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Bronze-level article

Adolf Hitler

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Hitler appearing somewhere relevant for a change
A lunatic Chaplin imitator
and his greatest fans

Nazism
Icon nazi.svg
First as tragedy
Then as farce
The colorful pseudoscience
Racialism
Icon race.svg
Hating thy neighbour
Divide and conquer
Dog-whistlers
Anyone who sees and paints a sky green and fields blue ought to be sterilized.
—Adolf Hitler, contracted statement about his elitist taste in art.[1][2]
Germany's back, featuring Hitler, the angry mustache model. And he's mad at the Jews for existing.
—bill wurtz on Nazi Germany[3]

Adolf[note 1] Elizabeth[4] Schicklgruber[note 2] Hitler (1889–1945) was leader of the German Nazi Party from 1921, chancellor and eventually dictator, or Führer ("leader"), of Nazi Germany from 1933 until his suicide in 1945.

Hitler was Austrian by birth and came to power by way of a series of legal and extralegal maneuverings. His decidedly toxic message of racism and antisemitism is summed up in his manifesto, Mein Kampf, written while imprisoned in the 1920s after trying to lead a coup d'état[note 3] against the Weimar Republic. The copyright is owned in the U.S. by Houghton Mifflin through 2015 and access may be illegal depending on your local copyright and censorship laws, so read at your own risk.[5] The book may damage your intelligence permanently as well as being as badly written — but with less thought put into it — as Das Kapital. Meth will do that.[6][7]

Hitler was a bad human being, though solely as a politician he was probably the greatest that ever lived, as he invented modern politics: discredit the opposition, create fear to control the population, make a permanent enemy that isn't tangible, push agendas in state-controlled media and glorify the military as heroes to the nation like some sort of Mycaenan Greek city-state. There's politicians today in most countries that use his ideas and are actually proud of it. Call him what you want, but he was simply not a bad politician. However, he was a comedically bad military strategist.

Hitler was also a vegetarian,[note 4] but not a strict one and this was not so much a matter of principle as a result of his doctor's attempt to cure him of gastric problems.[8][9]

Most evil human ever?[edit]

Try explaining Hitler to a kid.
George Carlin, Brain Droppings[10]

As the leading perpetrator of the most destructive war in modern history and for his role in the murder of six million European Jews, several million ethnic Slavs (among others), gypsies, homosexuals and communists, he is viewed by some as being the most evil person ever to have lived. It is estimated that over 12 million people were killed as a result of the Holocaust (about 1.5 times the current population of New York City[11]) not counting the even larger number of victims who never even saw a concentration camp (some 13+ million civilians were murdered in cold blood, worked or starved to death in the Soviet Union alone).[12] Remarkably, this lunatic still has some admirers, although thankfully not quite as many as his lunatic contemporary Joseph Stalin, who killed a mere six to nine million (according to the "nicest" estimates at least; estimates from most mainstream historians put Stalin's death toll at about 20 million, though one could argue that since Stalin wasn't the main provoker of World War II and since Hitler planned to kill far more people if he'd had the chance, Hitler was still worse).[13][14] This is partially evidenced by the fact that one can praise Stalin in public without fear of retribution.[note 5] Regardless Mao Zedong is responsible for more civilian deaths [excluding World War II as a whole] then both Stalin and Hitler combined--but to be fair he had more people to kill. Timur the Lame may be the worst person in terms of proportion of the earth killed (5% or essentially 1 in every 20 people on earth were killed under his rule).[15][16]

The hive of unrelenting racists known as Metapedia likes to refer to Hitler "uniting Europe against the evil Communist menace", when in reality it was communist and non-communist Europe uniting against him and the countries he had bullied into throwing in with Germany, with communism dying off over 45 years afterward.

Despite what role Hitler may have had in the success of his genocidal quest, as an individual he had a finite existence and finite power and was reliant on a great many subordinates to push his agenda through. It could be argued that his own actions did not make him solely accountable for those who chose to follow him and enable his influence. However, he governed according to the Führerprinzip, according to which the top leader takes on responsibility for all decisions, with his underlings being only "advisers", so it could also be argued that Hitler himself took on some responsibility for the actions of his followers (although not all the responsibility).

The Holocaust was one of the deadliest genocides in human history and probably the most well documented.[17][note 6] it is distinguished for being the first implementation of industrialized mass murder (Industrialisierter Massenmord), with the sole purpose of exterminating an entire race of human beings.

Death toll[edit]

The Holocaust / Nazi war crimes and genocideWikipedia's W.svg:

Total: 13,618,250 to 25,695,692

(Hitler is often blamed for the deaths during World War II which killed 70 to 80 million including 48 to 58.5 million civilians,Wikipedia's W.svg to be fair
3[42] to 30[43] million of those were killed by the Japanese who arguably started the war before Hitler during the invasion of ManchuriaWikipedia's W.svg.)

