Anatoly Karlin

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Anatoly Karlin
Frogs, clowns and swastikas
Icon altright.svg
Rebuilding the Reich, one meme at a time
Buzzwords and dogwhistles
Warsaw more "blacked" than Moscow. See ~20 of them in a day, vs. 5 on a very bad day in Moscow (and almost none in Saint-Petersburg and down).
I endorse Richard Spencer. He started no wars and provoked no riots - much less "extremist" than Ziocons or BLM.
—Anatoly Karlin, supporting white supremacist Richard Spencer in 2016[2]

Anatoly Karlin (Анатолий Карлин)[3] is a Russian white nationalist and global-warming denialist crank who espouses a bizarre form of anti-environmentalism called "Tropical Hyperborea". Karlin supports melting Greenland's ice sheet and Siberia's permafrost for agricultural development and building cities. He further wants to melt sea ice in the Arctic for commercial shipping. Karlin's idea of "Tropical Hyperborea" is a white ethno-state and he will only grant entrance to "whites from the high-IQ European & Anglosphere countries" who are willing to "culturally Russify".[4] Among his other views are anti-feminism, HBD ("human-biodiversity") and anti-LGBT (for example, Karlin has argued homosexuality should not be promoted[5]).

Karlin's views overlap much with with the alt-right to the extent he admits he agrees with "about 70%" of the alt-right but denies being part of the alt-right movement (even though he has appeared at events alongside white supremacist Richard Spencer).[6] The SPLC have described Karlin as an "anti-Semitic blogger".[7] Polygraph.infoWikipedia describes him as a "Russian white nationalist blogger".[8] Although Karlin's views are white nationalist he rejects that label calling himself a Russian nationalist and "white guardist". He is a blogger for The Unz Review where he promotes fake news, climate change denial, eugenics and race and intelligence pseudoscience. His writings have been reprinted by Russia InsiderWikipedia with his permission and he is mostly quoted in conservative to far-right publications.

One of Karlin's most odd racist behaviours is travelling around parts of Russia and Poland, complaining of seeing black immigrants as well as photos of black people on advertisement boards.[9][10]

In June 2020, Karlin was temporarily shadowbanned from Twitter.[11][12] Although the shadowban reason remain unknown, it could stem from Karlin being mass-blocked by users over racist and highly offensive tweets he made about Black Lives Matter such as describing it as a "Negrolatry religion" and "Cult of the Magical Negro".[13]

Perhaps unsurprisingly, given his batshit crazy views and bigotry, Karlin is a fan of Donald Trump and claims if he was American he would vote for him.[14] He endorsed Trump in the 2016 and 2020 presidential elections.


Karlin was born in 1988. He describes himself as an "IQ researcher" despite having no qualifications in psychology or any field of science; he has authored or co-authored a small list of peer-reviewed papers since 2019.[15] However one of these publications is published in the controversial journal Mankind Quarterly[16] while another in Psych journal (published by MDPIWikipedia whose quality of peer review has been disputed[17]).

Karlin describes himself as a "journalist",[18] but there's no evidence for this and the only websites he writes for are alt-right and anti-Semitic, primarily The Unz Review where he has his own blog column. He has been criticised for publishing fake news and misinformation in his articles.

He studied Political Economy at UC Berkeley and lived in UK for several years, but has since returned to live in Russia; he labels his politics as "Russian nationalism".[19]

Karlin notes that he had become a "race realist" in 2012 and began blogging about HBD-themes since then.[20][21] His blog promotes Richard Lynn-type pseudoscientific theories about race and intelligence.[22] Like Lynn, Edward Dutton and many other so-called proponents of HBD, Karlin has a fixation with penis-sizes, claiming "average penis size (large – Africa; Latin America; small – East Asia). The latter example isn’t nearly as… flippant as it seems, since testosterone levels have a large effect on behavior."[23] Despite Lynn used dubious and falsified data, this doesn't seem to bother Karlin.[24]

Karlin is envious of more successful alt-right bloggers and vloggers; in an article he complains his content gets far less views than The Golden One, who he binge-watches.[25]

The Unz Review

Karlin has made 1700 blog posts at The Unz Review since January 2015.[26] His blog section is called "The Russian Reaction" and he writes mostly about HBD and politics.

