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—Jim Morrison, People Are Strange

Incel is a common abbreviation of "Involuntary celibacy". Involuntary celibacy is a life circumstance defined in academia by wanting to have a willing sexual partner but being unable to find one for an extended period of time.[1][2][3][4][5] The non-academic definition of the term is controversial, and various prominent non-academic sources conflict greatly on what incel colloquially means. It is defined by such sources as either a subculture, a life circumstance, the collection of online forums for self-identified incels, and/or simply a variant of sexual frustration.[6][7][8][9][10][11] "Blackpilled" incels are typically misogynistic, selfish, cultish, narcissistic, conservative, sadistic, mildly evangelist, sociopathic, and resentful.

The term incel came to wider public notice with the banning of the r/incels subreddit, and a series of spree killings and notable suicides committed by men who had at some point publicly proclaimed themselves as celibate not-by-choice for a substantial amount of time in an online posting before their crimes.[12][13][14]

Coinage and early history[edit]

The term, "involuntary celibacy", was first used in print in The Mythology and Fables of the Ancients, Explain'd from History, Volume 3 in 1739 by Antoine Banier.[15] The term was later used verbatim in multiple pieces of literature prior to the internet era, most notably in the chapter called, "Creep", in the 1975 book called, "Blueprint for a Higher Civilization", by left-wing philosopher and avant-garde artist Henry Flynt. In it Flynt discusses his emotional reaction to what he described as his, "involuntary celibacy", as a young adult.[16][17]

A shortened version of term "involuntary celibacy", "INVCEL", was coined by a female college student named Alana from Toronto, Ontario in 1997. She created a website on a university domain as an academic project to discover the causes of involuntary celibacy.[18] Later, a listserv was created for the academic project so others could discuss their inability to form sexual and romantic relationships.[19][20] The website was titled "Alana's Involuntary Celibacy Project".[21] The listserv was used by people of all genders to share posts about the topic. After the listserv was created, someone proposed changing the abbreviation to "Incel", which then stuck. Around 2003, she began to grow disaffected by what she perceived as negativity arising on the listserv and handed the community off to someone else, who moved the community to a more conventional forum called "Incel Support", which died in 2013 due to a server crash.[22]

A year after Alana created her academic project and listserv in 1998, the first conventional online forum (using conventional forum software) for incels was created in Germany termed "Parsimonyforum 3708".[23]

Academic recognition[edit]

Anglo-American academia[edit]

The term incel entered academia as a sociological term describing a life circumstance after a study of members of the self-described "incel" mailing list Alana had on her website. This study was primarily authored by the sociologists Denise Donnelly and Elizabeth Burgess, was published in The Journal of Sex Research, and subsequently cited in academia over a dozen times.[24] In this 2001 peer-reviewed paper studying an incel listserv and involuntary celibacy in general, an involuntary celibate was defined as someone who wishes to have sex but has not been able to find a willing partner in the past six months. Noting the choice of six months is arbitrary, the researchers concluded, "for this project, the important thing is whether or not the person defines themselves as an involuntary celibate."[25]

Later the term was used in a family encyclopedia[26], in University of California Press by author and sociologist Laura Carpenter[27], and in InterVarsity Press by Professor of Anthropology Jenell Williams[28].

In 2001 Elizabeth Abbott, Dean of Women at Trinity College at University of Toronto, wrote the book, "A History of Celibacy", which devoted a chapter to involuntary celibacy, and took it seriously as a life circumstance. The term "involuntary celibacy" was used verbatim, as well as "coerced celibacy".[29] In the chapter, Abbott included various groups of people as involuntarily celibate, including:

  • those in prison
  • those without access to birth control
  • those without the money to have a child
  • women whose families lacked money for the dowries required by their society
  • People who would lose their jobs if they were known to be sexually active (for example, apprentices and journeymen in certain trades in Medieval Europe, or certain Western domestic servant or educator positions prior to the past century)

The term is also in peer-reviewed sociological journals to describe people in sexless marriages or other relationships who wish to be sexually active.[30][31]