Hitler's war[edit]

That's Adolf Hitler. He was leader of the runners-up in World War II.
—Arnold Rimmer
A Soviet motivational poster from 1941 based on Vyacheslav Molotov's speech, whose text reads: "Napoleon was defeated. The same will happen to the delusional Hitler!"

Germany, or rather the German Empire, couldn't feed its population due to lack of farmland. It was the number one issue in the late 19th and early 20th century. Crop failures were common, so when Hitler pushed his LebensraumWikipedia's W.svg stuff in the thirties, he actually had a case. If the war had been delayed by a couple of years, the mechanization of agriculture combined with the now-possible synthetization of fertilizer with air nitrogen (via Haber-Bosch) would have discredited this dated dogma. Well, not that it would have changed anything: simply trade would have done the same thing and yet the Nazis didn't pursue that route. It was a clear-cut, violent solution to an existential problem which many people in the countryside supported.

Hitler got off to a good start by taking over most of mainland Europe, but bit off more than he could chew by simultaneously fighting Great Britain (along with her minions colonies and dominions, such as Canada, Australia, India, etc.), declaring war on the United States and invading Russia. Were he to have left Britain alone and stuck to his peace treaty with Stalin, it is likely he would have held his European mainland conquests for some time.[note 7] It is quite likely that Hitler never played the board game Risk as a child.[note 8]

His early campaigns against Poland and France were overwhelming victories for the Wehrmacht, but the reason was not Hitler's strategic "insight", rather a combination of Poland having indefensible borders and hinterland, bad planning on the French side, some reckless (but eventually successful) actions of a few German officers and a huge amount of luck.[note 9] As the years passed, his megalomania got the better of him and his later mistakes would cost him all his "gains". Obsessed with his desire to acquire more vespene gas additional "living space" (Lebensraum) for the German people, he invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. Acquiring access to cowbell strategic resources, most importantly the rich oilfields of Baku, might have been a secondary motivation for this attack. Still not satisfied with his number of opponents, he declared war on the United States after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The later stages of the war would see his growing detachment from reality, accompanied by an ever-stronger desire to micromanage the entire German military effort. Despite facing a completely hopeless situation from late 1943 onwards, he went on to order his increasingly imaginary armies (notably that of Felix Steiner) into ill-fated counterattacks on the advancing Allied troops, but when the counterattacks failed, Hitler always blamed his generals. With the Soviets on his doorstep, he finally saw fit to rant about Hermann Fegelein and off himself on 30 April 1945, ending the war in Europe. Today he's been reduced to starring in YouTube videos of him ranting in the bunker, subtitled to more or less comedic effect.

Religious beliefs[edit]

"I can't hear you! My wrist is on fire!"
See also: Religion in National Socialism, Positive Christianity, Hitler and evolution and Hitler and abortion

Hitler's religious beliefs or purported lack of religious belief are a matter of much dispute, both among serious historians and biographers and among political partisans wanting to score a cheap shot by associating Hitler with either Christianity or atheism. This has become particularly common in recent years, with pundits from the American religious right such as Ann Coulter[44] declaring Hitler an atheist, with the implication that atheists are devoid of morals and that atheism leads to extremist politics like those of Hitler. On the other side of the religious divide, many New Atheists are fond of pointing out Hitler's record as a practicing Christian. For example, Richard Dawkins, responding to a speech by Pope Benedict XVI during his Papal visit to the UK in 2010 which had associated atheism and secularism with "a Nazi tyranny that wished to eradicate God from society",[45] made a speech quoting several comments by Hitler which had made reference to God and Jesus as sources of inspiration.[46]

The problem here is that both sides are selectively cherry-picking evidence for how they view Hitler and their association fallacies aren't very effective since Hitler's beliefs and actions really didn't fit the conventional profile for either a Christian or an atheist. We cannot easily determine how far Hitler believed or did not believe favorable statements he made about Christianity. We know Hitler was a skilled manipulator and used the Nazi brand of Positive Christianity to encourage the way of thinking he wanted. Hitler was clearly not an orthodox Christian.[47]

Worthy of note is that his propaganda officer, Joseph Goebbels, sought to make Germanic paganism popular as a religious movement. Even back in his day, you would be hard-pressed to find someone who believed in the German heroic myths and considered Odin to be a supreme being, so this may well have been doomed from the start. It is unclear whether Hitler shared Goebbels' thinking on this issue.

Public expressions of faith[edit]

Hitler was confirmed as a Roman Catholic and identified as a Catholic for most or all of his life, never openly renouncing his Catholicism, though the theology he later developed for Nazi Germany (Positive Christianity) diverged considerably from Catholic beliefs and practices. Relations between the Nazi Party and the Catholic Church were uneasy. Although Pope Pius XI had an anti-Nazi encyclical read in all German Catholic churches in 1937 and his successor Pius XII (who wrote the anti-Nazi encyclical in question) has been nominated for "Righteous Among the Nations" status for his work in saving Jews during the Holocaust, the Catholic Church did not take all that much open action against the Nazis. On the other hand, one can argue that open defiance of Hitler would have risked the lives of Catholic citizens (and the Jews they might be protecting). The Church had better relations with some of Germany's fascist allies, Italy and Spain in particular, though having good relations with a country that surrounds the headquarters of your entire religion is just common sense, as well as both countries having majority Catholic populations.

