Bronze-level article

Oath Keepers

From RationalWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Oath Keepers' logo
Frogs, clowns, and swastikas
Icon altright.svg
Rebuilding the Reich, one meme at a time
Buzzwords and dogwhistles

Oath Keepers is a far-right, anti-government militia organization founded by Elmer Stewart Rhodes III (1966–) in 2009.[1] Oath Keepers is considered to be part of the broader 'patriot movement', which includes other militias, sovereign citizens and tax protesters.[2] Their membership consists of "current and formerly serving military, police, and first responders, who pledge to fulfill the oath all military and police take to 'defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic.'" — but any old gun nut can join as an associate member.[3] That sounds all perfectly reasonable — except that members frequently have a different idea of what "defend the Constitution" means than ordinary people or Constitutional scholars: Oath Keepers' belief that they will prevent tyranny revolves around the New World Order conspiracy theory.[2] In practice, this can mean inciting members to intimidate voters they don't like[4] or engaging in an insurrection against a democratically-elected government.[5]

Rhodes, who once worked for Ron Paul, has been described by his estranged wife as expressing paranoid views about the government.[6] According to Jason Van Tatenhove, former spokesman for the Oath Keepers, Rhodes' appearance is comparable to a performance, a claim that is confirmed to some degree by Rhodes' inability to draw large live audiences and his not actually training a militia.[6] Rhodes' followers are largely armchair militants whom Rhodes grifts according to Van Tatenhove, and that would seem to be confirmed by Rhodes' allegedly leading a force of only 18 Oath Keepers at the 2021 U.S. coup attempt — from a safe distance.[6]


Left-right: Brian Hill, Alex Jones, Rhodes

According to the ADL, Oath Keepers is similar to a less-successful organization founded by Jack McLamb in the 1990s, Police Against the New World Order.[2] Oath Keepers was founded in 2009.

Rhodes' foundational idea was that Hitler's rise to power could have been prevented if German soldiers and police had disobeyed unconstitutional orders:[7]

"It" (a full-blown totalitarian police state) cannot happen here if the majority of police and soldiers obey their oaths to defend the Constitution and refuse to enforce the unconstitutional edicts of the "Leader."

There are a few problems with this Nazi analogy:

  1. Hitler did not rise to power all at once. He first attempted a coup (the Beer Hall Putsch) in 1923, for which he was sent to prison. After release from prison, he ran for President in 1932 and lost to von Hindenburg, who then appointed Hitler as Chancellor. Hitler then bent the law and constitution to his liking using the Reichstag Fire Decree (a series of key decrees, legislative acts, and case law).[8]
  2. Hitler's rise to power was technically done legally under German law at the time. He was appointed chancellor as the German constitution provided, he obtained the emergency powers under the Reichstag decree issued by President Hindenburg, his party won the March 1933 elections, and then he had the legislature pass a constitutional amendment making him dictator. Even the extrajudicial detention of leftists in concentration camps was legal loopholed as "protective custodyWikipedia" & – these naughty leftists were simply being "protected" from the good and righteous German people[9].
  3. The police and military didn't just "follow orders", they were often enthusiastic supporters of Hitler. The Nazi ranks, especially the Brownshirt thugsWikipedia, were filled with disaffected, right-wing World War I veterans, including Göring, Röhm, and even Hitler himself; and right-wing militias called the FreikorpsWikipedia essentially became a handy recruitment pool for the party in its early days. The police were also sympathetic to the Nazis- once in power, the Nazis purged the various German police forces of political opponents (and Jews). Very few police were actually purged- for example, only 31 of the 2,600 police in Cologne were fired.[10]
  4. Rhodes was aiming this insurrectionist ideology at Hillary Clinton (whom he referred to as "Hitlery"), who at that time was making her first run for POTUS. Clinton, it should be noted, has at no time violated her Constitutional oath (first as US Senator in 2001, then as Secretary of State in 2009), nor has she proposed changes to the constitution except through the democratic means of constitutional amendment (a proposed campaign finance reform amendment to counter Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission[11]).

