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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in 2012.
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Democracy is like a train. We shall get out when we arrive at the station we want.
—"Sultan" Erdoğan[1]

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[note 1] (1954–) is a Turkish politician serving as the 12th and current president of Turkey since 2014. He came to power as head of the Islamist Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP in Turkish), promising to solve the country’s economic and social problems. A religious nationalist populist who came from poverty, he first became Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998, earning a good name for himself as an honest politician and a man of the people. He later served as Prime Minister from 2003 to 2014, and in 2014, became President. Under his tenure as President, Turkey has experienced massive democratic backsliding and economic decline, as he rules much more in the manner of past Sultans than Presidents. Current ETA is: "It's done when it's done".

The AKP is the first religion-based party to gain power since modern Turkey was established as a secular republic in the 1920s under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Erdoğan himself is an authoritarian figure whose violent suppression of a protest in Istanbul caused a massive counter-reaction lasting several weeks. His inflammatory, over-the-top remarks fueled the protests and led to a widening of support for the demonstrators.

He has an autocratic style and thinks his majoritarian credentials give him carte blanche to treat any who opposes him as scum, making him the most powerful Turkish leader since Atatürk. He greatly reduced the power of the military with his frequent purges (i.e. weakening the only thing that can challenge his authority), and is in the process of introducing a new, authoritarian constitution.[note 2] Erdoğan currently controls the largest military in Europe (if one considers Turkey to be European) and is the most powerful player in the Middle East outside of the Gulf States. So Erdoğan's authoritarianism worries democracy proponents.


Despite his autocratic style, and his Islamist influences (which are very mild compared to most Middle Eastern forms of Islamism), Erdoğan has occasionally been a democratizing force for Turkey. Due to his reforms, the chances of a military coup occurring were thought to be slim to none.

But this isn't such an obviously good thing as it might first appear. To describe the role of the military in Turkish politics as "complex" is a massive understatement. Unlike other countries, the Turkish military tends to act as a stabilizing force. It sees itself as the guardian of "Kemalism," the principles of modern Turkey's founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, which include secularism and republicanism. In 1980, the military staged a coup after national politics was paralyzed by waves of political violence that killed thousands and brought the economy to near-total collapse. The military were hardly Boy Scouts – imprisoning and torturing many thousands in the aftermath of the coup – but they stabilized the economy and within three years restored at least a nominal democracy. Since then, the fiercely secularist military have intervened twice (in 1997 and 2007) to nudge out or forestall the election of Islamist presidents. These latter episodes cast Erdoğan's efforts to limit the military in an interesting light.[4]


Erdoğan is yet another Armenian Genocide denialist. Yet he has no issue accusing other nations of genocide or genocidal intent, such as France[5] or Israel.[6] In 2008, he criticised a group of intellectuals who decided that the genocide really happened, saying "Muslims do not commit genocide."[7][8] He has also overseen a drift towards reduction of minority rights, freedom of the press, and free speech.[9]

Mass protests in 2013[edit]

In 2013, Erdoğan's government authorised the building of a supermarket in a small park in İstanbul, a large city with few parks. This sparked a protest by locals who wanted to keep hold of their local bit of greenery (and who already had enough supermarkets). Riot police moved in on a peaceful sit-in, provoking national sympathy for the protestors. Demonstrations erupted across Turkey against Islamism and authoritarianism. Erdoğan's inflammatory remarks (routinely calling people "looters" and, of course, "terrorists") only served to fuel the fire.[10]


Erdoğan has been accused of following Putinism, which is a special blend of authoritarianism focusing on nationalism, social conservatism, state capitalism, and government domination of the media.[11]

Much like Putin, Erdoğan's decades-long ultranationalist leadership led to the development of his own ideology, which many have called "Erdoğanism," or Erdoğancılık if you're Turkish. The phrase first emerged when he won the 2011 general election. Described by Turkish writers as an ideology of "elective dictatorship," Erdoğanism is a form of populist authoritarianism (or illiberal democracy) characterized by a strong centralized leadership, glorification of the Ottoman Empire, support for a religious government, opposition to secularism, weakening of the military's influence in politics, suspicion of the West and all perceived Western values or beliefs, disdain for all institutions that challenge the strongman (such as checks and balances or the very idea of separation of powers), and the reestablishment of Turkey as a regional and potentially continental power, all held together by Erdoğan's cult of personality.