As an adult, Hitler often spoke and wrote positively about religion and about Jesus Christ whom he viewed as an Aryan denouncing the corruption and decadence of Jews. References to God and divine inspiration were common in Hitler's speeches at Nazi rallies. The following are a few examples:

Today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.
My feelings as a Christian point me to my Lord and Savior as a fighter.
—Speech in Munich on 12 April 1922[49]
It matters not whether these weapons of ours are humane: if they gain us our freedom, they are justified before our conscience and before our God.
—Speech in Munich on 1 August 1923[50] (grotesque interpretation of freedom, eh?)
I may not be a light of the church, a pulpiteer, but deep down I am a pious man, and believe that whoever fights bravely in defense of the natural laws framed by God and never capitulates will never be deserted by the Lawgiver, but will, in the end, receive the blessings of Providence.
—Speech on 5 July 1944[51]

A speech he gave in 1937 also contained numerous references to God, in which he also quite explicitly refers to "God's work" in talking about human beings and their characteristics.[52]

As Chancellor, Hitler also launched an "anti-godless" campaign against atheist and freethought organizations, specifically against the atheism associated with Stalin's Communism, Gottlosenbewegung in German (literally "movement of the godless" associated with "wicked communism"). In a 1933 speech he declared "We have stamped [Gottlosenbewegung] out".

Private criticisms of Christianity[edit]

Accounts of conversations suggest that Hitler was privately much more critical of Christianity than he was in his speeches and possibly even an atheist or a deist. Most of these accounts come from Hitler's Table Talk,Wikipedia's W.svg a collection of monologues and conversations between Hitler and his inner circle of advisers and high-ranking Nazi leaders in the early 1940s, which were transcribed in shorthand at the time and later collated and published long after Hitler's death. However, the authenticity of much of what's in Table Talk has been called into question, as it's been found that much of what's in it has been deliberately altered.[53]

Regardless of what Hitler believed about God or Christ, comments in Hitler's Table Talk indicate that he was highly critical of the church and of conventional organized Christianity with its "love thy neighbor" attitude (something he saw as weak), and that he resented having to pander to Christian values for popular support. He was also very negative about Paul of Tarsus, whom he viewed as the originator of these values and as a "proto-Bolshevik". Among the most outspoken comments are the following:

Christianity is a rebellion against natural law, a protest against nature. Taken to its logical extreme, Christianity would mean the systematic cultivation of the human failure.
The best thing is to let Christianity die a natural death. A slow death has something comforting about it. The dogma of Christianity gets worn away before the advances of science. Religion will have to make more and more concessions. Gradually the myths crumble.
Science cannot lie, for it's always striving, according to the momentary state of knowledge, to deduce what is true. When it makes a mistake, it does so in good faith. It's Christianity that's the liar. It's in perpetual conflict with itself. One may ask whether the disappearance of Christianity would entail the disappearance of belief in God. That's not to be desired.
I can imagine people being enthusiastic about the paradise of Mahomet, but as for the insipid paradise of the Christians! In your lifetime, you used to hear the music of Richard Wagner. After your death, it will be nothing but hallelujahs, the waving of palms, children of an age for the feeding-bottle, and hoary old men.

This negative attitude towards Christianity (at least in its conventional form) also reflects similar comments he had made in Mein Kampf, such as: "Each one of us to-day may regret the fact that the advent of Christianity was the first occasion on which spiritual terror was introduced into the much freer ancient world".

Mein Kampf[edit]

I'm struggling!

Mein Krampf Kampf (My Struggle)[note 10] was written by Hitler whilst imprisoned for just over one year after the Munich Putsch in 1923.[54] Apparently it was edited with the help of a Roman Catholic priest, who was subsequently assassinated on the "Night of the Long Knives". It is a rambling, seemingly unedited, account of Hitler's "personal difficulties". These he attributed to the Jews who were running the capitalist system; to the same Jews who were also somehow simultaneously running the Bolsheviks trying to overthrow the capitalist system; and to the Jews who had been responsible for the surrender of Germany in 1918. Despite this autobiography being a jingoistic, über-Germanic screed, Hitler also decided to give a shoutout to fellow anti-Semite Henry Ford for his sterling propaganda efforts against the Jooz.[55]

A particularly poignant struggle was young Adolf's rejection from the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, where they advised him to try to become an architect, but he did not have a high school diploma, so he opted to try his hand at World Domination instead. The school probably still regrets this.

In the controversial The Jew of Linz, Kimberley Cornish suggested that Hitler's animosity against the Jews developed when he met one in his class at school, who was smarter than everyone else and generally irritating. His name was Ludwig Wittgenstein, who later became a philosopher. Wittgenstein, with uncharacteristic practical wisdom, fled to Oxford in the 1930s, where he did prove smarter than everyone else and threatened Karl Popper with a poker.

