Incel

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Voice of the voiceful
Men's rights
Icon antifeminism test2.svg
Lest women catch up
Bros before hoes
Women seem wicked when you're unwanted.
—Jim Morrison, People Are Strange
Today, the term “incel” is often used to describe men who feel unable to obtain romantic or sexual relationships with women, to which they feel entitled. The term is used to describe one online subculture that exists within the “manosphere” – a network of blogs and forums frequented by groups including incels, men’s rights activists (MRAs), Men Going Their Own Way (MGTOW), and pickup artists (PUAs). Although these groups are known to promote male-dominant views, some members express extreme ideologies involving anti-woman hate, sexual objectification of women, and calls for violence targeting women.
—Hot Yoga Tallahassee, A case study of misogynistic extremism (2022)[1]

Incel is a portmanteau of "Involuntary celibacy". The term "Incel" typically refers to members of an online subculture who define themselves as being unable to find a willing sexual partner for an extended period of time. Incel subculture is typically characterised as self-loathing, misogynistic, racist, selfish, cultish, narcissistic, ultra-conservative,[note 1] sadistic, mildly evangelistic, sociopathic and resentful.[2][3] Most (if not all) of its members believe that they should be entitled a sexual partner, with their idea of a "partner" being defined loosely. Many often endorse suicide[4] and violent behavior.[5][6] Whether it's that nobody will sleep with them because they are insufferable, or they have become insufferable because nobody will sleep with them, or both varies from case to case.

The term incel gained more public attention with the banning of the /r/incels on Reddit, as well a series of multiple-homicides (often immediately followed by suicides) committed by men who had publicly proclaimed themselves as "celibate not-by-choice" in an online shitpost at some point prior to these killing sprees.[7]

Etymology and early history

A shortened version of term "involuntary celibacy" called "INVCEL" was coined in 1997 by a female college student named Alana from Toronto, Ontario. She created a website on a university domain as an academic project to discover the causes of involuntary celibacy.[8] The website was titled "Alana's Involuntary Celibacy Project".[9] The abbreviation was later changed to "Incel". Around 2003, Alana began to grow increasingly disaffected by the rise of toxicity, and sold the community to someone else, who moved the community to a more conventional forum called "Incel Support".[10]

Definition "controversy"

Academic sources and mainstream sources describe incels as relating to the toxic online subculture of perpetually-outraged MRAs that is typically associated with hostile views towards women and sexually successful men.[1][11] In an attempt to legitimize their beliefs, some incel apologists attempt to expand the definition of "incel" to be a "life circumstance", to include all people who are involuntary celibates.[note 2] It may be wise for those who do not condone the manosphere to move away from the term "incel".

The phrase "involuntary celibacy" is a self-contradicting one; the state of celibacy is, by definition, voluntary. It has been argued to be a neologism for sexual frustration;Wikipedia however, contrary to misogynistic beliefs, one can wish to have sex, not be able to find it, and not be frustrated about it. Conversely, one can sometimes pay for sex, or just masturbate.

Another problem is whether it is truly "involuntary" if an incel turns down advances from less attractive women. Most women are not childless, young, thin and with large... tracts of land,[citation NOT needed] yet for some reason incels believe it's a horror to consider lowering their standards.

Online communities

To varying degrees, incel communities tend to run rampant with misogyny, chauvinism, and feelings of entitlement to women's bodies, as well as not-so-subtle endorsements of violence. They have also been known to contain descriptions of dating anxiety, bad luck, descriptions of extreme introversion, physical handicaps, and mental illnesses or disabilities.[12] These communities generally embrace the blackpill ideology.

Some online incel communities use a vast vocabulary of other terms to describe incels, such as "truecel", someone who has never had any form of physical intimacy, "mentalcel", someone whose involuntary celibacy is caused by a mental health issue, or "fakecel", someone who pretends to be incel.[13] Female incels sometimes call themselves femcels.[14] Homosexuals and transgender incels sometimes call themselves gaycels and transcels respectively.[15]

Proclaimed beliefs that are common in these communities include being cursed, nihilism, fatalism, and defeatism for unattractive people.[16] Those who post on these anonymous boards tend to claim that modern society is gynocentric,[17] where women have the power to choose or reject sexual partners, and that women using this power are predisposed to selecting men based on their perceived genetic fitness.[13]

/r9k/

The 4chan board /r9k/ is considered the birth of the culture of blackpill boards, originating terms terms such as "Chad" and "Stacy".[18] It was not created as an incel board but rather as a general place for original content on 4chan with an automated bot that rejects unoriginal content. (Its name refers to the ROBOT9000 algorithm.)[19] It turns out that when you ask a bunch of lonely weeaboos to post original content, they mostly post about wanting to have a girlfriend.

