141: 664-670
- "HPV Vaccine is Safe — (Gardasil)", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published April 8, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
- "Strains of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)", New Zealand HPV Project. Retrieved on June 27, 2021.
- "Everything you Need to Know About Human Papillomavirus Infection" Amber Erickson Gabbey, Healthline, Retrieved June 23, 2021.
- "Human papillomavirus vaccines (HPV)", World Health Organization. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
- "Human Papillomavirus (HPV)", The University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Retrieved on July 29, 2021.
- Parkin, D.M. (2006), The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int. J. Cancer, 118: 3030-3044. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21731
- "Human Papillomavirus (HPV)", Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved on July 29, 2021.
- Colpani V, Soares Falcetta F, Bacelo Bidinotto A, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Brazil: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0229154. Published 2020 Feb 21. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0229154
- "Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination", Family Planning NSW. Retrieved on July 29, 2021.
- "HPV (human papillomavirus)", Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on July 30, 2021.
- [www.health.ny.gov/diseases/aids/consumers/hiv_basics/stds_hiv.htm HIV Basics, NYS Health]
- Merck.com — Gardasil
- de Martel C, Georges D, Bray F, Ferlay J, Clifford GM. Global burden of cancer attributable to infections in 2018: a worldwide incidence analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Feb;8(2):e180-e190. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30488-7. Epub 2019 Dec 17. PMID: 31862245.
- "HPV & Cervical Screening", The New Zealand HPV Project. Retrieved on July 5, 2021.
- https://www.fda.gov/media/78013/download, Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- "Cervarix", European Medicines Agency. Published on June 23, 2008. Retrieved on June 29, 2021.
- World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé. (2017). Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017 / vaccins contre les papillomavirus humains : note de synthèse de l’OMS, mai 2017. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (19), 241 - 268. World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/255354
- "Cervarix", Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on June 26, 2021.
- Genital Warts, symptoms and causes
- https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/vaccines/gardasil-9, Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
- "Gardasil 9", National Cancer Institute. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- "Should I get the HPV vaccine?", Planned Parenthood. Retrieved on June 25, 2021.
- "HPV Vaccine Schedule and Dosing", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on June 25, 2021.
- "What Is Gardasil® 9" Merck & Co. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- Koutsky, Laura A et al. “A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 347,21 (2002): 1645-51. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa020586
- Thompson-Harvey, Adam et al. “Rising incidence of late-stage head and neck cancer in the United States.” Cancer vol. 126,5 (2020): 1090-1101. doi:10.1002/cncr.32583
- Senkomago V, Henley SJ, Thomas CC, Mix JM, Markowitz LE, Saraiya M. Human Papillomavirus-Attributable Cancers - United States, 2012-2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Aug 23;68(33):724-728. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6833a3. PMID: 31437140; PMCID: PMC6705893.
- Gillison ML, Chaturvedi AK, Lowy DR. HPV prophylactic vaccines and the potential prevention of noncervical cancers in both men and women. Cancer. 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):3036-46. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23764. PMID: 18980286; PMCID: PMC6264789.
- "Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site country and HPV type", Catherine de Martel, Martyn Plummer, Jerome Vignat and Silvia Franceschi, World Health Organization. Retrieved on June 25, 2021.
- "What are HPV vaccines?", National Cancer Institute. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- "High-risk HPV", National Cancer Institute. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- "How do HPV vaccines work?" National Cancer Institute. Retrieved on June 25, 2021.
- "Social media may influence parents' views on HPV vaccination", Tracy Cox, Penn State University News. Published on June 10, 2021. Retrieved on June 26, 2021.
- "Public perception of scientific uncertainty is linked to HPV vaccine policy support", Cameron Harter, UChicago Medicine. Published on July 7, 2019. Retrieved on June 26, 2021.
- "HPV Vaccine: State Legislation and Regulation", National Conference of State Legislatures. Published on May 26, 2020. Retrieved on June 26, 2021.
- Ko JS, Goldbeck CS, Baughan EB, Klausner JD. Association Between Human Papillomavirus Vaccination School-Entry Requirements and Vaccination Initiation. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(9):861-867. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1852
- Thompson EL, Livingston MD 3rd, Daley EM, Saslow D, Zimet GD. Rhode Island Human Papillomavirus Vaccine School Entry Requirement Using Provider-Verified Report. Am J Prev Med. 2020;59(2):274-277. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2020.02.022
- "School Entry Requirements for HPV Vaccine", National HPV Vaccination Roundtable. Retrieved on August 5, 2021.
- Karafillakis E, Simas C, Jarrett C, et al. HPV vaccination in a context of public mistrust and uncertainty: a systematic literature review of determinants of HPV vaccine hesitancy in Europe. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019;15(7-8):1615-1627. doi:10.1080/21645515.2018.1564436
- Chido-Amajuoyi OG, Talluri R, Shete SS, Shete S. Safety Concerns or Adverse Effects as the Main Reason for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Refusal: National Immunization Survey–Teen, 2008 to 2019. JAMA Pediatr. Published online June 28, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.1585
- "Misinformation on adverse effects a factor in HPV vaccine refusal", Marisa Fernandez, Axios. Published on June 28, 2021. Retrieved on July 27, 2021.
- Trends in HPV Vaccination Initiation and Completion Within Ages 9–12 Years: 2008–2018 Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi, Rajesh Talluri, Chizoba Wonodi, Sanjay Shete Pediatrics Jun 2021, 147 (6) e2020012765; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2020-012765
- Dingman DA, Schmit CD. Authority of Pharmacists to Administer Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Alignment of State Laws With Age-Level Recommendations. Public Health Rep. 2018;133(1):55-63. doi:10.1177/0033354917742117
- "Cancer Vaccines Get a Price Cut in Poor Nations", McNeil Jr Donald Gerard, The New York Times. Published on May 9, 2013. Retrieved on August 5, 2021.