Ironically, many Islamists find Erdoğan's personality cult to be deeply offensive, anti-democratic, and even counter-Islamic, because they believe only God is worthy of such deep devotion from the masses, not a mortal blowhard who may lead to the economic ruin (at best) of their country. His alliance with Islamists only lasts if they keep him in power, same with the military, and if either institutions try to reduce his power, he will undermine them in every way possible. Again much like Putin, Erdoğan holds significant control over the media, demonizes and marginalizes the opposition, tries to rig elections in his favor (like when he cancelled and forced a re-run of the Istanbul mayoral election), purges government workers and replaces them with his fanatics (post-coup attempt), arrests reporters and journalists for accurately reporting the news, frequently makes bizarre speeches ranting about the West, pushes through socially conservative policies to embolden his deeply theocratic base, and turns on his former billionaire supporters if they dare challenge his decisions or criticize his policies.

His love affair with the past deserves more of a spotlight. Repeatedly calling for - and actively ushering in - the borderline abolition of Kemalist secularism, Erdoğan has all but announced that Turkey will be a Neo-Ottoman dictatorship if he maintains power, with the same populist throwbacks to "Holy Empire" that Russia invokes. And much like certain periods of Ottoman rule, Erdoğan has been pushing for social legislation that seems like it comes straight from the Qur'an such as curbs on drinking alcohol and abortion. This has led to some controversy in Turkey.[12] He is an Armenian Genocide denier, he sees himself as a modern day Sultan, he dislikes ethnic minorities who dare to challenge his rule, and he views the Middle East as his country's rightful backyard, throwing support behind Turkic nations (see Azerbaijan) or Islamist factions while using the region as a chess match with other nations, including France and ironically Russia. Erdoğan views the pro-European, rakı-drinking businessmen of İstanbul in a very similar way as Trump sees California, or Farage sees Gibraltar, Scotland or Northern Ireland. In fact, much like Trump, Erdoğan's demonization of the left wing is tinged with racism, as the Kurdish people (particularly younger Kurds) are frequently met with police brutality.

Much like Russia's Putin and the Communist Party of China, international analysts believe that Erdoğan's power comes from the fact that Turkey's economy is growing and that the nation's people will generally let him do whatever the hell he wants in exchange for economic prosperity. Under Erdoğan, Turkey has joined Russia, Hungary (to a lesser extent), and other states that mix (somewhat) free market capitalism with an illiberal democracy.[13]

Despite this, Putin and Erdoğan have had an uneasy relationship. Turkey has supported Azerbaijan and Russia supported Armenia via the Wagner GroupWikipedia in the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war.Wikipedia Turkey has played both sides in Russia's invasion of Ukraine by supplying military drones to Ukraine,[14] but also by buying grain allegedly from Russia that was stolen from Ukraine.[15] In the end, Turkey's best interests will always be for Turkey and no one else, and Erdoğan's embodiment of that hardheadedness is why he has such strong domestic support.

President Asshole[edit]

Ak Saray, the asshole palace

While still serving as Prime Minister, Erdoğan pulled a Putin and ran for the Presidency. While the position is supposed to be nonpartisan and neutral, Erdoğan openly stated that he would not abide by neutrality, and used his newfound authority to appoint, not nominate, his successor as head of the right-wing AKP and Prime Minister. The Cabinet remains dominated by Erdoğan loyalists, meaning his policies and his agenda would still be pursued by the government.

During the June 2015 election, Erdoğan publicly called for voters to give a majority to his former party, the AKP, which is a brazenly illegal move since it, once again, violates presidential neutrality. In February 2015, a 13-year-old child was arrested after allegedly criticizing Erdoğan on Facebook. He passed new laws that gave greater power to the government over the judiciary, including the authority to sack secular judges and stacking courts with AKP supporters. He signed into law a bill that allows the government to block websites without prior court order on 12 September 2014. He was able to briefly ban Twitter and YouTube.

He created an obscenely large and opulent Presidential Palace in a 50-acre area that was legally and judicially-protected land. Construction of the palace resumed, and the end result is a visually offensive Sultanesque throne that spans 300,000 m2 (3,200,000 sq ft). Ak Saray, the name of the palace, was originally designed as a new office for the Prime Minister. However, upon assuming the presidency, Erdoğan unilaterally announced that the palace would become the new Presidential Palace, while the Çankaya Köşkü—the previous and historical office of the presidency — will be used by the Prime Minister instead. The Ak Saray has almost 1,000 rooms and cost $350 million (€270 million); the workers clearly won't reap the benefits of what they made from it.