In January 2018, Karlin wrote a blog post on The Unz Review defending paedophile apologist Emil Kirkegaard, who Karlin maintains was quoted out of context by so-called SJWs.[27]


An article published in 2020 about columnists for The Unz Review summarises Karlin's crank magnetism and racist views:

Anatoly Karlin– (a self-described journalist and IQ researcher, he studied political economy at UC-Berkeley and has only one peer-reviewed published article (in the Siberian Psychology Journal), he is a frequent poster to the Unz Review. In his writings, he has claimed that the human carrying capacity is 100 billion, while most other peer-reviewed and pro-science sources cite the human carrying capacity as being between 8 – 10 billion, with Australian Academy of Science finding only two out of 65 peer-reviewed papers coming to a similar conclusion as Karlin. He also has repeatedly tried linked race and IQ together, relying on such controversial and academically questionable material like Richard Lynn’s research on the subject and The Bell Curve, falling for common assumptions about race and IQ. Karlin also has a Reddit account and, not uncommon for many Redditors, has voiced his own view on race, writing, “I am quite happy that few Blacks associate with Russia, considering the type of violence-ridden underclasses they tend to create in countries that open their doors to them…So yes, I am a racist and very happy with that,”. He also has tried to link homosexuality and pedophilia. So, all around, someone who should not be given a platform, yet has been due to the Review).[28]

Global-warming denial

Karlin rejects the scientific consensus on climate change and argues global-warming is a good thing totally ignoring negative effects that massively outweigh positives.[29]

Tropical Hyperborea

Anatoly Karlin supports increasing methane and CO2 emissions

Karlin has made a bunch of irrational tweets where he disregards the harmful effects of global-warming and wants to increase carbon and methane emissions in Northern Europe, Greenland and Russia as a "Tropical Hyperborea":

Global warming will make Russia into Tropical Hyperborea. All Russian patriots must support global warming.
Liberals become gay when they start ranting about carbon taxes (we need Tropical Hyperborea) and now taxing meat and shit like that.[31]
One more reason (if indeed any are still needed) why global warming is good and we need Tropical Hyperborea.
Have more children, more CO2, more global warming, faster immamentization of Tropical Hyperborea.

He wants to create a "tropical Hyperborea" in Russia.[34][35]

In an article titled "Tropical Hyperborea Cometh" Karlin outlines his bizarre reasons why he thinks global warming is good for Russia:

In reality, I think the increase will be even steeper, because the loss of Arctic sea ice is proceeding far faster than even the most “pessimistic” climate models projected. The IPCC forecast ice-free Arctic summers in the late 21st century under a high emissions scenario, but linear projections of the past decade’s trends suggest that could be achieved as early as 2020. The Northern Sea Route is 35% shorter than the southern route, you don’t have to pay a toll at Suez, nor brave pirates off the Somali coast. It will be ultra-competitive once the ice is gone. Even non-summer shipping will be increasingly viable thanks to Russia’s growing nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet.

This is just the start. As the century progresses there will hopefully be intensive agricultural development, demographic settling, exploitation of the methane reserves in the permafrost and oceanic floor clathrates. This will hopefully accelerate warming further in a virtuous cycle. More warming means more carbon dioxide, more crops due to the carbonization effect, higher humidity leading to more rain (historically, it was colder periods of the Earth’s history that were associated with droughts/civilization collapses).[36]

These claims are all dubious:

  • While some northern regions in Russia could theoretically see their agricultural productivity improve with increased carbon emissions, "any gains in agricultural productivity farther north could be offset by drought and wildfire in southern and western Russia and by the effect of melting permafrost on the country’s irrigation patterns, confounding any hopes of increased grain production."[37]
  • The idea crops will grow with extra CO2 while theoretical is disputed; a 17-year experiment on California flowers and grasslands found that plants growing with extra heat or CO2 did not grow more.[38]
  • Warming and thawing of the frozen ground causes problems for infrastructure, such as roads and pipelines.[39][40]
  • Forest fires and flash floods have already ravaged swathes of Siberia because of global-warming.
  • Melting of permafrost in Russia's north could alter river flow patterns to create water shortages.
  • As the permafrost in northern Russia retreats and sea levels rise, the country is reportedly losing 468 square kilometers to erosion every year resulting in destruction of coastal communities.
  • The view polar-melting will be good for commercial shipping overlooks increased mobile hazards such as icebergs.