- Perkins RB, Brogly SB, Adams WG, Freund KM. Correlates of human papillomavirus vaccination rates in low-income, minority adolescents: a multicenter study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012;21(8):813-820. doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.3364
- "How effective is the HPV vaccine?", Cancer Council Victoria. Retrieved on July 4, 2021.
- "HPV Vaccine Safety", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on August 5, 2021.
- " HPV Infections Targeted by Vaccine Decrease in U.S.", National Cancer Institute. Published on March 9, 2016. Retrieved on August 8, 2021.
- Report to Congress 2004: Prevention of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Gerberding, J.L., M.D., M.P.H. (January 2004): pp. 3-4.
- "HPV vaccine side effects" National Healthcare Service. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- "Fainting (Syncope) after Vaccination" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- "Vaccine Side Effects" United States Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- Gilkey MB, Malo TL, Shah PD, Hall ME, Brewer NT. Quality of physician communication about human papillomavirus vaccine: findings from a national survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015;24(11):1673-1679. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0326
- https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/vaccines/hpv/hpv-safety-faqs.html, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 20, 2021.
- Naleway, A. L., Mittendorf, K. F., Irving, S. A., Henninger, M. L., Crane, B., Smith, N., ... & Gee, J. (2018). Primary ovarian insufficiency and adolescent vaccination. Pediatrics, 142(3), e20180943.
- https://www.who.int/groups/global-advisory-committee-on-vaccine-safety/topics/human-papillomavirus-vaccines/infertility, World Health Organization. Retrieved June 20, 2021.
- "Will Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Affect My Fertility?" Natalie Silver, Healthline. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- https://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/vaccinesafety.html, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
- > "About HPV Vaccines", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
- "HPV Vaccine – Facts, Facts, and More Facts", The New Zealand HPV Project. Retrieved on July 5, 2021.
- Genovese C, LA Fauci V, Squeri A, Trimarchi G, Squeri R. HPV vaccine and autoimmune diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. J Prev Med Hyg. 2018;59(3):E194-E199. Published 2018 Sep 28. doi:10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2018.59.3.998
- "No Link Between HPV Vaccine, Autoimmune Diseases", Steven Reinberg, WebMD. Published on May 29, 2018. Retrieved on June 26, 2021.
- Liu EY, Smith LM, Ellis AK, et al. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and the risk of autoimmune disorders: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study. CMAJ. 2018;190(21):E648-E655. doi:10.1503/cmaj.170871
- "Who's Afraid of Gardasil?", Karen Houppert, The Nation, March 8, 2007.
- Gardasil: What Every Parent Should Know about the New HPV Vaccine, Moira Gaul, Family Research Council.
- Rick Perry's Gardasil u-turn, CBS
- HIV drug dispute
- Prescribing the Pill: Politics, Culture, and the Sexual Revolution in America's Heartland
- Jena AB, Goldman DP, Seabury SA. Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections After Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Females. JAMA Intern Med. Published online February 09, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.7886. Telling quote: "Human papillomavirus vaccination was not associated with increases in STIs in a large cohort of females, suggesting that vaccination is unlikely to promote unsafe sexual activity."
- "Promoting the HPV vaccine doesn’t lead to more teen sex, study shows" Laura Santhanam, PBS NewsHour, Published online August 13, 2018. Retrieved June 20, 2021.
- Effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behavior among adolescent girls, NIH
- Population-level sexual behaviors in adolescent girls before and after the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine (2003–2013) Gina S. Ogilvie, Felicia Phan, Heather N. Pedersen, Simon R. Dobson, Monika Naus, Elizabeth M. Saewyc CMAJ Oct 2018, 190 (41) E1221-E1226; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.180628
- [https://moffitt.org/endeavor/archive/adults-can-now-get-the-hpv-vaccine/ "Adults Can Now Get the HPV Vaccine", H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute. Retrieved August 5, 2021
- [https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/infectious-agents/hpv/hpv-vaccines.html "HPV Vaccines", American Cancer Society. Retrieved August 5, 2021
- "Five HPV vaccine myths vs. facts", Panchal Bethany, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Published on November 29, 2018. Retrieved on July 30, 2021.
- "Debunking Myths about the Human-Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccine ", Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
- Scheller NM, Pasternak B, Svanström H, Hviid A. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism. JAMA. 2014;312(2):187–188. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.2198
- "HPV Vaccine Doesn't Raise Risk Of Blood Clots, Study Finds", Shute Nancy, National Public Radio. Published July 8, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
- Arnheim-Dahlström L, Pasternak B, Svanström H, Sparén P, Hviid A. Autoimmune, neurological, and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark and Sweden: cohort study. BMJ. 2013;347:f5906. Published 2013 Oct 9. doi:10.1136/bmj.f5906
- "Complex regional pain syndrome", Mayo Clinic. Retrieved on August 2, 2021.
- Weinbaum CM, Cano M. HPV Vaccination and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Lack of Evidence. EBioMedicine. 2015;2(9):1014-1015. Published 2015 Aug 19. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.08.030
- Bednarczyk, Robert A. “Addressing HPV vaccine myths: practical information for healthcare providers.” Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics vol. 15,7-8 (2019): 1628-1638. doi:10.1080/21645515.2019.1565267