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| A guide to|
|God Save the Queen?|
Founded as a socialist (in practice, social democrat) party, the Labour Party had a huge role in the creation of the British welfare state and the National Health Service under Prime Minister Clement Attlee, himself the former Deputy Prime Minister under Winston Churchill during World War 2.
Thatcher changed all of that. Once she won, she ushered in 17 straight years of Conservative rule, forcing the Labour Party to move much closer to the centre, stepping away from its socialist roots and becoming a "big tent" centrist party: cushy tech jobs waiting for graduates, nurture the "special relationship", take a Third Way. This clearly made them a more effective opposition, as they won in a massive landslide in 1997, but it's unclear exactly what they stand for other than "we're not actively trying to kill you like the Tories."
Jeremy Corbyn, an avowed democratic socialist, has led the party since 2015, and himself has ushered in a resurgence of the left wing not seen in decades.
After growing rapidly from its founding in 1900, Labour replaced the Liberal Party as the UK's primary leftist party in 1922. Both Old Labour and—can we call them "Old Tories" were part of the post-war consensus. Encouraged by the success of state intervention, the Old Tories espoused private enterprise managed by government committee. Old Labour preferred to cut out the middleman and own all the industries outright. Orwell could have told them (and did) that it was a doomed policy, as industry dwindled in importance and the unions lost members. Both parties believed in a big role for the state.
In the 1970s, the oil price shocks damaged the British economy. It caused a period of high inflation and unemployment. Old Labour tried to deal with this but their close relationship with the trades unions made that difficult. In the meantime, Thatcher and her allies ousted Heath as leader of the Conservative Party. This was the end of the Old Tories and the start of the neoliberal consensus. The discovery of North Sea oil revitalized the British economy and seemed to vindicate the New Tories.
Defeat in '79 tore Old Labour apart. A faction of the party thought they lost because they were not left wing enough. This faction became ascendant and Michael Foot became leader. A group of centrist MPs went rogue and started a new party, the SDP, which later joined with the Liberals to form the Lib Dems. This incarnation of the Labour Party contested Foot's manifesto as "the longest suicide note in history".
Having lost the '83 election, the more right-wing Neil Kinnock took over. To make Labour more palatable, he purged the party of many of its more hardcore socialists. After losing again, Kinnock was replaced by John Smith, another centrist. The stage was set for Anthony Charles Lynton Blair, who became Leader when Smith died in '94.
In what feels like such a long time ago, Labour were the governing party of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2010, with Tony Blair and Gordon Brown serving as Prime Minister. Blair may have been short on principles, but he had an astute understanding of the FPTP voting system. Their 1997 victory was famous as a landslide, ousting the Conservative Party from a considerable reign that stretched back to 1979. The Labour majority was substantially reduced over the course of the 2001 and 2005 elections. Labour performed poorly in the 2010 Election and even worse in the 2015 election, losing nearly all of their seats in Scotland (an area with traditionally high support for Labour) to a regional separatist party. The reaction of the rank and file of the party to these defeats was to elect as its leader in 2015 a long-time rebel and avowedly left-wing socialist: Jeremy Corbyn.
Con-Lab coalition Labour Party is functionally useless at the moment, a party nobody would create if it didn't already exist.
- Syria: Conscience vote
- Trident: Walked it back
- Snooper's Charter: Abstained. Not sure where this new-found law and order kick is coming from.
- Article 50: Complicit
It's remarkably ineffective, considering how the public is sympathetic to everything Labour stands for. Corbyn is trapped in the 70s, just going with the flow for the same reason Marxists traditionally welcome moves towards naked capitalism: it helps produce the revolution. The 'soft' left of the party, such as your Milibands and Nandys, are trapped in the 80s; pretending like they don't themselves regard what they're saying as bleeding-heart twaddle. Then you've got your Blairites who are trapped in the 90s, thinking that appealing to Mondeo Man or kicking council workers in the face (to show they aren't "ideological") will work again.
All of those problem are exacerbated by Brexit. It made political discourse a lot more nativist, populist, and just plain dumb. The unions are selling their members out (there goes any remaining sympathy we had for striking train workers), and the rest of the country would rather blow themselves up than see their living standards get chipped away with one more election. Not long ago, the Blairite faction tried to oust Corbyn after he undermined their stranglehold on the party, jumping on his supposed faint support for Remain; both sides prefer to let the Tories have a blank cheque than let the others get the upper hand.
Any attempt to resist Brexit will enrage people even more because they are sick of their voices being unheard; they'll keep voting for more and more insane clowns until they're heard. There are 16 million voters out there who are invested in the future and not shouting 'fuck you' to the system. But Labour and the Tories have abandoned them.
Most of the party's energy and new ideas come from Momentum, which might be its salvation eventually. The only people who seem to get this are Clive Lewis and Keir Starmer, but they are both very inexperienced MPs. Corbyn understands this too, which earned him an endorsement from Noam Chomsky.
It pulled off in 2017. When everyone thought Labour would get obliterated, they increased their vote share and had a net gain of seats in the House of Commons, forcing a hung parliament and potentially destroying Theresa May's career. The youth vote, which turned out in record numbers, is what really propelled Corbyn over the top. Labour's 9.6% vote swing was its largest since 1945, when Clement Attlee won a majority government. They wiped out longstanding Tory strongholds and turned other strongly Tory seats into tossups for future elections.