Dr. Brian G. Gilmartin [32] was a professor of psychology at Humboldt State University and Montana State University who published two books about what he called, "love-shyness". In 1987, he argued for love-shyness to be treated as a medical condition and for society to take it more seriously. Before his death, he used the terms "incel" and "love-shy" interchangeably as can be seen in a recovered clip from the abandoned "Incel Project" documentary.[33]

Brian's work, although it sometimes contained pseudoscience (such as using Zodiac references as if they actually pertain to reality), was deemed valuable enough to be reviewed by contemporary psychologists in peer-reviewed academic journals at least twice. In addition, Gilmartin's last book, The Shy Man Syndrome, had a foreword by E. Michael Gutman, President of the Florida Psychological Society 1988-1989.[34][35][36]

German studies[edit]

In 2000, Beate Küpper wrote a psychology dissertation called, "Are singles different from the others?: a comparison of singles and couples", exploring the causes of "involuntary singles" as opposed to "voluntary singles".[37] In 2002, she later published her work in a book under an academic publisher with the name, "Are singles different? A Comparison of Singles and Couples Series: Focal Points of Personality.[38]

In 2004, Tectum Verlag, a German academic book publisher published Olaf Wickenhöfer's study of "involuntary single[s]" called "Unwillingly Single: A study on the history of socialization and everyday cultural practice", citing Donnelly, Burgess, Gilmartin, and Küpper, as well as his own study.[39]

"Male Absolute Beginner: A Communication Science Approach to Explaining Partnerlessness", was published in 2014 by Robin Sprenger in the academic publication 'Springer VS' as social scientific literature on inceldom.[40]

Colloquial definition controversy[edit]

While the definition of the term is not contested in academia, there are multiple conflicting definitions of incel outside of academia in prominent sources. Wiktionary and VanDale dictionary defines "incel" as a life circumstance [41][42], Wikipedia and currently defines it as a subculture[43][44], and Collins Dictionary defines it as a variant of sexual frustration[45]. To date, no major dictionary has officially entered the term into a paperback version.

Media usage[edit]

In media usage, the term more often than not refers to the online communities for people who self-identify as involuntarily celibate. But as the colloquial definition is conflicting, the term is not always used this way.

Online communities[edit]

In online communities the term "involuntary celibate" or "incel" is used alongside other terms, such as "love-shy" (social anxiety or excessive shyness preventing romantic success).[46][47] German citizens seem to prefer the term "Absolute Beginner" to refer to incels. German author Maja Roedenbeck Schaefer, for example, uses the English-language term Absolute Beginner to describe individuals who are celibate but not through personal choice.[48] Almost all German incel forums self-identify as Absolute Beginners.

Some online incel communities use a vast vocabulary of other terms to describe incels, such as "truecel", someone who has never had any form of physical intimacy, "mentalcel", someone whose involuntary celibacy is caused by a mental health issue, or "fakecel", someone who pretends to be incel.[49] Female incels sometimes call themselves femcels.[50] Homosexuals and transgender incels sometimes call themselves gaycels and transcels respectively.[51]

These communities often contain descriptions of dating anxiety, bad luck, descriptions of extreme introversion, physical handicaps, and mental disorders.[52]

Modern, gender inclusive communities[edit][edit] is the successor forum to after the former was shut down. They use PHPbb software and have a relatively old userbase like did. Often people in their 30s or 40s. Like their board is slow relative to other incel boards. Like their old site, they link a full copy of Brian Gilmartin's book Shyness and Love, as well as a few articles related to the concept of love-shyness.

Love not Anger[edit]

The original incel community (Alana's group and IncelSupport) tried to start up again around 2019 through a mailing list. It was centered around a gender-inclusive site called "LovenotAnger" at, ""[53] They were looking to continue their original community as a research project to study the underpinnings of loneliness. They were looking to have the same community as before but to move away from the word incel. The project was shut down in early 2020 due to Alana finding a job unrelated to inceldom that she found more personally fulfilling than previous activities.[54][edit] (previously evolved from a Facebook group and started as a way to recapture the gender-inclusive spirit of the original incel community, according to Gaystarnews, the largest LGBTQ site.[55] The forum is known for "rate me" type posts[56] and, "looksmaxxing" tips. They are not trying to move away from the word incel. In 2019, the BBC made a documentary featuring, "Matt", from Yourenotalone and two other incels who had nothing to do with Yourenotalone called, "Inside the secret world of incels". Yourenotalone was portrayed as non-violent and gender-inclusive in the doc.[57]

Pseudo-anonymous "blackpill" boards[edit]

Five relatively new, overlapping, anonymity-valuing, "blackpill" comment boards of self-proclaimed involuntarily celibate people include, (formerly, and the former, r/ and r/braincels. Women are generally unwelcome on all these boards. On the sites external to Reddit women are banned on sight.