Mein Kampf didn't exactly sell badly until 1933, but with about 220,000 copies sold it wasn't a real bestseller either and in fact was held in contempt by most establishment conservatives and right-wing extremists (including, amusingly enough, Benito Mussolini). It wasn't until 1933 that millions of copies were printed and handed out for just about any major or minor event in the life of a German (marriage, childbirth, entry into the Nazi Party) as a gift.

Like any "bible", Mein Kampf isn't actually meant to be read by its believers. It is sprinkled with typos, boring, repetitive, and unsurprisingly poorly written. The most recent English edition is peppered with footnotes indicating each of Hitler's lies and exaggerations, starting on the first page.[56] However, the book, is often strangely hilarious. Hitler's tendency to make outrageous claims in a completely unironic and deadpan manner are a frequent source of comedy.

In fact, Istanbul-born German comedian Serdar Somuncu for a time made a living touring Germany and reading Mein Kampf in a way that made it appear as the hilarious string of badly written sentences that it is (though not as badly written as this one).[57]

The only real-life good thing to come out of this book was a minor landmark in copyright law (presuming, of course, you are in favor of copyright): the September 1941 US Supreme Court case of Houghton Mifflin v. Stackpole held that stateless persons[note 11] were entitled to copyright in the same way as other foreigners within the United States[note 12].

Finding his religion[edit]

Hitler's taste in art included anything by Arno Breker. Something you'd like to get off your chest, Adolf?

At the time of his rule, there were rumors that Hitler was a quarter Jewish because the paternity of his father was questionable and his grandmother had worked in the house of a Jewish man named Frankenburger in GrazWikipedia's W.svg. However, no evidence has been uncovered which would substantiate this rumor.[note 13] Hitler himself ordered genealogists to investigate the rumor. He concluded that he was not of Jewish ancestry and Johann Georg Hiendler was his paternal grandfather. Modern historians have also come to the conclusion that Hitler's paternal grandfather was not a Jew. This is because there is no record of Mr. Frankenburger ever having existed and because Jews were not permitted to live anywhere in StyriaWikipedia's W.svg, including Graz, until the 1860s, several decades after Hitler's father Alois Hitler was born.

Hitler was raised a Roman Catholic and apparently professed Catholicism throughout his life, but historians generally believe there is no evidence that he received the sacraments of Catholicism after childhood and some argue that he mainly invoked Catholicism as a form of propaganda. Still, the fact remains that he tolerated Catholicism being actively practiced even in the SS and this is a guy who didn't exactly bite his tongue when he truly was intolerant of something.[58]

Other myths[edit]

  • Although widely believed to have died childless there are rumors that he fathered a son, Edward "Eddie" Elizabeth Hitler.[59] However, as Eddie was not born until the late 1950s these rumors are unlikely to be true.[citation NOT needed]
  • In Heinz Linge's autobiography With Hitler To The End, Hitler's valet recounts how he was captured after the fall of Berlin and interrogated by the Russians who persisted in questioning him whether he had ever "seen Hitler's genitals, and if so had they been normal?".[60] Linge had no idea why they were interested in this and laughed when the interrogators suggested that Hitler "had only one ball". Whatever could have given them that idea?[note 14] In 2015, the Staatsarchiv Muenchen released a 1923 medical record for Hitler from when he was imprisoned for the Beer Hall Putsch and the record stated that he had cryptorchidismWikipedia's W.svg.[61]
  • Hitler has been speculated to suffer from syphilis, tinnitus, intestinal cancer, monorchism (see above), Parkinson's disease,[62][63] skin lesions, irregular heartbeat, schizophrenia and Asperger's syndrome, despite the fact that an individual with all of these problems wouldn't be able to get out of bed in the morning, much less run a country. Aside from an inflammation of the bowels and an injury to the throat and groin as well as scars all over his legs from shrapnel, incurred during World War I, it seems he was healthy, physically at least.
  • The Hitler Diaries were a series of poorly made, fabricated documents, uncovered in Germany in 1983 and alleged to have been written by Hitler himself. Sold to the Stern magazine for 9 million marks, they are considered one of the greatest literary hoaxes in history.
  • Hitler's sex life, or lack thereof, has provided the grist for many a rumor mill — ranging from the assertion that he died a virgin, to his supposedly having deformed genitals[64], to the possibility that he was gay.[65] The idea that Hitler was gay is not in any way undermined by his taste in art (see illustration).[66]
  • Hitler died heroically in battle.[67]
  • Rumors persist that Hitler survived World War II, escaped Germany and lived out his life incognito. A wide range of places are suggested for Hitler's final years, but Argentina or other Latin American countries are most popular in these stories.[68][67] One of the more fantastical claims is that Hitler escaped to New Swabia in Antarctica but was later nuked by the US.[67] Hopefully putting a damper on the "Hitler survived" conspiracy theories, the last known remains of Hitler were definitively identified from "a bullet-shot chunk of skull and a set of frankly disgusting teeth" that had been saved by the Russian government after the KGB cremated in the rest of his preserved body in the 1970s.[67][69]