It came to a head in June 2015. Long story short, he wanted a supermajority in parliament for the AKP, which would allow Erdoğan to pass constitutional reforms that would transition Turkey into a presidential republic and expand his set of powers. The good people of Turkey, however, voted for the secular, social democratic Kurdish party instead, denying him not only the supermajority but relegating the AKP to a minority government that has to form a coalition if it plans to stay in power.

This didn't last long. His AKP party couldn't form a coalition government, and Erdoğan called snap elections in October of 2015. Erdoğan intensified crackdowns on the press,[16] ordered the police to raid the offices of two Turkish opposition newspapers using water cannon and tear gas,[17] and exploited a double suicide bombing in Ankara, which left nearly 100 Kurds, leftists and union members at an anti-war rally dead, as a wedge issue to net him some more votes. It was the worst terrorist attack to ever occur on Turkish soil, and many are accusing Erdoğan of allowing it to happen.[18] He later won a comfortable majority in the October 2015 election, but still short of the supermajority needed to change the constitution in his favor.

In March 2016, a conservative newspaper, Zaman, was raided by government forces and seized.[19] Activists urging for peace with the Kurds face imprisonment.[20] The crackdown continued even as Erdoğan visited Washington, D.C., when his goons roughed up protesters and activists, while he tried to further encroach on freedom of the press.[21]

Role in the Syrian Civil War[edit]

This is easily his most uncomfortable policy. As a strident opponent of Bashar al-Assad and a supporter of regime change in Syria,[22] Erdoğan became a leading instigator in the proxy war within Syria. As early as 2012, when the civil war began, the CIA funneled weapons into the hands of anti-Assad forces from the Turkish side of the border, using Turkey's connections with the Muslim Brotherhood to do so.[23] Can Dündar, the Editor-in-Chief of news outlet Cumhuriyet, published video footage confirming that Turkish trucks, ostensibly loaded with humanitarian supplies, were actually filled with arms bound for terror groups fighting against Assad, and that those trucks were operated by Turkey’s National Intelligence Organization (MİT). Erdoğan called for a life sentence to Dündar for releasing the evidence.[24]

That same website distributed video footage and transcripts of wiretaps to Turkish courts accusing Turkish security forces of assisting in shelling and support operations for Nusra Front (al-Qaeda) in and around Kassab, Syria, among other sites.[25][26] Audio was released on YouTube showing Erdoğan contemplating carrying out an actual false flag operation within Syria to justify open military intervention; he tried banning YouTube again after the audio was leaked.[27]

According to Reuters, Erdoğan set up a secret base with Saudi Arabia and Qatar to "direct vital military and communications aid" to Syria’s opposition from a city near the border. "It’s the Turks who are militarily controlling it.[27] Turkey is the main coordinator/facilitator. Think of a triangle, with Turkey at the top and Saudi Arabia and Qatar at the bottom," said a Doha-based source.[27] In early 2015, Turkey carried out a military incursion into Syria, supposedly to "evacuate" the tomb of Süleyman Shah, the grandfather of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire.[28] Mujahideen were allowed entry to and from the Turkish border with Syria; many of those foreign fighters, as well as the armed opposition, ended up joining the Islamic State.

It's not even a question anymore: Ankara directly assisted and cooperated with DAESH and other terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq against Bashar al-Assad.[29] Furthermore, Turkey has openly supported Ahrar al-Sham and Jabhat al-Nusra, both of which are aligned with al-Qaeda.[30] When the Islamic State besieged the town of Kobani, Turkey refused to help the Kurdish defenders, despite having dozens of tanks and hundreds of troops stationed hundreds of meters away from the battlefield. Demonstrations demanding that Turkey come to the Kurds’ aid were suppressed by the police, and hundreds of Kurds were killed by DAESH before Kobani pushed them out.