Karlin seems to not care that polar melting is detrimental to wildlife such as loss of polar-bear habitat; glacier retreat also increases the risk of reductions in seasonal freshwater availability to indigenous circumpolar peoples[41] and melting of permafrost negatively effects them in many other ways.[42]

Overpopulation denial

Nobody really knows the carrying capacity of our industrial world economy - all we can say for sure is that we are still far below the limits to growth. My guesstimate is that the planet can support 100 billion people.

Karlin argues human carrying capacity is 100 billion[44] - a fringe view supported by very few scientists. Van Den Bergh & Rietveld (2004) did a meta-analysis of 94 academic studies of human carrying capacity estimates and found only 11 (12%) are 100 billion or more. In contrast, 50 (53%) are under 10 billion and the median is 7.7 billion, while 2 to 3 billion is modal.[45] Similar figures were calculated in a 1995 study that showed the median was between 7-12 billion.[46] Although estimates widely vary for carrying capacity, most scientists appear to agree human carrying capacity has either already been reached or will be by 2050. Karlin however disagrees humans are overpopulated now or will be in the near-future.

Karlin's overpopulation denial seems to stem from his view as a capitalist who equates population growth with economic growth; his goal is increasing Russia's population by billions to compete with China and the US economy:

I don't buy the arguments that we've exceeded the Earth's carrying capacity, there's plenty of unused capacities. Russia by itself can support at least a billion people, probably several. Seriously competing with China, the US, and India is unrealistic with a population of 145mn.

He also supports increasing birth/fertility rates across Europe to "help preserve white majorities" and "benefit whites and help Europeans maintain majorities in their historic homelands"[48] - a standard white nationalism and alt-right view, yet because of the stigma attached to the label white nationalist, Karlin instead prefers just "Russian nationalist".

Karlin has written "Hopefully 2019 will mark a final turnaround in the fertility collapse" in Russia.[49]

Anti-veganism and anti-vegetarianism

Karlin firmly opposes veganism and vegetarianism.[50] He does not eat pork, but says he eats beef and chicken.[51]

I am eating more beef, not just because it's healthy and delicious, but because I get a warm feeling, a real sense of pleasure, knowing that I'm voiding the efforts of some Green vegan loser in the West - as well as doing my small part to help Tropical Hyperborea along.

Karlin has claimed that vegetarianism makes people weak and reduces their IQ.[53] This idea is not supported by scientific evidence.

Age of consent and sexual attraction to 14 year olds

In a creepy tweet made in 2014 when in his late 20s, Karlin posted he finds Petro PoroshenkoWikipedia's daughters, at the time who were only 14, to be "quite hot":

Poroshenko a fecund man: 2 sons, 2 daughters. And the daughters are quite hot.

The tweet was commented on at the time by various people who found it distasteful:

you are talking about a 14 yrs old child you freaking weirdo
They're 8thgraders...
hot? they are 14...

However, Karlin doesn't want to lower the age of consent to 14 in his country and has written he thinks the age of consent should be 16 (the legal minimum age in Russia).[58]


Karlin is an anti-feminist and claims to oppose gender studies being taught in schools.[59]


Anatoly Karlin in 2016 supporting Trump.

Karlin supported Trump in the 2016 and 2020 presidential elections.[60][61] In 2016 he walked around UC Berkeley with a MAGA hat.[62] In 2020 Karlin endorsed Trump on the basis he opposes "SJWism".[63]

White nationalism and alt-right

Karlin denies being a white nationalist,[64] but blatantly is. His pointless denial is similar to Nick Fuentes. For example, in a 2015 blog post Karlin said:

Yes, I know, they are sort of dorky and even SJWish at times. But technology has ideological load, as Michael Anissimov put it (in an article I can’t find), and it just so happens that transhuman techs are perfectly in line with Alt Right, NRx, Identitarian, and even white Nationalist agendas. Raising IQs via genetic editing will arrest the dysgenic trends increasingly affected all peoples on the planet. Degenerating into a global idiocracy serves absolutely no-one’s interest: Not of Europeans, nor Asians, nor Africans. Automation will (hopefully) redistribute resources from the NAM-pandering welfare systems of today to something more fair and equitable. It will also probably help even the gap between indigenous and immigrant fertility rates in Europe and the US. Radical life extension will help preserve white majorities in Europe. The reason that they are declining isn’t just a matter of birth rates, but also of death rates; Europeans are simply much older than your typical immigrant “youth.” Plummeting mortality and morbidity rates – apart from their general desirability – will from an ethnic perspective overwhelmingly benefit whites and help Europeans maintain majorities in their historic homelands.[65]