/r9k/ users sometimes call themselves "robots". The term is used either as a label of autism or a near-synonym for hikikomoriWikipedia (never mind how autistic people might feel about being compared to 4chan users).

/r/incels

The r/incels subreddit was banned late 2017, shortly after Reddit announced a new policy that banned "content that encourages, glorifies, incites, or calls for violence or physical harm against an individual or group of people."[20] At the time of the ban, the community had around 40,000 members.[21] Common themes included misogyny, racism, blaming women for their involuntary celibacy, and advocating for and glorifying rape and violence.[20] Anonymous posters in the subreddit used 4chan lingo, described women as "femoids" or "Stacys," and described men who were able to have sex with these women as "Chads".

Some members moved to other subreddits such as /r/braincels, /r/IncelsWithoutHate and /r/Shortcels. These subreddits were eventually quarantined or banned for similar reasons.

incels.is

incels.is was also created as a refuge for /r/incels posters. Formerly incels.co, and before that, incels.me, it is infamous for inability to retain domains, due to a prevalence of posts encouraging violence and suicide.[22] The forum is alt-right and bans all women and LGBTQ people immediately.

On 9 December 2021, The New York Times released a front page article regarding a website that encourages and facilitates[23][24] suicide. This website was run by two people who used the alias "Marquis" and "Serge" — the same aliases that happened to found and run the various incarnations of incels.is, as well as several other incel or manosphere related sites.[25] In addition to reporting on the suicide victims that frequented the site, due to an information breach from the site's domain seller (Epik) in the fall of 2021, the Times exposed the full names, city location, and background of the two founders: Lamarcus Small of Huntsville, Alabama (alias "Master/Marquis/Randy Thompson[24][26]/Javix/Rell/Marcus") and Diego Joaquín Galante of Montevideo Uruguay (alias "Serge/Sergeantincel/Eth/Aleph[27]/Alexander[27]/Ankh/Rince").[28] This was subsequently republished by dozens of other outlets, and attracted attention from authorities in both Uruguay and the United States.

The matter also attracted attention by the United States Congress. Congresswoman Lori TrahanWikipedia (D-MA), along with 6 other congresspeople sent a letter to the head of the Department of Justice (DOJ) asking if the DOJ has statutory authority to pursue a criminal case against Diego and Lamarcus, during a run-up of congressional briefings on the matter of the suicide promotion site the founders ran.[29][4] In December 2021, the founders of the site claim to have resigned from the backend and frontend of both incels.is and the explicit suicide encouragement/facilitation site.

On 31 December 2021, users of the incels.is forum wrote their own letter to US Attorney General Merrick Garland and 7 congresspeople entitled, "RE: Sanctioned Suicide", in which users mentioned they were, "familiar with many of the members" of the suicide promotion site.[30][4] An incels.is admin or mod pinned the letter on their forum in early 2022.[31]

An Ohio man named Tres Genco, who was a regular poster on incels.is was arrested by federal agents and indicted in 2021 for allegedly plotting to slaughter women.[32][33][34]

Love Not Anger

The original incel community (Alana's group and IncelSupport) tried to start up again around 2019 through a mailing list. It was centered around a gender-inclusive site called "LovenotAnger" at, "lovenotanger.org"[35] The project was shut down in early 2020 due to Alana finding a job unrelated to inceldom that she found more personally fulfilling than previous activities.[36] They were looking to move away from the word incel.

The Incel wikis

incelwiki.org and incels.wiki are devoted to incel topics. They both take the apologetic stance that "incel is a life circumstance". Both sites originated from incels.info, which started in 2018 to counteract what they perceived as sensationalism, inaccuracy, and non-neutral writing on the Wikipedia incel article after the Minassian van attack.