After a building was bombed by militants within Turkey, Erdoğan ordered bombings… on non-state Kurdish fighters in Iraq and Syria, who are specifically fighting DAESH.[31] This was after Ankara-backed American lobbyists tried to block U.S. military assistance to Kurdish fighters in 2014. While there have been a few token strikes against DAESH over the course of months, Erdoğan is focusing almost all of his effort on the Kurds instead, and is ignoring Daesh, because he is that afraid of Kurdish autonomy (Kurds make up 20% of the population in Turkey).[32] In fact, on 28 June, 2015, Erdoğan reportedly urged parliament to strip lawmakers of immunity from prosecution if they have ties to militants. This is a shot across the bow at the HDP, the secular and progressive Kurdish opposition party that #REKT him in the 2015 election. If he succeeds, the HDP MPs will be arrested, and Erdoğan will call for early elections, so he can get the super-majority needed to change the constitution in his favor.[33] The vast majority of arrests after the bombing in Turkey were directed at Kurds and Erdoğan's left-wing opponents.[34] He has since blocked Twitter once images of violence against Kurds made the rounds online.[35] To this day, Erdoğan continues to fire tank shells at anti-ISIS Kurdish fighters in Syria on almost a weekly basis, destroying vehicles and wounding fighters.

Also, to reiterate, because it bears repeating: he is directly assisting ISIS.[36]

The man can take no criticism[edit]

Erdoğan is well known in Turkey for suing people who make fun of him or criticize him or expose anything that would show him in a bad light. Unfortunately, Erdoğan has an increasingly not-independent justice system and the police at his disposal, so most of the time Erdoğan ends up winning. When, in 2016, German TV made a mildly funny video about him,[37] that earned the German ambassador a stern talking to (pretty much the harshest thing you can do in the diplomatic relations of two "friendly" nations). As a reaction to this Jan Böhmermann made a "poem" that insulted Erdoğan[38] to prove a point about what satire can and cannot do. Naturally, Erdoğan sued (with the help of a 19th-century German law against the insulting of crowned heads) and the federal government signed off on prosecution.

Turkey saw an overwhelming increase in Internet censorship during his rule. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Ekşi SözlükWikipedia (Turkey's equivalent of Reddit, but much worse) have been banned once in a while, for no obvious reason. Censorship is often used to silence the critics and sweep under the carpet what the people shouldn't hear in the past to protect children from the harms of the Internet. The Other Wiki was banned until October 15, 2020, for its English-language article about Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil WarWikipedia (which tells how Turkey supported Islamic militants in Syria the lies spread by FETÖ to disinform the public[citation NOT needed]).

Taking over Turkey[edit]

2016 military coup attempt[edit]

See the Wikipedia article on 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt.

On July 15, 2016, a significant portion of the Turkish military initiated a coup against Erdoğan's government. Denied landing rights in İstanbul, Erdoğan reportedly sought asylum in Germany and was contacted using FaceTime on his smartphone. Erdoğan called for his supporters to rise up in the streets against the military, which they did.[39] Despite flights in and out of the country being temporarily suspended, Erdoğan appeared in İstanbul in public, a suggestion that the coup's attempts were faltering,[40] and it was called off by July 16 – even most of Erdoğan's detractors in Turkey didn't want a military takeover of the country.[41][42]

The main opposition party calls it a "controlled coup", meaning the coup attempt was recognized in advance by the secret service and used it as a chance to seize absolute power for Erdoğan and destroy the opposition and Gülen movement which accused Erdoğan for his corruption,[43] what was effectively a self-coup. Ergdogan has abducted at least 80 Gülen supporters from abroad as part of his persecution of the sect, amounting to crimes against humanity.[44]:184-185

After the end of the failed coup, over 270 or more people were killed,[45] 8,000 of the 10,000 detained soldiers were arrested.[46]

Excuse to consolidate power[edit]

See the Wikipedia article on 2016 Turkish purges.

After the failed coup, Erdoğan went full Palpatine by declaring a state of emergency, which has granted him greater powers, and by suspending the compliance of Turkey to the European Convention on Human Rights. Mass arrests, detentions and dismissals followed. According to Amnesty International, several detainees awaiting trial were deprived of basic necessities (sleep, food, water and medical treatment), and the right to contact their families and lawyers, and were beaten, tortured, and raped by law enforcement officers.[47] Erdoğan blamed US-based Turkish cleric Fethullah Gülen for the uprising and demanded his extradition; and targeted anyone believed to be tied to or sympathetic to Gülen in any way.[48][49]

A few months after the coup, members of Erdoğan's party proposed a bill that would change the Constitution to transfer more power to the president. It would abolish the position of Prime Minister, and grants the president the power to appoint and sack all government ministers, dissolve the Parliament, and declare a state of emergency.[50] The bill passed in 2017.[51]