Marketing in India[edit]

Inexplicably, Hitler's name and image have been used in marketing in India. Maybe they're trying to one-up the West for making the swastika such a stigmatized symbol? Examples:

  • "Hitler's Cross Cafe" opened in Mumbai in 2006 (the name has since been changed to "Cross Cafe").[70]
  • A pool hall in Nagpur was originally named "Hitler's Den".[71]
  • A clothing store named "Hitler" operated briefly in Ahmedebad.[72]
  • A color-by-number coloring book produced in India included a caricature of Hitler. Copies of the book were sold by a Dutch drugstore chain unaware of the image, but were quickly pulled from sale after it was found.[73]

However, the most newsworthy was (the now-discontinued) "Hitler Ice Cream" made by MVF Products.[74][75][76] Company president Neeraj Kumar insisted his use of Hitler's name and likeness to sell vanilla flavored ice cream in waffle cones was not to glorify the genocidal tyrant, but to poke fun at a relative:

I want to tell them repeatedly that the name was not given considering Hitler's bad political steps and what they call as the Holocaust. I was not aware of any such bad thing. I don't think we even scored some marketing points by using Hitler’s photos. I don't think people who buy the cones, in villages, know anything about Hitler. One of my uncles is a short-tempered and strict man, so we nicknamed him Hitler. While naming this particular batch of cones, I thought why can't we have a little fun at the expense of my uncle and name the cones after him. That was how the name originated.[77][78][79]

Reductio ad Hitlerum[edit]

See the main article on this topic: Godwin's law

To some, evoking Hitler has become a special form of reductio ad absurdum; i.e. if Hitler or the Nazi party believed in an idea, then that idea is evil and immoral. There are flaws in that view, as some ideas that Nazis came up with that were used for good (for example, the Nazis built the Autobahn, which would inspire the U.S. interstate system).

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Which means "noble wolf"
  2. Adolf Hitler's father, Alois Hitler, was born out of wedlock and thus received his mother's maiden name to become Alois Schicklgruber, but was later renamed Alois Hitler when at age 38 he successfully petitioned to receive his late stepfather's surname, arguing that his stepfather had also been his biological father.
  3. The "Beer Hall Putsch" as it came to be known—yes, in Bavaria even coups start and end drunk
  4. A fact which confirms everything you've always suspected about your vegetarian friends and neighbours!
  5. Why anyone would want to do so is a question perhaps best left unanswered.
  6. The death counts of historical atrocities such as the Atlantic slave trade, the crimes against humanity perpetrated by Stalin or Mao, as well as European and Japanese imperialism are not fully known and quite probably never will be.
  7. Although the work of Adam Tooze in The Wages of Destruction: The Making and the Breaking of the Nazi Economy suggests that the Nazi economy was inherently fucked and going to collapse by the mid-1940s regardless of military action.
  8. Because frankly, if you can't figure out how to squat on Madagascar the whole game, you just shouldn't be playing.
  9. "Lots of trees" was a genuine French defense strategy. No, really. Look it up.
  10. The title was originally going to be Viereinhalb Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit ("Four and a Half Years [of Struggle] Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice"). Max Amann, Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggested the shorter title.
  11. Hitler having been stateless between 1925 when he disclaimed his Austrian citizenship in order to avoid getting deported and 1932 when he was appointed to the Brunswick state delegation to the Reichsrat, thus becoming a citizen of Brunswick and, so, Germany
  12. back in 1925 he had transfered his book's copyright to the Nazi house publishing company Eher Verlag and one of the parties at the trial had argued that, being stateless, he had no copyright in the first place
  13. The rumor was further spread by the "governor" of Nazi-occupied Poland during the war, Hans FrankWikipedia's W.svg, who said as much in an interrogation after the war. Fat lot of good it did him, as he was executed for his crimes anyway.
  14. Colonel BogeyWikipedia's W.svg

References[edit]