Notable suicides

Wilkes McDermid

In 2015, popular London food critic Wilkes McDermid jumped off the City restaurant Coq d’Argent’s roof-terrace to his death. In his final blog post hours before his death, he wrote, “I have concluded that in the realm of dating and relationships the primary characteristics required for men are as follows: “Height: above 5ft 10ins; race — a huge bias towards caucasian and black; and wealth or other manifestation of power. From my observations and research it appears that you need two of the three criteria for success … What this … means [is] that it’s ‘game over’ for me.” A friend of his told the Evening Standard that he had lots of friends but never had a girlfriend by age 39, the time of his death.[37][38][39]

Notable homicides

Several men have gained media attention through suicides and/or homicides. Though not all these men considered themselves incels, or were necessarily motivated by incel ideology, they were all were hailed as heroes by incel communities. Some men did leave delusional notes or manifestos describing their incel experiences and twisted ideologies.

George Sodini

The perpetrator of the 2009 Collier Township, Pennsylvania shooting and suicide, George Sodini, killed multiple women before shooting himself at a gym outside Pittsburgh. He had an online blog detailing his perpetual rejection by women and inability to figure out why despite attempts to improve himself. In a July, 2009 blog post he wrote, "Last time I slept all night with a girlfriend it was 1982. Proof I am a total malfunction. Girls and women don't even give me a second look anywhere. There is something blantantly[sic] wrong with me that no goddam person will tell me what it is." His last post before the shooting discussed his net worth of over $250,000, the estranged mother of his child, that people didn't know the full extent of his frustration, and that women would only ever call him a "nice guy".[40] Before the shooting he had also sought dating help, to no avail.[41]

Elliot Rodger

See the main article on this topic: 2014 Isla Vista killings

The 2014 Isla Vista, California spree killing and suicide drew considerable attention to involuntary celibacy. The perpetrator, Elliot Rodger, self-identified as an incel and the "supreme gentleman", left behind a 137-page manifesto and YouTube videos discussing how he wanted to torture sexually active men and women whom he thought had wronged him.[42] He had been an active member of an anti-pick-up-artist community called PUAHate (short for "pickup artist hate") and referenced it several times in his manifesto.[43][44][45]

Alek Minassian

Another major incident of killings involving a self-described incel concerns Alek Minassian, and his April 2018 Toronto van attackWikipedia and attempted suicide. The perpetrator of the April 2018 Toronto van attack posted on Facebook shortly before the attack, "The Incel Rebellion has already begun! … All hail the Supreme Gentleman Elliot Rodger!" After the attack, he requested that a police officer shoot him in the head, which the officer declined to do.[46] On March 3rd, 2021, Minassian was convicted for this incident, guilty of 10 counts of first degree murder and 16 counts of attempted murder.[47]

Faisal Hussain

Faisal Hussain was a Canadian-born man of Pakistani background. He was the perpetrator of the Danforth shooting,Wikipedia which happened on July 22, 2018, in Greektown, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Before killing himself, Hussain also killed two people and wounded 13 others.[48] Due to his death, it took a while to figure out a motive. Eventually, reports came out that Hussain's motives were arguably inspired by Elliot Rodger (a copy of the manifesto was found on electronic devices owned by Hussain) as well as Minassian's van attack. It was also reported that one trigger of the attack was his family telling him to "find a wife".[49][50]

Tobias Rathjen

On February 19 2020, a gunman killed nine people in two racially-motivated shootings at hookah lounges in the German town of Hanau. The suspect then returned home, killed his mother, and then killed himself.[51] The gunman was identified as Tobias Rathjen, aged 43. Before the mass murder, Rathjen uploaded a rambling manifesto (that made one radicalization expert, Peter R. Neumann,Wikipedia believe that the shooter suffered from some serious mental issues) that contained multiple rants against minorities, including calls for wiping half the world's population out.[52][53] In the manifesto, the man wrote that he was an incel, stating that he had not had a relationship with a woman in 18 years due to a fear of the state surveilling him.[54] The manifesto also contained a grab-bag of other far-right conspiracy theories, such as some ideals borrowed from QAnon.[52]