Karlin notes his views are in line with white nationalist agendas to "preserve white majorities" in European countries by increasing white birth rates while supporting eugenics and transhumanist technology so White people can remain a larger population-size than immigrant populations. If Karlin isn't a white nationalist why does he care about "preserving white majorities" in European countries he's never lived in or even visited, outside of Russia? Anyway, he is known to get into a hissy-fit if you call him a white nationalist... instead he prefers to call himself a Russian nationalist and "liberal-conservative-neoreactionary".Do You Believe That?

Typical of white nationalists, Karlin promotes the white genocide conspiracy theory:

Trump's best chance to win in 2020 is if the Dems go into hardcore white genocide mode, so yes, I'm more than ready!
The Immigration Trilemma: Liberal decadence; open borders; indigenous ethnic group survival. Choose two.
Karlin classifies himself as a "race realist" not a "low IQ racist" like Stormfront users, despite the fact he opposes non-white immigration and posts explicitly racist content online such as black people are violent with low IQ's - views typical of Nazis on Stormfront.

Despite holding standard white nationalist and alt-right political views, Karlin tries to distinguish himself to make him feel special by identifying as a "racial realist" opposed to a "racist". This laughably is seen in a drawing he made where he classifies himself alongside Richard Lynn and Steve Sailer, not the Nazi knuckle-draggers and boneheads from Stormfront.[68]

Throughout 2016 and 2017 Karlin was openly supportive of the alt-right, for example he shared a podium with neo-Nazi Richard Spencer and delivered a speech at a white nationalist "Safe Space for Europeans" demonstration at U.C. Berkeley:

Near the end of the evening, I was called up to the podium by Richard Spencer to give an impromptu speech. I went up and started rambling about my journey of discovery, my disillusionment, my “awakening”… LOL no I didn't, faggots. Your "Alt Right" is otherwise known as "common sense" in Eastern Europe – it's really quite funny how actually existing Marxism cocooned them from cultural Marxism.[69]

Karlin claims he agrees with the vast majority of alt-right ideology and views:

Although I do not strictly consider myself Alt Right (or NRx), I do support about 70% of their positions, so I was happy to turn up with them to troll my alma mater.
Anatoly Karlin

Furthermore, he supports the white nationalist Paul Nehlen.[70]

Karlin tried to introduce the alt-right and HBD to far-right Russian nationalists, but by his own admission, failed.

My own modest aims are twofold. First, I want to help introduce the Alt Right to Russian nationalists, and vice versa. Second, I am trying to place Russian nationalism on a firmer, more scientific ideological footing, by importing useful concepts developed primarily in the West and applying them to Russian realities, such as IQ/HBD-realism.[71]

He has also claimed "Russia Insider has good relations with, and they reprint my articles semi-regularly (with my permission)." The main editor of the former, published a controversial article called "It's Time to Drop the Jew Taboo"[72] and Karlin controversially published a defence of the article, arguing it is "objectively true".[73] The article has been described as "a lengthy anti-Semitic manifesto"[74] and Karlin is openly anti-Semitic, scoring himself 7/11 on a scale of anti-Semitism writing: "I suppose I deserve my “accolades” from the SPLC and RationalWiki after all."[75]

In 2019 Karlin began denying he was a white nationalist or alt-right, the same time he reinvented himself as an "intelligence researcher" (a self-description on his social media[76]). He realises no one will take his writings on race and intelligence serious if they know he's a political ideologue. Secondly, he has said the alt-right's main political goals have failed:

I think the Alt Right by and large realizes that none or almost none of their political goals are going to be accomplished due to ongoing demographic changes and the failure of Trumpism anyway (e.g. see the NPI's pessimistic 2018 outlook).[77]

White ethno-state

Typical of white nationalists, Karlin supports a white ethno-state virtually limited to white people such as from Anglosphere countries:

@akarlin88 What percentage Russian/East Slavic ancestry would be enough to qualify for entry into your desired Russian ethno-state? Also, what about Western Slavs such as Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks?.
As general rule, all whites from the high-IQ European & Anglosphere countries would be welcome given a willingness to culturally Russify. But it's not an absolute rule, individual exceptions can be made, for instance, I happily accept Benes Ayo as Russian.
—Anatoly Karlin[79]

When asked if Armenians & Georgians could enter, Karlin responded "no".[80]

Fascism, nationalism and totalitarianism

Anatoly Karlin and Richard Spencer.