  1. The soundbite version of this statement: History of Painters: Nazi Censorship of the Arts — "Entartete Kunst" — Degenerate Art
  2. The actual original full version of this statement: German History in Documents and Images. Hitler’s Speech at the Opening of the House of German Art in Munich (July 18, 1937)
  3. history of the entire world, i guess
  4. The Producers says so.
  5. Complete text of Mein Kampf in English at Gutenberg Australia (1939 Murphy translation).
  6. http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/crystal-meth-origins-link-back-to-nazi-germany-and-world-war-ii-a-901755.html
  7. It's amazing he didn't tear that little mustache off trying to get all the bugs out of it.
  8. http://www.snopes.com/glurge/twoquestions.asp
  9. http://www.truthorfiction.com/rumors/b/beethovenabort.htm
  10. Two explanations of Hitler to kids: http://www.ducksters.com/biography/adolf_hitler.php , https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:World_War_II/Adolf_Hitler
  11. https://www.google.com/publicdata/explore?ds=kf7tgg1uo9ude_&met_y=population&idim=place:3651000&dl=en&hl=en&q=current%20population%20of%20new%20york%20city
  12. http://necrometrics.com/20c5m.htm#Second
  13. Synder, T.Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Killed More? The New York Review of Books, March 10, 2011.
  14. http://necrometrics.com/20c5m.htm#Stalin
  15. "The Rehabilitation Of Tamerlane" by Colin McMahon Chicago Tribune. 17 January 1999.
  16. The history of the Mongol conquests by J.J. Saunders (1971) Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. page 174. ISBN 0812217667.
  17. See the Wikipedia article on List of genocides by death toll.
  18. Reitlinger, Gerald (1953). The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945. New York City: Beechhurst Press.
  19. Early efforts by scholars to determine the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis were limited by a lack of access to pertinent records. The genocide seldom entered Western discourse, both due to ignorance and to the Cold-War politics which made West Germany a new ally of the United States.The first significant work on the subject published in English was Gerald Reitlinger's Final Solution (1953), which, relying almost exclusively on German documentation, estimated 4.9 million dead. This figure is now considered extremely conservative. Raul Hilberg's 1961 The Destruction of the European Jews became a classic in the field of Holocaust literature and made the genocide of the Jews known to the wider public, Hilberg estimated its victims to be 5.1 million lives, or 4.9 - 5.4 million broadly construed. The trial of Adolph Eichmann further raised awareness of the genocide, Eichmann also provided documentation and testimony which revised the number of the dead.The first work to arrive at a figure comparable to modern estimates was Lucy Dawidowicz's The War Against the Jews, published in 1975, the book provided detailed listings by country of the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust which are still used as a reference in modern Holocaust studies. Dawidowicz researched birth and death records in many cities of prewar Europe to come up with a death toll of 5,933,900 Jews. After the opening of Soviet records, scholarship arrived at a death toll of about 6 million Jews. Gutman and Rozett's Encyclopedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990 and estimated slightly over 5.9 million Jews were murdered.Wolfgang Benz's The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide, published 1995, gave a toll of 6.2 million.
  20. Davies, Norman (2012). God's Playground [Boze igrzysko]. Otwarte (publishing). p. 956. ISBN 8324015566. Polish edition, second volume. "To, co robili Sowieci, bylo szczególnie mylace. Same liczby bylSacramentsie wiarygodne, ale pozbawione komentarza, sprytnie ukrywaly fakt, ze ofiary w przewazajacej liczbie nie byly Rosjanami, ze owe miliony obejmowaly ofiary nie tylko Hitlera, ale i Stalina, oraz ze wsród ludnosci cywilnej najwieksze grupy stanowili Ukraincy, Polacy, Bialorusini i Zydzi. Translation: The Soviet methods were particularly misleading. The numbers were correct, but the victims were overwhelmingly not Russian, and came from either one of the two regimes."
  21. Zemskov, Viktor N. (2012). "О масштабах людских потерь CCCР в Великой Отечественной Войне" [The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War]. Military Historical Archive (Военно-исторический архив) (in Russian). 9: 59–71 – via Demoskop Weehly vol. 559-560 (2013)
    Excludes:
    • Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2)
    • 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 January 2016..
  22. Includes:
    • Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence 7,420,379-(see:  ????????? 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.)
    • Deaths of forced laborers in Germany 2,164,313-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131.)
    • Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions 4,100,000-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease.)
    Excludes:
    • Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2)
    • 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  23. Richard Overy, Russia's War (1997): "an estimated 500,000 Soviet citizens died from German bomb attacks."