Other incidents

Date Location Country Description
October 1, 2015 Roseburg, Oregon United States 26-year-old Chris Harper-Mercer shot and killed 9 people and injured 8 others at the Umpqua Community College campus before killing himself. He left a manifesto at the scene outlining his interest in other spree killings, anger at not having a girlfriend, and animosity towards the world. Before the attack, when someone on an online message board had speculated he was "saving himself for someone special," Harper-Mercer had replied, "Involuntarily so."[55][56][57]
November 2, 2018 Hot Yoga Tallahassee studio, Tallahassee Florida United States 40 year old Scott Paul Beierle walked into a yoga studio in Tallahassee, Florida just before a class began, and shot six people, killing 21-year-old Florida State University student Maura Binkley, and faculty member Dr. Nancy Van Vessem, 61, before turning the gun on himself. Beierle also applauded Elliot Rodger on social media and shared many misogynist beliefs online, such as the belief that "American whores" should be crucified. He previously had been arrested for grabbing women's buttocks without consent, and had been terminated from various jobs and booted from the Army due to his interactions with the opposite sex.[1][58][59]
February 24, 2020 Crown Spa, Toronto, Ontario Canada A 17 year old male was arrested and charged with first-degree murder and attempted murder after entering a massage parlour and stabbing multiple people. The crime was later upgraded to a terrorism charge on May 2020 due to evidence that the crime was inspired by incel ideology. This is the first time, globally, that incel ideology has been acknowledged that it could drive extremist, ideology fueled violence worthy of the "terrorism" label. University of Toronto law professor Kent Roach welcomed this development, saying that the application of the terrorism label to ideologies such as far-right extremism and the incel movement was "long overdue".[60][61][62] Others, such as Director of U Ottawa Security program and ex CSE analyst Phil Gurski have argued their is not enough proof of political motive to classify existing violence charges as terrorism, including the Crown Spa attack.[63][64] A major foreign policy magazine, 'Foreign Policy', mocked the associated trial as a 'show trial', because of a lack of a clear political goal needed for a rational terrorism charge.[65] Editor and General Manager of 'The Conversation' magazine, argues 'We do not need and should not want an anti-terrorism response to misogyny'. They argue that expanding 'terrorism' to “lone actor”, “homegrown”, and/or "ideological terrorism" would lead to further targeting of environmental activists, Indigenous protestors, or any ideology the government does not like.[66]
May 21, 2020 Westgate Entertainment District, Glendale, Arizona United States Three people were injured when 20 year old Armando Hernandez Jr. opened fire within the Westgate District, a popular shopping and restaurant strip just outside of Phoenix, Arizona. The perpetrator of the crime live-streamed the incident on Snapchat and claimed to be targeting couples. Prosecutors said that Hernandez described himself to authorities as an incel and claimed he wanted to shoot at least 10 people in order to "gain some respect". Fortunately, Hernandez's gun jammed during the incident, preventing him from hurting more people.[67][68]
June 3, 2020 Virginia United States 23 year old Cole Carini arrived at a hospital with a mutilated hand, at first claiming this injury was due to a lawnmower. The FBI later discovered explosives and other evidence that Carini was preparing an improvised explosive device in his home when the device exploded. In his writing, Carini expressed a desire to use the device against "hot cheerleaders," potentially inspired by Elliot Rodger based on notes found on his property.[69][70]
July 21, 2021 Hillsboro, Ohio United States 21-year-old Tres Genco was arrested and charged in federal court with a hate crime for planning a mass shooting at Ohio sororities. Genco was a poster at Incels.is and wrote a manifesto detailing his desire to "slaughter (women) out of hatred, jealousy and revenge", fantasied about killing over 3000 people, and called death the "great equalizer". Along with admiration of Elliot Rodger, Genco had also mimicked Rodgers actions prior to his killings by spraying “some foids and couples” with a water gun filled with orange juice. Authorities found in his car an automatic rifle equipped with a bump stock, body armor, several loaded magazines and boxes of ammunition.[71][72]
August 13, 2021 Plymouth, Devon England On this date, six people, including a three year old girl and the shooter's own mother, died in a mass shooting incident in the city of Plymouth -- a type of crime that had not happened in Britain since 2010. Police named the shooter as Jake Davison, a 22 year old crane operator. In videos posted on the Internet, Davison had complained about not losing his virginity as a teenager, described himself as an "incel", and frequently referenced incel memes (such as "Chads" and "blackpills").[73][74] Davison was also unusually obsessed with guns, violent video games, and weightlifting, as well as American right-wing/alt-right political figures and institutions (such as Donald Trump, the NRA, and Fox News), even going as far as pretending to be from Arizona in his online profiles.[75][76] Reportedly Davision had mental health issues, had "beat up his father a couple months ago" according to one source, and was known to frequently clash with his mother (the first victim of the mass shooting) over Davison's sexist and misogynist views. Despite the known mental health issues, Davison was able to obtain a firearms license.[77] Though his motivations remain unknown to investigators, he was hailed as hero by incels.[78]