Within Switzerland there has been a PKK-rally where people call for the murder of Erdoğan and has targeted the Turkish consulate with graffiti along the same line, a move which is supported by the Swiss Green Party.[52][53][54]

Erdoğan has also largely marginalized the judicial branch by flat out ignoring what they say.[55]

The largest purge was in the field of education, in which "…15,200 education ministry officials lost their jobs and 21,000 private school teachers had their licences revoked…"[56] Additionally, Erdoğan shut down 626 educational institutions[57] Shortly thereafter, Erdoğan ordered the closure of "…1,043 private schools, 1,229 charities and foundations, 19 trade unions, 15 universities and 35 medical institutions over suspected links to the Gulen movement…"[58] The enormous breadth of the academic firings and closures was indicative of how crucial anti-intellectualism was to Erdoğan's fascistic direction.[59]:51-52

Decline in popularity[edit]

See the Wikipedia article on 2018-21 Turkish currency and debt crisis.

Since 2018, Erdoğan and the AKP have experienced a decline in popularity to the point where his approval rating is now negative and he was viewed as being vulnerable in the 2023 Turkish Presidential Election. This is mainly due to a currency and debt crisis in Turkey which has seen the falling value of Turkey's currency, high inflation, rising borrowing costs, and correspondingly rising loan defaults. Which has been partly caused by Erdoğan's increasing authoritarianism and his unorthodox ideas about interest rate policy (mainly opposing interest rate hikes meant to control the inflation).[60] Some have also noted Turkey's increasing tensions with the United States and Trump's tariffs on some Turkish products such as steel and aluminum in what may be one of most stopped clock moments of Trump's presidency.[61]

The economic crisis that ensued after his re-election culminated in a major defeat in the local elections of March 2019, with the opposition uniting and winning control of most of the big cities.[62] Most notably, the opposition candidate in Istanbul won by just 13,000 votes or 0.2% after the pro-government candidate, former Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım, was on the lead for hours past midnight. Binali Yıldırım and Erdoğan didn't like the result, and after numerous objections and recounts, got the electoral commission to nullify the election and order a re-run to be held in June.[63] This backfired spectacularly, and İmamoğlu won the second vote with a 9% difference, becoming the first non-Islamist mayor of Istanbul since 1994.[64]

2023 reelection[edit]

Erdoğan was reelected to a 5th term in office in 2023 in a close election against unity candidate Kemal Kilicdaroglu.[65] The elections were regarded by some as 'free but not fair' due governmental assault on "media freedom, freedom of political organisation, and freedom of expression".[66] [67]

See also[edit]


  1. By the way, the ğ is silent, as it always is in Turkish.
  2. The current 1982 constitution was written by the generals,[2] who were historically responsible for numerous coups.[3]