Leadership and membership[edit]

The greatest threat we face today is not terrorists; it is our federal government. One of the best and easiest solutions is to depend on local officials, especially the sheriff, to stand against federal intervention and federal criminality.
—Richard Mack, echoing Posse Comitatus ideology[12]

Their website is only known to have listed members of the Board of Directors from 2010-2016. The Board of Directors has been composed of:[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

  • E. Stewart Rhodes (2009-), Founder and President — veteran, disbarred[21] Yale Law School graduate[note 1]
  • Elias Alias (a.k.a., L. Franklin Shook III) (2010-2015) — veteran
  • Jim Ayala (2015-2016) — emergency medical technician, veteran
  • Rand Cardwell (2010-2013) — veteran
  • Jeff W. Ford (2014-2015), Northern Oregon Coordinator for Oath Keepers — veteran
  • Dave Freeman (2010) — veteran
  • Robert A. Gomez (2010) — veteran
  • Gregory Gooch (2010-2011) — veteran
  • James Hanna (2012-2015) — veteran
  • David T. Helms (2010-2011, 2015) — veteran
  • Steven C. Homan (2010, 2014-2015),[note 2] Western States VP — veteran
  • Celia S. Hyde (2010) — former police chief, Bolton, Massachusetts
  • Michele Imburgia (2014-2016), Texas State VP
  • John Karriman (2016-2017), Missouri Oath Keepers State Coordinator — serving as Police Academy Defensive Tactics Instructor (c. 2016)
  • Rex H. McTyeire (2010-2016), National Vice President for Eastern U.S. — retired army major
  • Richard Mack (2011-2016), former Sheriff of Graham County, Arizona, founder of Constitutional Sheriffs and Peace Officers Association, which is ideologically similar to the sovereign citizen movement[23]
  • Chauncey Normandin (2010) — veteran
  • Denny Peyman (2016) — ex-sheriff
  • David J. Rivers (2011-2013) — veteran
  • Joseph Santoro (2015-2016) — veteran
  • John D. Shirley (2011-2013), retired police officer
  • Jay Stang (2016), Texas Chapter President — veteran

According to his estranged wife, the board members changed every few months, whenever began to see through Rhodes bullshit. The situation paralleled Rhodes employment history before he founded Oath Keepers, where he would frequently get fired for getting into arguments with his supervisors.[24]

Since 2017, Karriman was shoved out for demanding reforms against alleged embezzlement by an IT administrator, and other board members have resigned.[22] The membership list was leaked to the Southern Poverty Law Center.[22] Membership from the list indicated that two-thirds had a background in the military or law enforcement; alarmingly there were a "20-year special agent in the Secret Service, and two people who said they were in the FBI."[22] The total membership was claimed by the organization to be 35,000 in 2016,[25] but is more likely to be closer to a couple of thousand,[26] at least in part due to fleeting membership.[22]

Greg McWhirter served as vice president of the organization at around the time of the 2021 coup attempt. He was also an FBI informant.[27]

Besides being part of the massive data breach of the Epik web hosting company, Oath Keepers separately suffered another data breach a few days later that exposed "10,000 emails from the inboxes of high-profile members including state chapter leaders".[28] In addition, numerous members of the Oath Keepers, as well as at least one Republican party member, were revealed to be active members of various police forces across the US.[29]


Oath Keepers' billboard
Myself and Nick established a defensive security position in front of Pepperoni Bill's Pizza.
—Adam Boyle, former Oath Keeper[22]

Cliven Bundy[edit]

Oath Keepers provided support during the 2014 federal standoff with Cliven Bundy at his ranch over grazing rights,[22][30] and again at the Bundy-related standoff at the 2016 Malheur National Wildlife Refuge.[31] During the ranch standoff, Rhodes "claimed to have intelligence that the Obama administration was planning a drone strike on the Patriot encampment,"[22] which needless to say did not eventuate.

Civil war threats[edit]

Rhodes has on several occasions made threats that civil war was forthcoming.

Black Lives Matter[edit]

See the main article on this topic: Black Lives Matter

During the 2014 and 2015 Black Lives Matter protest, heavily armed members of Oath Keepers — all white men — showed up uninvited and unannounced.[35] The Oath Keepers claimed that they were on the protesters' side,[35] but St. Louis County Police Chief Jon Belmar found their presence to be "unnecessary and inflammatory."[35] One of the protesters found the presence of the Oath Keepers to be intimidating and frightening, stating:

Had protesters showed up that night looking the same way that these Oath Keepers did, that night would have turned out a lot differently for us. The officers there — there's already a huge tension, and we're unarmed. They've weaponized our blackness, so our very presence is threatening to them. And had we shown up with guns, in camouflage and vests, undoubtedly they would have used extreme force; much deadlier force than they had already used against us.[36]