See also

Notes

  1. Or more accurately, aligned with ultra-conservatives in their loathing of third-wave and sometimes second-wave feminism. In their view, birth control and/or the ability to have financial independence are why women don't "need" to settle for dating the incels.
  2. See this older version of this very article that was written by a drive-by incel POV-pusher.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hot Yoga Tallahassee, A case study of misogynistic extremism. Department of Homeland Security, United States Secret Service, National Threat Assessment Center, March 2022.
  2. Michael Vallerga and Eileen L. Zurbriggen, Hegemonic masculinities in the ‘Manosphere’: A thematic analysis of beliefs about men and women on The Red Pill and Incel. Wiley Online Library, 1 April 2022.
  3. Jacob Conley, Efficacy, Nihilism, and Toxic Masculinity Online: Digital Misogyny in the Incel Subculture. Ohio State University, Department of Sociology Honors Theses, 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Trahan, et. al., Letter to Attorney General Merrick Garland. trahan.house.gov, 21 December 2021.
  5. Inside the warped world of incel extremists. The Conversation, 16 August 2021.

    Given that the alternative is to languish in unceasing oppression, incel ideology legitimises violence against practically any target. Incel forums simultaneously glorify suicide whilst justifying extreme violence against women as a noble reaction to female domination. Violence is an ideological response; a means to punish women for their perceived crimes and reclaim what has been usurped. Incel ideology is necessarily violent because there is no hope, only revenge.