These boards have laissez-faire posting guidelines and due to their anonymous nature have limited mechanisms to prevent bad actors called "trolls" who have co-opted these boards to a certain extent.[58] Proclaimed beliefs that are common in these communities include being cursed, nihilism,[59] fatalism, and defeatism for unattractive people.[60] Those who post on these anonymous boards tend to claim that modern society is gynocentric,[61] where women have the power to choose or reject sexual partners, and that women using this power are predisposed to selecting men based on their perceived genetic fitness.[62]

r9k[edit], a board on 4chan, is considered the birth of the culture of blackpill boards. Most of what the media refers to as incel culture is in fact 4chan culture. The words Chad, Stacy, etc. originated from r9k and not the incel subreddits.[63] It was not created as an incel board but rather as a general place for original content on 4chan with an automated bot that rejects unoriginal content.[64] It turns out that when you ask a bunch of lonely weeaboos to post original content, they mostly post about wanting to have a girlfriend.

To this day, there is a lot of astroturfing on r9k. r9k users sometimes call themselves "robots". The term is used either as a label of autism or a near-synonym for hikikomori (Never mind how autistic people might feel about being compared to 4chan users).

Later, a user from the forum member named Marjan Siklic helped create the first incel presence on Reddit[65] which eventually adopted 4chan culture. The most well known incel subreddit was a near-clone of r9k[66]

r/incels[edit] is a banned subreddit that previously allowed anonymous people to post as involuntarily celibate men. It was not the first active incel subreddit, which appears to be r/Truecels. The initial activity of r/Incels seemed to be an evasion of the quarantine of r/Truecels. On the r/Incels subreddit, men blamed women for their involuntary celibacy, sometimes anonymously advocated rape and violence, were generally misogynistic and often racist.[67] Anonymous posters in the subreddit used 4chan lingo, described women as "femoids" or "Stacys," and described men who were able to have sex with these women as "Chads".[68]

On October 25, 2017, Reddit announced a new policy that banned "content that encourages, glorifies, incites, or calls for violence or physical harm against an individual or group of people."[67] On November 7, 2017, the /r/incels subreddit was banned for violating this policy. At the time of the ban, the community had around 40,000 members.[69] It was banned after an r/incels poster impersonated a woman on a different subreddit and asked how police would identify the perpetrator of a rape.[edit], formerly, and before that,, was also created as a refuge for r/incels posters. It is 4 years old and still online, having moved from a .me to Icelandic domain (.is) due to the (.me) registry Afilias claiming that the forum mods did not make a strong enough attempt to delete posts and users that engage in hate speech and/or the promotion of violence. [70]


Those r/incels users who did not move to external sites moved to one of the few Reddit sanctioned incel boards left called, "r/Braincels". Braincels was quarantined from showing up on Reddit's homepage in late 2018 for misogyny and then banned entirely in late 2019 for violating new Reddit rules on harassment and bullying.[71]

Meaning of the blackpill[edit]

The blackpill is a philosophy about society first proposed by a blog commenter named Paragon on the Dalrock anti-feminist blog in 2011 and later adopted by OmegaVirginRevolt's blog. In his comment, Paragon defines the blackpill to mean (paraphrased) 'there's no personal solution to systemic dating problems for men and only societal hardship (such as mass poverty) can solve men's systemic dating issues'. In other words, blackpillers don't believe that a wealthy welfare state with dramatically less sexual stratification in terms of mate access than there already exists is possible. Paragon, having dating difficulties in Canada, moved from Canada to the Phillipines, a less prosperous country than Canada, and married there.