Resurgence of the left wing
Corbyn supporters, buttressed by Momentum and friendly unions, swept the board in elections to the National Constitutional Committee and the National Executive Committee, which now has a left majority, including of the key party officers. This means that the conference calls of key NEC members that take urgent decisions like choosing a panel of potential candidates for a by-election is no longer outwith the leader's control. Deputy Leader Tom Watson, a Blairite, has been marginalized by rising stars Emily Thornberry, Jon Ashworth, and Angela Rayner, all of whom are so-called "Corbynistas" who serve directly as Shadow Cabinet members.  Key changes to the party constitution now ensures left wingers will have an easier time at becoming leader by reducing the amount of nominations needed to stand for a leadership race. By reducing the barometer, a left winger can always show up on the ballot box regardless of the views of most Labour MPs. 
Corbyn and his supporters are looking to capitalize. This starts with proposing an amendment to "permit members and trade unions" to "change party rules at the next party conference," rather than waiting a year, allowing the left to overhaul the party more quickly than is currently possible. They want to restore democratic socialism as party of Labour's manifesto, allow criticism of Zionism while distinguishing it from Antisemitism, lower the threshold of MPs’ nominations required to get on any future leadership ballot (which they got), and scheduling a second batch of amendments in 2018 meant to empower grassroots activists (as in, Momentum, which formed from Corbyn supporters to help elect him in 2015).
Other proposals include raising the proportion of MPs required to get rid of a leader from 20 percent to 40 percent; the introduction of two deputy leaders, of which at least one would be a woman; and forcing the party’s general secretary to stand for election for a three year term no more than one year and eight months after the rule is introduced — i.e. before the next election. The current party chief Iain McNicol would be entitled to stand in a ballot of all party members but would almost certainly lose.
New rules on MPs seeking re-selection will also be considered by the CAC for debate at the 2018 party conference. Those on the left of the party have long pushed for the introduction of “mandatory re-selection” of the party’s candidates at each election, in order to enable grassroots members to keep a check on their MPs. The new proposal is described by senior party figures as a “compromise” proposal between the current “trigger ballot” process which means MPs must win the support of half their local party to stand again as the party’s candidate, and “mandatory re-selection.” The new compromise proposal would mean MPs being forced to get nominations of two-thirds of the union branches in their constituency — which often do not have any actual Labour members — and local branches representing two thirds of the constituency Labour party membership.
Most of all, they've proposed scrapping affiliated supporters (mainly union types) and registered supporters, who pay a small fee for the right to vote, leaving only fully paid-up members who are now overwhelmingly pro-Corbyn. The proposals, which have been put forward by local Labour parties and trades unions, need the approval of Conference Arrangements Committee, or CAC, which acts as a filter, deciding which rule changes are put to a vote by party members at their annual conference. CAC has recently been taken over by the left of the party for the first time in its history, meaning many of the proposals could be debated by Corbynistas. 
- New Labour - The right wing of the party, known as "Blairites."
- Liberal Democrats - Sane, coherent, opposed to Brexit. Shame there are only 9 of them.
- Diane Abbott - One of their most infamous gaffe machines.
- Australian Labor Party - The more right wing Australian equivalent.
- "Subliminal Messaging" on the QI official website.
- Orwell, "England Your England", excerpt from The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius, 19 February 1941.
- Chadwick, Vince, "Corbyn goes for conscience vote on Syria - Labour leader maintains air strikes are not the answer", Politico (Updated 12/1/15, 7:28 AM CET).
- "Corbyn: UK could keep Trident submarines but without warheads", BBC 1.17.16. Spend tens of billions on useless submarines, just to save a few thousand jobs.
- Merrick, Rob, "Jeremy Corbyn attacked by nuclear disarmament campaign group over Trident 'U-turn'", Independent 9.26.16.
- Harris, Mike, "Shami Chakrabarti and Jeremy Corbyn were the loudest critics of the Snooper’s Charter – but now theyre in power, they’ve gone quiet", Independent (10/11/16 at 9:45 AM BST).
- Rajeev Syal and Alexandra Topping, "Labour will put 10,000 extra police on streets, vows Jeremy Corbyn", Guardian (1 May 2017, 5:00pm EDT).
- "General election 2017: Corbyn says task is to keep Britain safe", BBC 12 May 2017.
- Cowburn, Ashley, "Jeremy Corbyn facing fresh rebellion after issuing Brexit bill three-line whip", Independent (2/7/17 at 11:45 GMT).
- Batchelor, Tom, "British voters overwhelmingly back Labour’s manifesto policies, poll finds", Independent (12 May 2017, 7:51 BST).
- Butterworth, Christopher, "Labour: Obviously Jeremy Corbyn does not believe being gay is a choice", Pink News (2/2/17 at 6:01 pm).
- God bless Dennis Skinner, but this is a bloke who brags about having never sent an e-mail. "It keeps the postman at work."
- Sturgeon, Nicola, 2..8.17 Tweet at 1:31 PM.
- Not everybody can survive spin mode.
- O'Connor, Sarah, "RMT union calls for members to vote for Brexit", FT 4.7.16.