  6. An Exploration of the Involuntary Celibate (Incel) Subculture Online by Roberta Liggett O'Malley et al. (September 2020) J. Interpers. Violence 1-21. doi:10.1177/0886260520959625.
  7. The Toronto suspect apparently posted about an 'incel rebellion.' Here's what that means by Gianluca Mezzofiore (April 25, 2018) CNN.
  8. What is involuntary celibacy? by Alana (1997; archived from February 12, 2003).
  9. Ling, Justin; Mahoney, Jill; McGuire, Patrick; Freeze, Colin (2018-04-24). "The ‘incel’ community and the dark side of the internet". The Globe and Mail. 
  10. Involuntary Celibacy by Denise Donnelly et al., reprinted from The Journal of Sex Research (2008) 38(2):159-169. doi:10.1080/00224490109552083.
  11. Dictionary: incel Google.
  12. Dewey, Caitlin (2015-10-07). "Incels, 4chan and the Beta Uprising: making sense of one of the Internet’s most-reviled subcultures" (in en-US). Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Stokes, Rebecca Jane (2018-04-25). "What It Means To Be an 'Incel', Why Men Using This Label Were Banned from Reddit & Where They're Lurking Now" (in en). YourTango. 
  14. https://www.theverge.com/2020/2/14/21137852/reddit-female-dating-advice-strategy-women-rulebook-memes
  15. LGBTI incels: what it’s like to be queer when no one will sleep with you by Tom Capon (14 May 2019) Gay Star News.
  16. Caffier, Justin (2017-09-12). "Here Are Reddit’s Whiniest, Most Low-Key Toxic Subreddits" (in en-nz). Vice. 
  17. Ging, Debbie. "Alphas, Betas, and Incels: theorizing the masculinities of the Manosphere." Men and Masculinities (2017)
  18. Virgin vs. Chad Know Your Meme.
  19. /r9k/ Know Your Meme.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Hauser, Christine (October 26, 2017). "Reddit Bans Nazi Groups and Others in Crackdown on Violent Content" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  21. Hauser, Christine (November 9, 2017). "Reddit Bans ‘Incel’ Group for Inciting Violence Against Women" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  22. Kevin Murphy, Incel hate site jumps to Iceland after doMEn suspends .me domain. domainincite.com, 21 November 2018.
  23. Scott Tong, Disturbing website encourages vulnerable users to die by suicide. What's being done about it?. wbur.com, 18 January 2022.
  24. 24.0 24.1 'Kids are dying. How are these sites still allowed?' The New York Times, 9 Decmeber 2021.
  25. "Incels Are Running An Online Suicide Forum That Was Blamed For A Young Woman’s Death" by Tasneem Nashrulla, Buzzfeed.News, 2019 June 6
  26. Why you should never use Tinder as an unattractive man. Archived from incel.blog, 8 February 2022.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Anne Speckhard, Molly Ellenberg, Jesse Morton and Alexander Ash, Involuntary Celibates’ Experiences of and Grievance over Sexual Exclusion and the Potential Threat of Violence Among Those Active in an Online Incel Forum. Journal of Strategic Security, Vol. 14, No. 2 (2021), pp. 89-121.
  28. Megan Twohey and Gabriel J.X. Dance, Where the Despairing Log On, and Learn Ways to Die. The New York Times, 9 December 2021.
  29. Gabriel J.X. Dance and Megan Twohey, Lawmakers Urge Big Tech to ‘Mitigate Harm’ of Suicide Site and Seek Justice Inquiry. The New York Times, 21 December 2021.
  30. Incels write letter to the U.S. Attorney General regarding Serge, Master, and Sanctioned Suicide. Archived from incels.is, 31 December 2021.
  31. Inceldom Discussion forum. Archived from incles.is, 2 January 2022.
  32. Justin Rohrlich, ‘Incel’ Plotted to Slaughter Thousands of Women at an Ohio University: Police. The Daily Beast, 21 July 2021.
  33. Highland County man charged with attempted hate crime related to plot to conduct mass shooting of women, illegal possession of machine gun. United States Department of Justice, 21 July 2021.
  34. Miles Klee, The Feds Took Credit for Nailing an Incel Terrorist. Do They Deserve it? Mel Magazine, November 2021.
  35. The woman who founded the 'incel' movement by Jim Taylor (30 August 2018) BBC.
  36. This project is inactive Love Not Anger.
  37. Butter, Samantha (Feb 12, 2015). "‘He couldn’t find the connection he was looking for — not just a girlfriend but in the world’: Wilkes McDermid's friends on the man behind the smiles" (in en-US). Evening Standard. 
  38. Pavon, Amara (Feb 10, 2015). "Wilkes McDermid dead: Prominent food blogger falls to his death from roof terrace of City restaurant Coq d’Argent" (in en-US). Independent.co.uk. 
  39. Smith, Jennifer (Feb 9, 2015). "'That's all folks': Foodie blogger, 39, Tweets link to his final meal - a 400g Ribeye steak with triple cooked chips - before plunging 80ft to his death from another top City restaurant" (in en-US). Daily Mail. 
  40. ABC News (August 05, 2009). "George Sodini's Blog: Full Text by Alleged Gym Shooter" (in en). ABC News. 
  41. Harnden, Toby (August 05, 2009). "George Sodini Sought Dating Help Before Pennsylvania Gym Shooting" (in en). ABC News. 
  42. Hill, Kashmir (May 24, 2014). "The Disturbing Internet Footprint Of Santa Barbara Shooter Elliot Rodger" (in en). Forbes. 