In paragons words:[72]: reconcile that there are no personal solutions to systemic problems – which can only resolve over evolutionary time.

And any solution will very much entail steep trade-offs, in that males can’t have their cake and eat it too – a prosperous population of deferred ecological pressures(like we currently enjoy), without an expectation that this prosperity will increase the mating latitude of females(dramatically perturbing the breeding population, to the point of near evolutionary instability).

One will always follow the other, as male consensus on these matters is practically impossible in terms of inter-sexual competition(as opposed to the broad accord females enjoy through an abundant wealth of sexual opportunities, courtesy of their reproductively limiting function).

The way blackpill is used on and braincels is slightly different from its original definition in that it explains women's pickiness in choosing men, rejecting the original definition of societal hardship/prosperity. The word is also used as a general expression of fatalism. Like the previous definition, it's usage on is typically centered in evolutionary psychology. The term blackpill as it's used on attempts to explain romantic partnership as stemming primarily from female evaluations of the looks, money, and status of men.

The Incel Wikis[edit] and are both English language wikis devoted to incel topics. The wiki fork occurred in mid-2020 due to disagreement over direction, with the anti-blackpillers using as a place for lighthearted humor/venting, and the blackpillers using as a place for 'blackpills' and various other demotivational and/or Evo psych content. Both sites originated from, which started in 2018 to counteract what they saw as sensationalism, inaccuracy, and non-neutral writing on the Wikipedia incel article after the Minassian Van Attack.[73] They were subsequently cited by academia[74][75][76] and media as a repository of information about incels. An Uppsala university paper concluded that 2019 Incel Wiki was predominately focused on evolutionary psychology as opposed to environmental explanations of human sexuality.[77] In an article on the "dogpill", The New Statesman defined the dogpill as an incel viewpoint that women would rather have sex with dogs than incels based on the volume of forums posts about women's attraction to each.[78]

German incel communities[edit]

Absolute Beginners (otherwise known as ABs) are a community of German incels that started in 1998. It has several independent sub-communities such as Abtreff, AB4 and unerfahren. Former communities include the forums Parsimonyforum 3708 (the oldest forum), AB-Plauderstübchen, and the websites,, and ABs are on occasion called eternal singles[79] or involuntary singletons, or incels.[80] The term originated in Germany in the late 1990s to refer to people who are involuntarily single or become involuntary virgins way into adulthood.[81]

The etymology of the term Absolute Beginner derives from a David Bowie song.[82] Absolute Beginners sometimes abbreviate their self-identification as AB.[83] Rheinische Post defines AB's as those above the age of 20 with no romantic experience whatsoever.[84] Sexologist Monika Büchner defines the Absolute Beginner as one who has never had sex by their 25th birthday.[85] The concept of AB is analogous to the English term love-shyness or incel.[86]

In 2012, director Wolfram Huke published a German language autobiographical documentary, Love Alien, wherein he documents a year of his life as an "Absolute Beginner" between his 29th and 30th birthdays. The film features his platonic connection with two female acquaintances: a female distant relative and a Croatian woman, both of whom he viewed as potential partners. The latter parts of the film show him discussing courtship strategies with a psychotherapist, several family members, and random women who tell him how he should present himself. The film ends with a trip to Camino de Santiago on his 30th birthday where he declares that in spite of his efforts, he is still single.[87][88][89]

Another documentary on the topic is "Jungfrau sucht die grosse Liebe" (virgins looking for love) features seven virgins who self-describe as AB's and their attempts at having their first romantic or sexual experience.[90]

Notable suicides and homicides[edit]

Several men have gained media attention through suicides and/or homicides and leaving notes describing involuntary celibacy. Such individuals include: George Sodini, Christopher Harper-Mercer, Elliot Rodger, Wilkes McDermid, and allegedly, Alek Minassian.