Rhodes has explicitly stated that Oath Keepers is not a racist or anti-semitic organization, using a variant of the friend argument by appealing to his Mexican and Apache ancestry.[17][37] The Oath Keepers bylaws explicitly bans openly-racist people from joining in Article VIII, Section 8.02(b):

No person who advocates, or has been or is a member, or associated with, any organization, formal or informal, that advocates discrimination, violence, or hatred toward any person based upon their race, nationality, creed, or color, shall be entitled to be a member or associate member.[38]

They don't seem to understand that coming uninvited and heavily armed to a peaceful protest unnecessarily increases tensions just by their mere presence, regardless of their true intentions.

2021 U.S. Capitol insurrection[edit]

See the main article on this topic: 2021 U.S. coup attempt
We have met the enemy and he is us.
—Walt Kelly[39]
You sir, present an ongoing threat and a peril to this country, to the republic and the very fabric of our democracy. The moment you are released you will be prepared to take up arms against your government.
—Judge Amit P. Mehta, in sentencing Rhodes to 18 years[40]

Rather than support the peaceful democratic transition of government, several members of the Oath Keepers decided to join an insurrection in support of autocratic rule. Nineteen members or affiliates of the Oath Keepers have been accused of conspiracy as well other charges in the 2021 insurrection at the US Capitol,[41] an additional three face non-conspiracy charges.[42] Among those facing conspiracy charges are:[43][44][45]

  • Thomas E. Caldwell — also charged with forcibly assaulting, impeding, interfering any fireman or law enforcement officer (spraying a chemical irritant)[46]
  • Donovan Ray Crowl — didn't vote in the election that he wanted to overturn[47]
  • Jason Dolan — pleaded guilty to two charges while three charges were dropped in exchange for cooperating with prosecutors[48]
  • Mark Grods — pleaded guilty[42]
  • Joseph Hackett
  • William Isaacs
  • Joshua James, former board member, pleaded guilty to seditious conspiracy and agreed to cooperate with prosecutors[49]
  • Connie Meggs
  • Kelly Meggs
  • David Moerschel[42]
  • Bennie Parker — also charged with destroying government property
  • Sandra Rut Parker — also charged with destroying government property
  • Kellye SoRelle, lawyer for the Oath Keepers — charged with conspiracy, obstruction of a federal proceeding, tampering with documents and misdemeanor trespassing at the Capitol[50]
  • Laura Steele
  • Jessica Marie Watkins — also charged with violent entry or disorderly conduct[46]
  • William Todd Wilson — pleaded guilty to seditious conspiracy and agreed to fully cooperate with prosecutors.[51]
  • Graydon Young — pleaded guilty to two felony counts, conspiracy and obstructing Congress[52]

Additional Oath Keepers charged were:

  • Robert Gieswein, charged with assaulting police, civil disorder and obstruction of police and government[53]
  • Roberto A. Minuta, who provided security for Roger Stone on January 6, charged with official proceeding and aiding and abetting, and tampering with documents or proceedings[54][55]
  • Jon Schaffer, guitarist of Iced Earth.Wikipedia Membership status disputed, but wore an "Oath Keepers Lifetime Member" hat during his participation in the riot. Charged with six crimes, including unleashing pepper spray intended for bear deterrenceWikipedia on police. On April 16 2021, pleaded guilty to obstruction of an official proceeding of Congress (punishable by up to 20 years in prison) and trespassing on restricted grounds of the Capitol with a dangerous weapon, and is intending to cooperate with the government.[56][57]

Oath Keepers founder Rhodes (who previously was alleged to have been in direct communication with Oath Keepers who have been charged with conspiracy on January 6)[58] and 10 other Oath Keeper members[note 3] were charged with the far more serious charge of seditious conspiracyWikipedia on January 13 2022. The indictment contained alleged communications that both contained details about Rhodes plotting and coordinating the Capitol attack with other Oath Keepers and also Rhodes planning for future attacks. The indictment also details Rhodes allegedly spending thousands of dollars in ammunition in anticipation of "Civil War 2.0". [60][61][59]

More than a dozen members have been charged with conspiracy (including some of the above).[62]