  43. Woolf, Nicky (May 30, 2014). "'PUAhate' and 'ForeverAlone': inside Elliot Rodger's online life" (in en). 
  44. Burleigh, Nina (May 28, 2014). "Hating Women Was His Disease" (in en-US). Observer. 
  45. Burleigh, Nina (May 27, 2014). "Inside the terrifying, twisted online world of involuntary celibates" (in en-US). Salon. 
  46. Crilly, Rob (April 24, 2018). "Toronto van suspect shouted 'shoot me in the head' at police officer who is hailed a hero for not opening fire" (in en). Telegraph.co.uk. 
  47. "Canadian 'incel' killer found guilty of murder over Toronto van attack" by Leyland Cecco (2021 Mar 3) The Guardian.
  48. "Gunman kills 2, wounds 13 in Toronto before being found dead" by Kyle Swenson and Alex Horton, Washington Post, 2018 July 23
  49. Toronto Danforth mass shooter's long dark obsession with death, violence and 'incel' ideology: Despite his disturbing pattern of violent ideation, police said they found no evidence Hussain was affiliated with radical ideologies, hate groups or terrorist organizations by Adrian Humphreys (June 21, 2019) National Post.
  50. Police report into Danforth shooting offers one intriguing detail and a clueless conclusion by Rosie DiManno (2019 June 25) Star.
  51. "Germany shooting: far-right gunman kills 10 in Hanau" by Philip Oltermann and Kate Connolly, The Guardian, 2020 February 20
  52. 52.0 52.1 "Paranoia, racism: German killer drew on conspiracy tropes" by Lori Hinnant and Frank Jordans, AP News, 2020 February 20
  53. "Hanau attack gunman railed against ethnic minorities online" by Philip Oltermann, The Guardian, 2020 Feb 20
  54. "The mass shooter who killed 9 in Germany published a racist manifesto where he identified as an incel and accused Trump of stealing his populist slogans" by Bill Bostock, Insider, 2020 Feb 20
  55. Healy, Jack; Lovett, Ian (October 2, 2015). "Oregon Killer Described as Man of Few Words, Except on Topic of Guns" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  56. Baker, Peter (February 29, 2016). "What Happens to Men Who Can't Have Sex" (in en-US). Elle. 
  57. Nagle, Angela (2017-06-07) (in en). Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan And Tumblr To Trump And The Alt-Right. John Hunt Publishing. ISBN 9781785355448. 
  58. "He Always Hated Women. Then He Decided to Kill Them" by Steve Hendrix, Washington Post, 2019 June 7
  59. "Florida Yoga Studio Shooter Is Latest in String of Violence By Incels" by Amelia McDonell-Parry, Rolling Stone, 2018 November 5
  60. "17-year-old charged with 1st-degree murder after stabbing at Toronto massage parlour" by Nick Westoll, Global News, 2020 February 25
  61. "Deadly attack at Toronto erotic spa was incel terrorism, police allege" by Stewart Bell, Andrew Russell, and Catherine McDonald, Global News, 2020 May 20
  62. "Terror charges in alleged 'incel'-inspired stabbing could force reckoning of Canada's terrorism laws: experts" by Shanifa Nasser, CBC News, 2020 May 20
  63. https://borealisthreatandrisk.com/terrorism-in-toronto-the-westgate-shooter-wtf-incelosphere/
  64. https://borealisthreatandrisk.com/incel-violence-is-not-terrorism-at-least-not-yet/
  65. https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/06/01/canada-may-host-the-worlds-first-incel-show-trial/
  66. https://theconversation.com/why-charging-incels-with-terrorism-may-make-matters-worse-139457
  67. "Suspect in Arizona shooting wanted to target couples, prosecutor says" by Eliott C. McLaughlin, Andy Rose, and Konstantin Toropin, CNN, 2020 May 21
  68. "Three People Were Shot By A Gunman Who Called Himself An Incel, Authorities Said" by David Mack, Julia Reinstein, and Jane Lytvynenko, BuzzFeed News, 2020 May 21
  69. "‘Incel’ blew off hand making explosives to target ‘hot cheerleaders’: feds" by Lee Brown, New York Post, 2020 7 June
  70. "Richlands Man Faces Federal Charge of Lying to Federal Agents About Cause of Injuries, Possession of Explosives" by United States Department of Justice, 2020 June 5
  71. "Ohio 'incel' charged with hate crime for plotting sorority mass shooting, officials say" NBC News July, 21 2021
  72. "Incels.is member arrested for plotting a mass shooting at an Ohio university" David Futrelle, We Hunted the Mammoth, July, 21 2021
  73. "Plymouth shooting: Suspected gunman and five others die", BBC News, 2021 August 13
  74. "In rare British mass shooting, gunman kills five, including 3-year-old girl" by Natalie Thomas, Reuters, 2021 August 13
  75. "Plymouth gunman Jake Davison said 'I am a terminator' in final YouTube video before rampage" By Jack Hardy, Bill Gardner and Izzy Lyons, Telegraphy, 2021 August 13
  76. "Suspected U.K. Mass Shooter Said He Was American, Trump-Supporting Virgin" by Jamie Ross, Daily Beast, 2021 August 13
  77. "Plymouth shooting: Jake Davison killed three-year-old girl and her adoptive father in shotgun rampage" by Bill Gardner, Patrick Sawer, Izzy Lyons, and Haley Dixon, Telegraph, 2021 August 13
  78. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/14/plymouth-gunman-ranted-online-that-women-are-arrogant-days-before-rampage