  1. ‘Sultan’ Erdogan: the end of Turkey’s secular state? by Felicity Spector (4 June 2013) Channel 4 News.
  2. See the Wikipedia article on Constitution of Turkey.
  3. See the Wikipedia article on Turkish coup d'état.
  4. Turkish Leader Disowns Trials That Helped Him Tame Military by Tim Arango (Feb. 26, 2014) The New York Times.
  5. Turkey accuses France of genocide in Algeria: Turkish prime minister ramps up diplomatic spat, saying French killed 15% of Algeria's population during postwar occupation by Angelique Chrisafis (23 Dec 2011 10.08 EST) The Guardian.
  6. Erdogan accuses Israel of seeking 'systematic genocide' in Gaza (July 17, 2014) AFP via Yahoo! News.
  7. Turkey: Democracy, Yes, But No Model by Henri Barkey & Morton Abramowitz (February 19, 2011) Politico via Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  8. Erdogan's blind faith in Muslims by Seth Freedman (11 Nov 2009 05.00 EST) The Guardian.
  9. Inching away from democracy? Observers fear rise of ‘illiberal democracy’. by Toby Vogel (January 18, 2012 9:34 pm) Politico.
  10. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan dismisses Turkey protesters as vandals: Turkish prime minister challenges anti-government protesters to beat his party at the ballot box as demonstrations enter 10th day (9 Jun 2013 12.16 EDT) AP via The Guardian.
  11. The rise of Putinism by Fareed Zakaria (July 31, 2014) The Washington Post.
  12. Turkey’s Authoritarian Turn by Seyla Benhabib (June 3, 2013) The New York Times.
  13. Presidential Election Set to Seal Erdogan's Supremacy by Hasnain Kazim & Maximilian Popp (06.08.2014, 15.28 Uhr) Der Spiegel.
  14. Putin hosts Erdogan for talks on trade, Ukraine, Syria By Vladimir Isachenkov & Zeynep Bilginsoy (August 5, 2022) AP.
  15. Ukraine envoy says Turkey among destinations of grain stolen by Russia (June 3, 20226:24 AM PDT) Reuters.
  16. #FreeRasool: International News Editors Express Concern Over Turkish 'Climate of Intimidation' (October 30, 2015, 7:25am) Vice News.
  17. Turkish police raid Istanbul media group Koza-Ipek (28 October 2015) BBC News.
  18. Mass Anti-Government Protest Held After Turkey’s Worst Terror Attack Ever: The nation is still reeling from twin bombings that killed at least 95 people on Saturday. (Oct 11, 2015, 03:40 PM EDT; Updated Jan 3, 2017) Reuters via HuffPost.
  19. Zaman newspaper: Seized Turkish daily 'now pro-government' (6 March 2016) BBC News.
  20. Turkish academics jailed for ‘making terrorism propaganda’ by Alison Abbott (16 March 2016) Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19586.
  21. Turkish President Visits Washington, Clashes With Journalists by Laurel Raymond (Mar 31, 2016 4:23 pm) Think Progress (archived from April 5, 2016).
  22. US and Turkey discuss possible regime change in Syria (November 23 2014 16:14:49) Hürriyet Daily News.
  23. C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition by Eric Schmitt (June 21, 2012) The New York Times.
  24. Messages of support pour in for Dündar over possible life sentence (June 03, 2015) Today's Zaman (Archived from the original on June 4, 2015).
  25. Cumhuriyet publishes video for weaponry in lorries affiliated to Turkish intelligence by Syria Fighting Terrorism (May 29, 2015) YouTube.
  26. Cihatçılara TSK'dan ‘topçu’ desteği... İşte o telefon konuşmaları by Ahmet Şık (12 February 2015) Cumhuriyet.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Secret Turkish nerve center leads aid to Syria rebels by Regan Doherty & Amena Bakr (July 27, 20124:37 AM) Reuters.
  28. Turkey enters Syria to remove precious Suleyman Shah tomb (22 February 2015) BBC News.
  29. Senior Western official: Links between Turkey and ISIS are now 'undeniable' (Jul 28, 2015, 12:57 PM) Business Insider.
  30. Turkey sends in jets as Syria’s agony spills over every border: Turkish air strikes in Syria last week signalled a new phase in a conflict that has left its bloody mark on every country in the region. But will the Turks now agree to US demands to cease all clandestine dealings with Islamic State? by Martin Chulov (25 Jul 2015 19.07 EDT) The Guardian.
  31. Turkey's Political Influence Felt as Washington Turns Its Back on Kurds Fighting ISIS: Kurdish militias have provided a rare bright spot in the battle against the Islamic State. But they’re being left high and dry as Turkey flexes its political muscle in Washington and applies its military might in the region. by Lee Fang (July 29 2015, 6:58 a.m.) The Intercept
  32. Turkey’s Focus on Crushing Kurdish Separatists Complicates the Fight Against ISIS by Anne Barnard (July 28, 2015) The New York Times.
