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Triple parentheses

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Automatons led by a lunatic
Charlie Chaplin imitator

Icon nazi.svg
First as tragedy
Then as farce

The use of triple parentheses[1] to identify individuals of perceived Jewish ancestry or persuasion emerged in 2016 as an online dog whistle, employed by white nationalists, Neo-Nazis, anti-semites, and followers of the so-called alt-right to single out targets for online harassment.[2]

Its use originated from a podcast produced by The Right Stuff, a white nationalist blog, in which Jewish names were spoken with an echo effect, meant to symbolize the actions of Jews that have "echo[ed] throughout history."[3] Ironically (or astoundingly), the founder of The Right Stuff was eventually doxed by fellow-neo-Nazis who revealed that his wife is a Jew.[3][4]

The triple parentheses are meant to represent the echo sound visually and are therefore sometimes referred to as an (((echo))). The triple parentheses have been used to harass and intimidate Jews and others with Jewish-sounding surnames on social media, and has been used by self-avowed supporters of Donald Trump's presidential campaign to target and harass those of perceived Jewish extraction opposed to Trump's candidacy.[5]

Because most social media platforms' search algorithms disregard punctuation, the echo is difficult to ban outright. Despite pledges from Twitter, Facebook, Microsoft and Google to crack down on online hate speech, use of the echo mark has proliferated. A Google browser extension known as the "Coincidence Detector," which added the triple parentheses to a list of common Jewish names, was briefly available and reached more than 2,500 downloads, but it was removed by Google in early June 2016 for violating the company's hate-speech policy.[5]

In June 2016 the Anti-Defamation League recognised triple parentheses as a form of hate speech.[6]

The motif has been adopted as an ironic self-identifier by some Jews and other anti-racists. According to tweets by WikiLeaks, which were subsequently deleted when they sparked outrage, this usage is a "tribalist symbol for establishment climbers" or a "virtue signal" co-opted by "neo-liberal castle creepers".[7]

See Also[edit]