In November 2022, Rhodes and Kelly Meggs were convicted of seditious conspiracy; Rhodes and Meggs as well as the other three defendants were also convicted of obstruction of Congress.[63]

In late January 2022, Hackett, Minuta, Moerschel, and Edward Vallejo were also convicted of seditious conspiracy, along with two other conspiracy charges and obstruction of Congress.[64]

In March 2022, Isaacs, Connie Meggs, Steele, and Sandra Parker were found guilty of conspiracy to obstruct Congress' proceedings as well as several other charges; Michael Greene and Parker were acquitted of more serious charges but convicted of misdemeanors.[65]

On May 25 2023, Rhodes was sentenced to 18 years in prison. Notably, this sentence was enhanced due to the judge accepting that his conduct met the legal definition of terrorism intended to influence the actions of government.[66]

Allegations of domestic violence[edit]

During a 2018 divorce proceeding, Rhodes's wife, Tasha Vonn Adams Rhodes, made credible allegations that Stewart Rhodes had a history of violent outbursts against his family, including choking his daughter and making threats with a loaded gun.[67]

Gun safety[edit]


  1. Do not ask Rhodes for a gun safety lesson — he dropped his loaded handgun, shot himself in the face and blinded his left eye.[22]
  2. Resigned due to conflicting views with Rhodes on the mission of the Oath Keepers.[22]
  3. Kelly Meggs, Kenneth Harrelson, Jessica Watkins, Joshua James, Roberto Minuta, Joseph Hackett, David Moerschel, Brian Ulrich, Thomas Caldwell, Edward Vallejo[59]