George Sodini[edit]

The perpetrator of the 2009 Collier Township shooting and suicide, George Sodini, killed multiple women before shooting himself at a gym outside Pittsburgh. He had an online blog detailing his perpetual rejection by women and inability to figure out why despite attempts to improve himself. In a July, 2009 blog post he wrote, "Last time I slept all night with a girlfriend it was 1982. Proof I am a total malfunction. Girls and women don't even give me a second look anywhere. There is something blantantly wrong with me that no goddam person will tell me what it is." His last post before the shooting discussed his net worth of over $250,000, the estranged mother of his child, that people didn't know the full extent of his frustration, and that women would only ever call him a "nice guy".[91] He had also sought dating help to no avail before the shooting.[92]

Elliot Rodger[edit]

The 2014 Isla Vista spree killing and suicide drew considerable attention to involuntary celibacy. The perpetrator, Elliot Rodger, self-identified as an incel and the "supreme gentleman", left behind a 137-page manifesto and YouTube videos discussing how he wanted to torture sexually active men and women who he thought wronged him.[93] He had been an active member of an anti-pick-up-artist community called PUAHate (short for "pickup artist hate") and referenced it several times in his manifesto.[94][95][14]

Wilkes McDermid[edit]

In 2015, popular London food critic Wilkes McDermid jumped off the City restaurant Coq d’Argent’s roof-terrace to his death. In his final blog post hours before his death, he wrote, “I have concluded that in the realm of dating and relationships the primary characteristics required for men are as follows: “Height: above 5ft 10ins; race - a huge bias towards caucasian and black; and wealth or other manifestation of power. From my observations and research it appears that you need two of the three criteria for success ... What this ... means [is] that it’s ‘game over’ for me.”. A friend of his told the Evening Standard that he had lots of friends but never had a girlfriend by age 39, the time of his death. [96][97][98]

Alek Minassian[edit]

Another major suspected incident of killings involving a self-described involuntary celibate concerns Alek Minassian, and his April 2018 Toronto van attackWikipedia and attempted suicide. The perpetrator of the April 2018 Toronto van attack posted on Facebook shortly before the attack, "The Incel Rebellion has already begun! ... All hail the Supreme Gentleman Elliot Rodger!" After the attack, he requested a policeman shoot him in the head, which the officer declined to do.[99]

Faisal Hussain[edit]

Faisal Hussain was a Canadian born man of Pakistani background. In 2018, he was alleged to have been the perpetrator of the Danforth shootingWikipedia, which happened on July 22, 2018, in Greektown, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Before killing himself, Hussain also killed two people and wounded 13 others. [100] Due to his death, it took a while to figure out a motive. Eventually, reports came out that Hussain's motives were arguably inspired by Elliot Rodger (a copy of the manifesto was found on electronic devices owned by Hussain) as well as Minassian's van attack. It was also reported that one trigger of the attack was his family telling him to "find a wife".[101][102]

Tobias Rathjen[edit]

On February 19 2020, a gunman killed nine people in two racially motivated shootings at hookah loungesWikipedia in the German town of HanauWikipedia. The suspect then returned home, killed his mother, and then killed himself. [103] The gunman was identified as Tobias Rathjen, aged 43. Before the mass murder, Rathjen uploaded a rambling manifesto (that made one radicalization expert, Peter R. NeumannWikipedia, believe that the shooter suffered from some serious mental issues) that contained multiple rants against minorities, including calls for wiping half the world's population out. [104][105] In the manifesto, the man wrote that he was an incel, stating that he had not had a relationship with a woman in 18 years due to a fear of the state surveilling him. [106] The manifesto also contained a grab-bag of other far-right conspiracy theories, such as some ideals borrowed from QAnon. [104]

Other incidents[edit]