  24. Christian Streit: Keine Kameraden: Die Wehrmacht und die Sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen, 1941–1945, Bonn: Dietz (3. Aufl., 1. Aufl. 1978), ISBN 3-8012-5016-4 — "Between 22 June 1941 and the end of the war, roughly 5.7 million members of the Red Army fell into German hands. In January 1945, 930,000 were still in German camps. A million at most had been released, most of whom were so-called ‘volunteers’ (Hilfswillige) for (often compulsory) auxiliary service in the Wehrmacht. Another 500,000, as estimated by the Army High Command, had either fled or been liberated. The remaining 3,300,000 (57.5 percent of the total) had perished." Nazi persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War United States Holocaust Memorial Museum — "Existing sources suggest that some 5.7 million Soviet army personnel fell into German hands during World War II. As of January 1945, the German army reported that only about 930,000 Soviet POWs remained in German custody. The German army released about one million Soviet POWs as auxiliaries of the German army and the SS. About half a million Soviet POWs had escaped German custody or had been liberated by the Soviet army as it advanced westward through eastern Europe into Germany. The remaining 3.3 million, or about 57 percent of those taken prisoner, were dead by the end of the war." Jonathan North, Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II Archived March 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. — "Statistics show that out of 5.7 million Soviet soldiers captured between 1941 and 1945, more than 3.5 million died in captivity." Peter Calvocoressi, Guy Wint, Total War — "The total number of prisoners taken by the German armies in the USSR was in the region of 5.7 million. Of these, the astounding number of 3.5 million or more had been lost by the middle of 1944 and the assumption must be that they were either deliberately killed or done to death by criminal negligence. Nearly two million of them died in camps and close on another million disappeared while in military custody either in the USSR or in rear areas; a further quarter of a million disappeared or died in transit between the front and destinations in the rear; another 473,000 died or were killed in military custody in Germany or Poland." They add, "This slaughter of prisoners cannot be accounted for by the peculiar chaos of the war in the east. ... The true cause was the inhuman policy of the Nazis towards the Russians as a people and the acquiescence of army commanders in attitudes and conditions which amounted to a sentence of death on their prisoners." Minus 5% of Jewish POWs British Imperial War Museum — Invasion of the Soviet Union display (Holocaust Exhibition) Berkeleyinternetsystems.com http://www.berkeleyinternet.com/iwm/soviet.html
  25. https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005473 "Polish Victims". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  26. Tomasz Szarota; Wojciech Materski, eds. (2009). Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami [Poland 1939–1945. Human Losses and Victims of Repression under two Occupations]. Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance (IPN). Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. - Janusz Kurtyka; Zbigniew Gluza. Preface.: "ze pod okupacja sowiecka zginelo w latach 1939–1941, a nastepnie 1944–1945 co najmniej 150 tys [...] Laczne straty smiertelne ludnosci polskiej pod okupacja niemiecka oblicza sie obecnie na ok. 2 770 000. [...] Do tych strat nalezy doliczyc ponad 100 tys. Polaków pomordowanych w latach 1942–1945 przez nacjonalistów ukrainskich (w tym na samym Wolyniu ok. 60 tys. osób [...] Liczba Zydów i Polaków zydowskiego pochodzenia, obywateli II Rzeczypospolitej, zamordowanych przez Niemców siega 2,7– 2,9 mln osób." Translation: "It must be assumed losses of at least 150.000 people during the Soviet occupation from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1944 to 1945 [...] The total fatalities of the Polish population under the German occupation are now estimated at 2,770,000. [...] To these losses should be added more than 100,000 Poles murdered in the years 1942–1945 by Ukrainian nationalists (including about 60,000 in Volhynia [...] The number of Jews and Poles of Jewish ethnicity, citizens of the Second Polish Republic, murdered by the Germans amounts to 2.7–2.9 million people." - Waldemar Grabowski. German and Soviet occupation. Fundamental issues.: "Straty ludnosci panstwa polskiego narodowosci ukrainskiej sa trudne do wyliczenia," Translation: "The losses of ethnic Poles of Ukrainian nationality are difficult to calculate." Note: Polish losses amount to 11.3% of the 24.4 million ethnic Poles in prewar Poland and about 90 percent of the 3.3 million Jews of prewar times. The IPN figures do not include losses among Polish citizens of Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnicity. https://web.archive.org/web/20120323161233/http://niniwa2.cba.pl/polska_1939_1945.htm
  27. Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9.
  28. "Holocaust Encyclopedia – Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM). https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005219
  29. "Croatia" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Yad Vashem. Glišic, Venceslav (12 January 2006). "Žrtve licitiranja - Sahrana jednog mita, Bogoljub Kocovic". NIN (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205930.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20130801090050/http://www.knjigainfo.com/index.php?gde=%40http%3A%2F%2Fwww.knjigainfo.com%2Fpls%2Fsasa%2Fbip.text%3Ftid%3D38347%40
  30. Voglis, Polymeris (2006). "Surviving Hunger: Life in the Cities and the Countryside during the Occupation". In Gildea, Robert; Wievorka, Olivier; Warring, Anette. Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: Daily Life in Occupied Europe. Oxford: Berg. pp. 16–41. ISBN 978-1-84520-181-4.
  31. Baranowski, Shelley (2010). Nazi empire : German colonialism and imperialism from Bismarck to Hitler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-521-67408-9.
  32. "Exhibition catalogue in German and English" (PDF). Berlin, Germany: Memorial for the Victims of National Socialist ›Euthanasia‹ Killings. 2018. "Euthanasia Program" (PDF). Yad Vashem. 2018. Chase, Jefferson (January 26, 2017). "Remembering the 'forgotten victims' of Nazi 'euthanasia' murders". Deutsche Welle. https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/fileadmin/user_upload/projekte/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/pdf/T4_Flyer_2015_EN_Web.pdf http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206303.pdf http://www.dw.com/en/remembering-the-forgotten-victims-of-nazi-euthanasia-murders/a-37286088