The Burkean an online conservative publication controversially published an article defending race and intelligence pseudoscience in February, 2019 "thanking" Karlin as a source saying:

The Burkeans' rebrand this year has been matched by an ominous shift away from conservatism and into populism... More troublingly still, the article credits Anatoly Karlin, a well known member of the Russian far right who has appeared at events alongside American white nationalist Richard Spencer, as the source of many of the ideas expressed in the piece.[81]

He is supporter of the Russian ultra-nationalist Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and claims to have voted for Vladimir ZhirinovskyWikipedia in the 2018 Russian presidential election.[82][83] Karlin has said he main political goals as a Russian nationalist are "An end to mass immigration from Central Asia" and "no more prosecutions for hate speech".[84]

Karlin... once wrote for “Sputnik & Pogrom”, an ultra-nationalist website that was even too much for Putin based on the evidence of it being shut down on July 6th. In 2015 the website called for “crushing Ukraine” and establishing a “Russian ethnic state.”
—Louis Proyect[85]

Karlin has said he considers "Franco a national hero who saved Spain from Communism."[86]

In a controversial article, Karlin praises the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, arguing he "did nothing wrong".[87]

MUSSOLINI DID NOTHING WRONG... Italians have no particular need to be ashamed of Mussolini.[88]

Racism and Islamophobia

…the pedantic neo-Nazi pseudo-intellectual Anatoly Karlin.
—Russia Without BS[89]

After Karlin started blogging about HBD, his website attracted white nationalists and other racist basement dwellers in the comments section. Instead of deleting or censoring their racist comments like any normal person would do, he wrote a blog post "Policy On Racism" mostly defending them. According to Karlin the boundary between "race realism" and racism is blurry and because of that, "I will not as a general rule be censoring racist comments, unless they are couched in the most explicit and offensive language."[90] In the same post, Karlin bizarrely writes: "arguing on the basis of statistics that apartheid wasn’t all that bad for black South Africans probably isn’t racism."[91]

In comments on his Reddit and Disqus accounts, Karlin is explicitly and openly racist; he has mentioned how much he dislikes black people who he describes as violent with low IQs and that he is happy so few live in Russia; elsewhere he has described his opposition to Islam and Muslim immigrants.[92] He is a proponent of the Eurabia conspiracy theory.[93]

I am quite happy that few blacks associate with Russia, considering the type of violence-ridden underclasses they tend to create in countries that open their doors to them. Not to mention the extreme chutzpah and aggressive sense of racial grievance they tend to act out towards their host countries. So yes, I'm racist and very happy with that. If /r/europe SJWs or Islamists such as yourself have a problem with that, oh well. Don't care, really.[94]

He has described Sargon of Akkad as "based" for using racial slurs such as "‘n****r’ and ‘sp*c’.[95]

Karlin opposes interracial dating and describes white women who date black men as "cucks". He also uses the word cuck popularised by the alt-right to describe Western countries that accept non-white immigration and refugees.[96][97][98]


Karlin has written numerous homophobic blog posts on his website.[99] One of these is titled "Why Homosexuality Shouldn’t Be Promoted" in which he claims there is a connection between homosexuality and pedophilia.[5]

Karlin has described himself as a homophobe and has quoted a study that he interprets as saying "homophobia is a natural part of the human condition."[100]

He has criticised Tommy Robinson for going on stage at an anti-Islam rally with a transexual.[101]

Transhumanism and eugenics

What is wrong about modifying your population to be healthier and more intelligent?[102]
—Anatoly Karlin

Karlin supports eugenics, but clarifies he only supports voluntary and incentive-based eugenics, not coercive.

Black Lives Matter

Karlin opposes Black Lives Matter purely for racist reasons, describing it as "Negrolatry religion".