Date Location Country Description
October 1, 2015 Roseburg, Oregon United States 26-year-old Chris Harper-Mercer shot and killed 9 people and injured 8 others at the Umpqua Community College campus before killing himself. He left a manifesto at the scene outlining his interest in other spree killings, anger at not having a girlfriend, and animosity towards the world. Before the attack, when someone on an online message board had speculated he was "saving himself for someone special," Harper-Mercer had replied, "Involuntarily so."[107][13][108]
November 2, 2018 Hot Yoga Tallahassee studio, Tallahassee Florida United States 40 year old Scott Paul Beierle walked into a yoga studio in Tallahassee, Florida just before a class began, and shot six people, killing 21-year-old Florida State University student Maura Binkley, and faculty member Dr. Nancy Van Vessem, 61, before turning the gun on himself. Beierle also applauded Elliot Rodger on social media and shared many misogynist beliefs online, such as the belief that "American whores" should be crucified. He previously had been arrested for grabbing women's buttocks without consent, and had been terminated from various jobs and booted from the Army due to his interactions with the opposite sex. [109][110]
February 24, 2020 Crown Spa, Toronto, Ontario Canada A 17 year old male was arrested and charged with first-degree murder and attempted murder after entering a massage parler and stabbing multiple people. The crime was later upgraded to a terrorism charge on May 2020 due to evidence that the crime was inspired by incel ideology. This is the first time, globally, that incel ideology has been acknowledged that it could drive extremist, ideology fueled violence worthy of the "terrorism" label. University of Toronto law professor Kent Roach welcomed this development, saying that the application of the terrorism label to ideologies such as far-right extremism and the incel movement was "long overdue".[111][112][113] Others, such as Director of U Ottawa Security program and ex CSE analyst Phil Gurski have argued their is not enough proof of political motive to classify existing violence charges as terrorism, including the Crown Spa attack.[114][115] A major foreign policy magazine, 'Foreign Policy', mocked the associated trial as a 'show trial', because of a lack of a clear political goal needed for a rational terrorism charge.[116] Editor and General Manager of 'The Conversation' magazine, argues 'We do not need and should not want an anti-terrorism response to misogyny'. They argue that expanding 'terrorism' to “lone actor”, “homegrown”, and/or "ideological terrorism" would lead to further targeting of environmental activists, Indigenous protestors, or any ideology the government does not like.[117]
May 21, 2020 Westgate Entertainment District, Glendale, Arizona United States Three people were injured when 20 year old Armando Hernandez Jr. opened fire within the Westgate District, a popular shopping and restaurant strip just outside of Phoenix, Arizona. The perpetrator of the crime live-streamed the incident on Snapchat and claimed to be targeting couples. Prosecutors said that Hernandez described himself to authorities as an incel and claimed he wanted to shoot at least 10 people in order to "gain some respect". Fortunately, Hernandez's gun jammed during the incident, preventing him from hurting more people. [118][119]
June 3, 2020 Virginia United States 23 year old Cole Carini arrived at a hospital with a mutilated hand. At first claiming this injury was due to a lawnmower, the FBI later discovered explosives and other evidence that Carini was preparing an improvised explosive device in his home when the device exploded. In his writing, Carini expressed a desire to use the device against "hot cheerleaders," potentially inspired by Elliot Rodger based on notes found on his property. [120][121]


Involuntary celibacy is not at this moment officially recognized by a major psychological or psychiatric institution as a medical or psychological disability or disorder. But involuntarily celibates who have been studied were found to be likely to have had unusual life circumstances. The Journal of Sex Research notes that celibate men are more likely to have been conceived later in their parents life than the general population and are more likely to be lower class and unemployed. The involuntarily celibate men they studied tended to work in sex-segregated jobs, had more education than involuntarily celibate women, and followed particularly masculine life trajectories to a degree that it hindered their ability to meet women. Involuntarily celibate women were also found to follow life trajectories particularly close to feminine gender roles.[122] At the end of a study documented in the Journal of Sexology and the Sexuality and Society Reader, the researchers concluded that there had not yet been enough research done on involuntary celibacy and incels to fully understand them, writing, "Until the phenomena of involuntary celibacy has been fully investigated, and the results disseminated, it will remain a taboo topic, cloaked in mystery and ignorance, and an untold number of persons will continue to suffer in silence and isolation".[123]