  1. Elmer Stewart Rhodes Southern Poverty Law Center.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Oath Keepers Anti-Defamation League.
  3. About Oath Keepers Oath Keepers (archived from April 3, 2016).
  4. Militia group calls on members to patrol polls on Election Day by Kevin Sullivan (Oct. 27, 2016 at 2:45 p.m. PDT) The Washington Post.
  5. U.S. alleges wider Oath Keepers conspiracy, adds more defendants in Jan. 6 Capitol riot by Spencer S. Hsu & Rachel Weiner (Feb. 19, 2021 at 4:15 p.m. PST) The Washington Post.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Oath Keepers founder draws scrutiny from federal officials and followers by By Hannah Allam & Spencer S. Hsu (September 17, 2021) The Washington Post.
  7. Keeping Your Oath: NOT Just Following Orders (May 31, 2009) Oath Keepers (archived from August 14, 2015). Originally published as "Just Following Orders" by Stewart Rhodes (April 2008) S.W.A.T Magazine.
  8. Reichstag Fire Decree United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  9. Law and Justice in the Third Reich, Holocaust Encyclopedia
  10. The Nazification of the German PoliceE, 1933–1939, Holocaust Encyclopedia
  11. Clinton patches relations with liberals at campaign's outset by Lisa Lerer (Apr. 19, 2015 8:09 AM EDT) AP (archived from June 23, 2015).
  12. The Second Wave: Return of the Militias (August 01, 2009) Southern Poverty Law Center.
  13. Bios Oath Keepers (archived from April 7, 2010).
  14. Bios Oath Keepers (archived from December 16, 2011).
  15. Bios Oath Keepers (archived from December 14, 2012).
  16. Bios Oath Keepers (archived from December 16, 2013).
  17. 17.0 17.1 Bios Oath Keepers (archived from November 21, 2014).
  18. Oath Keepers Board of Directors Oath Keepers (archived from January 21, 2015).
  19. Oath Keepers Board of Directors Oath Keepers (archived from October 10, 2015).
  20. Oath Keepers Board of Directors Oath Keepers (archived from 1 Nov 2016 05:46:03 UTC).
  21. In the Matter of Elmer S. Rhodes (December 8, 2015) Supreme Court of Montana via Scribd.
  22. 22.00 22.01 22.02 22.03 22.04 22.05 22.06 22.07 22.08 22.09 22.10 A Pro-Trump Militant Group Has Recruited Thousands of Police, Soldiers, and Veterans: An Atlantic investigation reveals who they are and what they might do on Election Day. by Mike Giglio (November 2020) The Atlantic.
  23. The Troubling Sheriffs’ Movement That Joe Arpaio Supports: Trump's pardon didn't just let off a campaign ally. It endorsed a growing push to exempt sheriffs from any federal authority. by Robert L. Tsai (September 01, 2017) Politico.
  24. Leaving the Extreme Right, and a Marriage, Behind (May 3, 2023) WNYC: Death, Sex & Money.
  25. Kettle Is Set to Boil’: New Evidence Points to Riot Conspiracy: While most arrests in the Capitol riot have been individuals, new charges accused three people tied to a right-wing militia of conspiring to commit violence. by Charlie Savage et al. (Jan. 19, 2021) The New York Times.
  26. The Oath Keepers Anti-Government Extremists Recruiting Military and Police (2015) Anti-Defamation League.
  27. Informant Likely to Testify as Defense Witness in Oath Keepers Sedition Trial: A man who served as No. 2 to Stewart Rhodes, the group’s leader, is said to have secretly reported to the F.B.I. in the months leading up to the Jan. 6 attack. by Alan Feuer & Adam Goldman (Nov. 8, 2022, 5:35 p.m. ET) The New York Times.
  28. Data from Oath Keepers leaked online after alleged hack: The breach includes emails, chat logs, and details on members and donors. by Mikael Thalen (Updated Sep 27, 2021, 10:17 am CDT) Daily Dot.
  29. Hack Of Oath Keepers Militia Group Includes Names Of Active NYPD Officers, De Blasio Launches Investigation by George Joseph and Micah Loewinger, Gothamist
  30. Federal rangers face off against armed protesters in Nevada 'range war': Dispute over cattle land causes Cliven Bundy, a rancher, to mobilise hundreds in ongoing standoff with government agency by Dan Hernandez & Joseph Langdon (13 Apr 2014 09.36 EDT) The Guardian.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Militia head warns feds: Don't 'Waco' the Oregon occupiers unless you want a 'bloody, brutal civil war' by Tom Boggioni (January 16, 2016) Raw Story.
  32. Oath Keepers Website Warns Clinton Victory Could Lead To ‘Outright Civil War’ by Miranda Blue (April 21, 2016 1:25 pm) Right Wing Watch.
  33. Republicans Who Fled the Capital, Shall We? Oregon police have spent five days, to no avail, searching for 11 Republican state Senators. by Alex Lubben (June 24, 2019, 10:17am) Vice.
  34. With Itchy Trigger Fingers, Some Right Wingers Predict The Next Civil War Has Finally Arrived by Matt Shuham (September 1, 2020 11:07 a.m.) Talking Points Memo.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Who are the Oath Keepers, and why has the armed group returned to Ferguson? by Sarah Larimer & Abby Phillip (August 11, 2015 at 5:00 p.m. PDT) The Washington Post.
  36. An Oath Keeper on guns, race and Ferguson (Aug 14, 2015 3:17 PM ET | Last Updated: August 15, 2015) CBC Radio.