What you have in #BlackLivesMatter is an emerging religion, complete with its own pantheon of saints and martyrs and the latest iteration of what some have called negrolatry, or the Cult of the Magical Negro.[103]

He uses instead the label "Russian Lives Matter".[104]

Spiteful mutant hypothesis

On 13 August 2020 Karlin appeared with Edward Dutton on The Jolly Heretic livestream to discuss their similar views and the spiteful mutant hypothesis.[105] Karlin has also promoted the spiteful mutant idea on his social media.[106] What attracts Karlin to the spiteful mutant theory is probably his own psychological projection – the theory primarily attacks childless individuals who it claims are maladaptive and bad because they have not passed on their genes. Karlin however has no children of his own despite being in his 30s (born 1988).

HBD ("human-biodiversity") pseudoscience

Karlin identifies as a hereditarian and "race realist". In his articles he promotes the pseudoscientific work of discredited individuals associated with the Mankind Quarterly such as Gerhard Meisenberg.[107] He lists his main influences as the controversial psychologist J. Philippe Rushton and Charles Murray, co-author of The Bell Curve.[108][109] One of his favourite books is Rushton's Race, Evolution, and BehaviorWikipedia that he claims "is still, perhaps, the book about the validity of HBD theory... this book raised my confidence in the HBD view of reality from “likely” to “almost certain.”[110] The book however is widely regarded by psychologists and anthropologists to be racist pseudoscience.[111][112] Concerning race and intelligence, Karlin has posted "I went from considering it primarily but *not exclusively* cultural (already a very un-PC view, esp. in 2010) to around ~50%/50% racial/cultural."[113]

As a HBD proponent, Karlin holds pseudoscientific views on racial origins. In December 2019 he appeared in a video interview about HBD and discussed his views.[114] Near the beginning of the video, Karlin erroneously claims three major races of humans exist and split from each other 50,000 years ago. This racialist idea has been discredited, for example, one study showed: "Because of the extensive evidence for genetic interchange through population movements and recurrent gene flow going back at least hundreds of thousands of years ago, there is only one evolutionary lineage of humanity and there are no subspecies or races under either the traditional or phylogenetic definitions."[115] Karlin however still clings to pseudoscientific racialism.

See also

External links


  3. (online username akarlin88)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Why Homosexuality Shouldn’t Be Promoted
  23. Through A Glass Ceiling Darkly: Racial IQ Disparities And The Wealth Of Nations.
  27. SJWs Attack UCL Neo-Nazi Cabal. Unz Review. 11 January 2018.
  46. Cohen, J. E. (1995). "Population growth and earth’s human carrying capacity". Science, 269(5222), 341-346.
  69. Alt Right Safe Space in Berkeley. UNZ Review. 28 May 2016.
  70. Screenshot. Twitter. 11 Jan 2018.
  71. Russian Nationalism.
  72. The most vitriolic and obsessive Russia-bashing journalists in the media are mostly Jewish. The publications which push these writers most energetically are ALL Jewish-owned, and as a publisher, I know very well, that is where the buck stops. On the policy side, the neo-conservative movement, Russia's harshest foe, was conceived of, is led by, and consists mostly of, Jews. And their trouble-making extends far beyond Russia – they are responsible for America’s disastrous debacle in the Middle East over the last 20 years – where their crimes have been stymied by precisely one country – Russia. The psychotically anti-Russian recent UN ambassadors, Nikki Haley and Samantha Power, were put there by the Israel lobby, and given an independent brief, in other words, they answer not to their presidents, rather to their Jewish sponsors. It's Time to Drop the Jew Taboo. Russia Insider. 15. January 2018.

  73. Russia Insider Names Jew. Russia Insider. 16 January 2018. (screenshot)
  74. Prominent Russian Website Publishes Virulent Anti-semitic Screed. Tablet. 15 January 2018.
  85. The one degree of separation between Valerie Plame and white supremacy. Louis Proyect. 23 September 2017.
  89. Russia and the Far Right. Russia Without BS. 17 January 2018.
  94. Source and archived screenshot
  99. LGBT. Anatoly Karlin.
  114., see the full video:
  115. Templeton, A. R. (1998). "Human races: a genetic and evolutionary perspective". American Anthropologist. 100(3): 632-650.