  33. hundreds of thousands in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Greece, and France https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NAZIS.CHAP1.HTM
  34. Hodapp, Christopher (2013). Freemasonry for Dummies, 2. Edition. Wiley Publishing Inc. ISBN 1118412087.
  35. Peter Hoffmann "The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945"p.xiii
  36. The number of Slovenes estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation (not including those killed by Slovene collaboration forces and other Nazi allies) is estimated between 20,000 and 25,000 people. This number only includes civilians: Slovene partisan POWs who died and resistance fighters killed in action are not included (their number is estimated at 27,000). These numbers however include only Slovenes from present-day Slovenia: it does not include Carinthian Slovene victims, nor Slovene victims from areas in present-day Italy and Croatia. These numbers are result of a 10-year-long research by the Institute for Contemporary History (Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino) from Ljubljana, Slovenia. The partial results of the research have been released in 2008 in the volume Žrtve vojne in revolucije v Sloveniji (Ljubljana: Institute for Contemporary History, 2008), and officially presented at the Slovenian National Council http://www.ds-rs.si/sites/default/files/dokumenti/zbornik_zrtve_vojne_in_revolucije.pdf
  37. van der Zee, Henri A (1998), The Hunger Winter: Occupied Holland 1944–1945, University of Nebraska Press, pp. 304–5.
  38. Barnouw, David (1999). De hongerwinter. ISBN 978-9065504463.
  39. Pike, David Wingeate. Spaniards in the Holocaust: Mauthausen, the horror on the Danube; Editorial: Routledge Chapman & Hall ISBN 978-0-415-22780-3. London, 2000.
  40. The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd., p. 108.
  41. Shulman, William L. A State of Terror: Germany 1933–1939. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.
  42. http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP3.HTM Rudolph Rummell, Statistics". Hawaii.edu.
  43. Chalmers Johnson: "...the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese." http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n22/john04_.html
  44. Ann Coulter: Who Would Jesus Kill? (well, not swathes of Muslims, Ann, as you've proposed).
  45. "Row after Pope's remarks on atheism and Nazis", BBC News, 16 September 2010.
  46. Richard Dawkins' Speech at Protest the Pope March, 18 September 2010, on YouTube.
  47. A Staff Report from the Straight Dope Science Advisory Board, Was Hitler a Christian?
  48. Ralph Mannheim, ed., New York: Mariner Books, 1999, p. 65.
  49. Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler: April 1922–August 1939, vol. 1, New York: Oxford University Press, 1942, pp. 19–20.
  50. NoBeliefs.com
  51. Charles Bracelen Flood, Hitler: The Path to Power, Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989, p. 208.
  52. http://history-world.org/Hitler%20Speech.htm
  53. Hitler’s Table Talk: An Update
  54. See the Wikipedia article on Adolf Hitler § Beer Hall Putsch.
  55. Henry Ford receiving the Grand Cross of the German Eagle from Nazi officials, 1938 Rare Historical Photos
  56. https://archive.org/details/meinkampf035176mbp
  57. Wikipedia (DE): Serdar Somuncu#Leben
  58. https://www.quora.com/Why-did-Heinrich-Himmler-say-in-1944-I-never-allowed-an-unbeliever-to-join-the-SS
  59. http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0021994/
  60. With Hitler to the End (The Memoirs of Adolf Hitler's Valet), Heinz Linge. Pen and Sword Books, 2009 (p.59).
  61. Records show Hitler enjoyed special treatment in prison by Frank Jordans (5:41 a.m. Dec. 22, 2015) Associated Press.
  62. Mizuno, ‎Yoshikuni; Abraham Fisher, ‎Israel Hanin (2002) Mapping the Progress of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease Springer Science & Business Media pg 312
  63. Karamat E. Gesterbrand, "Adolf Hitler's Parkinson's Disease and an Attempt to Analyze His Personality Structure", European Journal of Neurology 6 (1999): 121–27
  64. Washington Post: "All right, let's talk about Hitler's penis"
  65. Machtan, lothar, The Hidden Hitler, translated by John Brownjohn, Basic Books, New York, 2001.
  66. Adan, Peter, Art of the Third Reich, Harry Abrams, Inc, Publishers, New York, New York, 1992.
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 Researchers say Adolf Hitler died in 1945, despite various theories to the contrary by Avi Selk (May 20, 2018 at 3:57 PM) The Washington Post.
  68. The People Who Swear Hitler Is Alive
  69. The remains of Adolf Hitler: A biomedical analysis and definitive identification by P. Charlier et al. (in press) European Journal of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.05.014.
  70. Haaretz:"Mumbai's 'Hitler's Cross' restaurant to change name after uproar"
  71. JTA:"India’s Hitler’s Den pool hall raising hackles"
  72. HuffPostBusiness:"Hitler An Increasingly Popular Marketing Gimmick In India"
  73. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-39514166
  74. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/ice-cream-to-bed-sheets-what-lies-behind-india-s-fascination-with-hitler/article1-1353990.aspx
  75. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3097640/The-Luft-wafer-Ice-cream-cone-named-Adolf-Hitler-sale-India-sparks-anger-Germany.html
  76. http://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/hitler-ice-cream-is-selling-in-india-and-germans-are-really-mad-233084.html
  77. Express.co.uk: "Why is India okay with HITLER brand ice-creams, Hitler brand clothing and Hitler cafes?"
  78. 'Hitler' shop in Ahmedabad to be renamed
  79. The Daily Beast: Hitler, the Ben & Jerry's of India