External links[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. Donnelly, Denise; Burgess, Elisabeth; Anderson, Sally; Davis, Regina; Dillard, Joy (2001). "Involuntary Celibacy: A life course analysis". The Journal of Sex Research 38: 159–169. 
  2. Shehan, Constance L., ed (February 29, 2016). "Celibacy". The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies. 1. John Wiley & Sons. p. 238. ISBN 9780470658451. 
  3. Carpenter, Laura M. (2010). "Gendered Sexuality Over the Life Course: A Conceptual Framework". Sociological Perspectives. University of California Press. 53 (2): 155–178. doi:10.1525/sop.2010.53.2.155. JSTOR 10.1525/sop.2010.53.2.155
  4. Harvey, John H.; Wenzel, Amy; Sprecher, Susan, eds. (2004). The Handbook of Sexuality in Close Relationships. Mahwah, New Jersey: Taylor & Francis. p. 900. ISBN 9781135624699. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  5. Strong, Bryan; Cohen, Theodore (2013). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationships in a Changing Society. Belmont, California: Cengage Learning. p. 50. ISBN 1133597467. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  12. Louie, Sam (June 21, 2017). "Involuntary Celibacy" (in en). 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Baker, Peter (February 29, 2016). "What Happens to Men Who Can't Have Sex" (in en-US). Elle. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Burleigh, Nina (May 27, 2014). "Inside the terrifying, twisted online world of involuntary celibates" (in en-US). Salon. 
  19. Schallhorn, Kaitlyn (2018-04-24). "'Incel' sexual frustration 'rebellion' at center of Toronto attack" (in en-US). Fox News. 
  20. Ling, Justin; Mahoney, Jill; McGuire, Patrick; Freeze, Colin (April 24, 2018). "The ‘incel’ community and the dark side of the internet". The Globe and Mail. 
  21. Ling, Justin; Mahoney, Jill; McGuire, Patrick; Freeze, Colin (2018-04-24). "The ‘incel’ community and the dark side of the internet". The Globe and Mail. 
  24. Donnelly, Denise; Burgess, Elisabeth; Anderson, Sally; Davis, Regina; Dillard, Joy (2001). "Involuntary Celibacy: A life course analysis". The Journal of Sex Research 38: 159–169. 
  25. Donnelly, Denise; Burgess, Elisabeth; Anderson, Sally; Davis, Regina; Dillard, Joy (2001). "Involuntary Celibacy: A life course analysis". The Journal of Sex Research 38: 159–169. 
  26. Shehan, Constance L., ed (February 29, 2016). "Celibacy". The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies. 1. John Wiley & Sons. p. 238. ISBN 9780470658451. 
  27. Carpenter, Laura M. (2010). "Gendered Sexuality over the Life Course: A Conceptual Framework". Sociological Perspectives. University of California Press. 53 (2): 155–178. " JSTOR 10.1525/sop.2010.53.2.155
  28. Paris, Jenell Williams (2011). The End of Sexual Identity: Why Sex Is Too Important to Define Who We Are. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press. pp. 132–133. ISBN 083086850X. Retrieved 2015-12-30
  29. Book: A History of Celibacy, Elizabeth Abbot, Da Capo Press, New York, 2001, chapter:Coerced Celibacy: Involuntary Celibacy, pages:303-337, isbn:0-306-81041-7
  30. Harvey, John H.; Wenzel, Amy; Sprecher, Susan, eds. (2004). The Handbook of Sexuality in Close Relationships. Mahwah, New Jersey: Taylor & Francis. p. 900. ISBN 9781135624699. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  31. Strong, Bryan; Cohen, Theodore (2013). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationships in a Changing Society. Belmont, California: Cengage Learning. p. 50. ISBN 1133597467. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  34. Author: Elizabeth Rice, Allgeier, year=1988, Book Review: Shyness & Love: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment, journal: Journal of Sex Research, volume:25, issue: 2, pages: 309–315, doi=10.1080/00224498809551463
  35. Author: Jonathan M. Cheek, year=1989, title: Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, volume=34, issue=8, pages=791–792
  46. Dewey, Caitlin (October 7, 2015). "Incels, 4chan and the Beta Uprising: making sense of one of the Internet’s most-reviled subcultures" (in en-US). Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. 
  47. Hudson, Jennifer L., and Ronald M. Rapee. "The origins of social phobia." Behavior Modification 24.1 (2000): 102-129
  48. Maja Roedenbeck: Und wer küsst mich? Absolute Beginners – Wenn die Liebe auf sich warten lässt. Berlin 2012, S. 41.
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