  33. Turkey launches heaviest air strikes yet on PKK, stoking Kurdish ire by Humeyra Pamuk & Nick Tattersall (July 29, 201512:43 AM) Reuters.
  34. Turkey, U.S. aim for zone cleared of Islamic State in northern Syria by Nick Tattersall & Phil Stewart (July 27, 20151:03 AM) Reuters.
  35. Twitter Still Accessible In Turkey Despite User Reports Of Block, Company Says by Salvador Rodriguez (09/08/15 AT 8:54 PM) International Business Times.
  36. The Cost of Turkey’s Self-Interest by Khairuldeen Makhzoomi (Dec 28, 2015, 02:20 PM EST; Updated Dec 6, 2017) HuffPost.
  37. Song: Erdowie, Erdowo, Erdogan by extra 3 | NDR (Mar 17, 2016) 'YouTube.
  38. Schmähkritik (Gedicht an Recep Tayyip Erdoğan) by Jan Böhmermann (31.3.2016) Vimeo.
  39. Turkey rounds up plot suspects after thwarting coup against Erdogan by David Dolan & Gulsen Solaker (July 16, 2016) Reuters via Yahoo! News.
  40. Turkish President Returns to Istanbul in Sign Military Coup Is Faltering by Tim Arango & Ceylan Yeginsu (July 15, 2016) The New York Times.
  41. Turkey Detains Thousands of Military Personnel by Tim Arango & Ceylan Yeginsu (July 16, 2016) The New York Times.
  42. Turkey rounds up thousands of suspected participants in coup attempt by Erin Cunningham et al. (July 16, 2016) The Washington Post.
  43. Leaked document sheds light on Turkey's 'controlled coup' by Selcuk Gultasli & Andrew Rettman (11. Mar 2019, 12:15) EUobserver.
  44. Strongmen: Mussolini to the Present by Ruth Ben-Ghiat (2021) W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393868419.
  45. Turkey shuts 1,000 schools, arrests wanted cleric’s nephew: Erdogan government extends police powers as it pushes on with purge of perceived state enemies after failed coup by Frank Zeller & Stuart Williams (23 July 2016, 5:17 pm) The Times of Israel.
  46. Military says 8,651 soldiers participated in Turkey’s coup attempt (July 27 2016 16:17:43) Hürriyet Daily News.
  47. Turkey: Independent monitors must be allowed to access detainees amid torture allegations (July 24, 2016) Amnesty International.
  48. Fethullah Gülen: who is the man Turkey's president blames for coup attempt? by Peter Beaumont (16 Jul 2016 04.46 EDT) The Guardian.
  49. Turkey's Erdogan blames Gulen followers for role in bomb attacks (August 18, 20167:53 AM) Reuters.
  50. Turkey's ruling, nationalist parties submit bill to empower Erdogan by Ari Khalidi (10 December 2016) Kurdistan 24 (archived from December 13, 2016).
  51. Turkey’s Constitutional Coup by Aslı Bâli (Fall 2018) Middle East Research and Information Project.
  52. Switzerland opens probe into ‘Kill Erdoğan’ poster in pro-PKK rally in Bern (Mar 26, 2017 - 12:00 am GMT+3) Daily Sabah.
  53. Turkish consulate in Zurich vandalized with paint, ‘Kill Erdoğan’ reappears in Swiss streets (May 01, 2017 - 12:00 am GMT+3) Daily Sabah.
  54. Switzerland: ‘Kill Erdogan’ sign not against the law (May 10, 2017) Middle East Monitor.
  55. Court dismissed - Turkey’s highest court is ignored by the government (Feb 8th 2018) The Economist.
  56. Turkey-PKK conflict: Thousands of teachers suspended (8 September 2016) BBC.
  57. Turkey shuts 626 mostly-private educational institutions: Turkish official (July 20, 201610:00 AM) Reuters.
  58. Turkey's Erdogan shuts schools, charities in first state of emergency decree by Gareth Jones & Ercan Gurses (July 23, 20161:48 AM) Reuters.
  59. How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them by Jason Stanley (2018) Random House. ISBN 9780525511830.
  60. Erdogan Is Failing Economics 101: Turkey’s president has made a huge bet that he's right and all of the world’s economic experts are wrong. by Borzou Daragahi (May 25, 2018, 4:05 PM) Foreign Policy.
  61. Making Sense of Turkey's Economic Crisis by Reva Goujon (Aug 16, 2018 | 09:00 GMT) RANE Worldview.
  62. Erdogan Appears to Suffer Major Defeats in Turkey’s Two Biggest Cities by Carlotta Gall (March 31, 2019) The New York Times.
  63. Son dakika… İstanbul seçimleri yenileniyor (06.05.2019 - 19:23; Updated 07.05.2019 - 10:11) Haber Turk.
  64. İmamoğlu v. Yildirim (23 June 2019) Sözcü.
  65. Turkiye's Erdogan wins 5th term as president, extending rule into 3rd decade (May 29, 2023, 06:53 AM IST) AP via The Economic Times.
  66. Turkey elections: The myth of ‘free but not fair’: Claims Turkish elections are ‘free but not fair’ ignore many years of systematic repression of the Kurdish-led opposition by Matt Broomfield (1:45 pm 15/05/2023) Medya News.
  68. [The Breakdown of Erdoganomics] by Hadin Sayed (May 17, 2022) Michigan Journal of Economics.