  37. An Interview With Stewart Rhodes: The founder of Oath Keepers explains his vision and responds to his critics. by Radley Balko (2.7.2011 12:00 PM) Reason.
  38. Bylaws Oath Keepers (archived from February 25, 2011).
  39. Pogo: We Have Met the Enemy and He Is Us by Walt Kelly (1972) Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0671212605.
  40. Oath Keepers leader Rhodes sentenced to 18 years for Jan. 6 seditious conspiracy: Stewart Rhodes’s sentence is the longest given to any of the hundreds of people found guilty of involvement in the pro-Trump riot. by Spencer S. Hsu et al. (May 25, 2023) The Washington Post.
  41. ‘Everything we trained for’: How the far-right Oath Keepers militia planned for violence on Jan. 6 by Samantha Putterman (September 23, 2021) PolitiFact.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Latest alleged Oath Keeper arrested in Capitol riot turned over body armor and firearm by Spencer S. Hsu (July 2, 2021 at 4:26 p.m. PDT) The Washington Post.
  43. U.S. alleges wider Oath Keepers conspiracy, adds more defendants in Jan. 6 Capitol riot by Spencer S. Hsu & Rachel Weiner (Feb. 19, 2021 at 4:15 p.m. PST) The Washington Post.
  44. United States of America v. Thomas E. Caldwell, Donovan Ray Crowl, Jessica Marie Watkins (January 27, 2021) United States Department of Justice.
  45. Four more indicted in alleged Jan. 6 Oath Keepers conspiracy to obstruct election vote in Congress by Spencer S. Hsu (May 30, 2021 at 4:33 p.m. PDT) The Washington Post.
  46. 46.0 46.1 Capitol Hill Siege George Washington University Program on Extremism.
  47. They stormed the Capitol to overturn the results of an election they didn't vote in by Blake Ellis & Melanie Hicken (Updated 2:07 PM ET, Mon February 1, 2021) CNN.
  48. Second alleged Oath Keeper in largest Capitol riot conspiracy case pleads guilty and will cooperate by Spencer S. Hsu (September 16, 2021) The Washington Post.
  49. First Jan. 6 defendant pleads guilty to seditious conspiracy in Capitol attack: Joshua James admits to helping lead a group of Oath Keepers that is accused of organizing rioters to disrupt Congress by Tom Jackman & Rachel Weiner (March 2, 2022) The Washington Post.
  50. Oath Keepers attorney Kellye SoRelle arrested on Jan. 6 charges by Spencer S. Hsu & Rachel Weiner (September 1, 2022 at 11:09 a.m. EDT) The Washington Post.
  51. Oath Keeper details pre-Jan. 6 planning, pleads to seditious conspiracy: William Todd Wilson of North Carolina is the third member of far-right group to cooperate with prosecutors in Capitol riot cases by Tom Jackman (May 4, 2022) The Washington Post.
  52. Second alleged Oath Keepers member pleads guilty in Jan. 6 Capitol riot, will cooperate as prosecutors seek momentum by Spencer S. Hsu (June 23, 2021 at 12:40 p.m. PDT) The Washington Post.
  53. FBI moves on alleged members of extremist groups Oath Keepers, Three Percenters by Devlin Barrett & Spencer S. Hsu (Jan. 17, 2021 at 11:33 p.m. PST) The Washington Post.
  54. New York ‘Oath Keeper’ seen in photo with Roger Stone busted by feds in Capitol riot by Ben Feuerherd (March 8, 2021 | 3:26pm) New York Post.
  55. United States of America v. Roberto A. Minuta (2/24/2021) United States District Court for the District of Columbia.
  56. ICED EARTH's JON SCHAFFER Pleads Guilty To Two Charges For His Role In Capitol Riot, Blabbermouth, 2021 April 16
  57. "Founding member of Oath Keepers enters first guilty plea in Jan. 6 Capitol breach" by Spencer S. Hsu and Devlin Barrett, Washington Post, 2021 April 16
  58. Oath Keepers founder Stewart Rhodes was in direct contact with rioters before and during Capitol breach, U.S. alleges by Spencer S. Hsu & Aaron C. Davis (March 9, 2021 at 5:00 a.m. PST) The Washington Post.
  59. 59.0 59.1 United States of America v. Elmer Stewart Rhodes III et al. (January 13, 2021) United States District Court for the District of Columbia via The Washington Post.
  60. "Oath Keepers leader and 10 others charged with 'seditious conspiracy' related to US Capitol attack" by Hannah Rabinowitz, Katelyn Polantz, Tierney Sneed and Holmes Lybrand, CNN, 2022 January 13
  61. "Seditious conspiracy: 11 Oath Keepers charged in Jan. 6 riot" by Michael Balsamo, Colleen Long, and Alanna Durking Richer, AP News, 2022 January 13
  62. Proud Boys conspired in multiple encrypted channels ahead of Jan. 6 riot, fearing criminal gang charges, U.S. alleges by Spencer S. Hsu & Rachel Weiner (March 18, 2021 at 5:08 p.m. PDT) The Washington Post.
  63. Oath Keepers founder Stewart Rhodes guilty of Jan. 6 seditious conspiracy by Spencer S. Hsu et al. (November 29, 2022) The Washington Post.
  64. "Four Oath Keepers convicted of Jan. 6 seditious conspiracy" by Michael Kunzelman and Alanna Durkin Richer, AP, 2023 January 23
  65. "Four more Oath Keepers convicted of Jan. 6 felonies" by Kyle Cheney, Politico, 2023 March 20
  66. "Oath Keepers founder Stewart Rhodes sentenced to 18 years for leading Jan. 6 seditious conspiracy" by Quinn Owen and Alexander Mallin, ABC News, 2023 May 25
  67. Oath Keepers founder Stewart Rhodes' wife alleges widespread abuse in petition for restraining order (March 15, 2018) Southern Poverty Law Center.