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| Part of a series on|
|Spectra and binaries|
- 1 Feminism
- 1.1 Anarcha-feminism
- 1.2 Black feminism
- 1.3 Chicana feminism
- 1.4 Ecofeminism
- 1.5 Indigenous feminism
- 1.6 Individualist feminism
- 1.7 Intersectional feminism
- 1.8 Lesbian feminism
- 1.9 Liberal feminism
- 1.10 Lipstick feminism
- 1.11 Mainstream feminism
- 1.12 Postmodern feminism
- 1.13 Radical feminism
- 1.14 Socialist feminism
- 1.15 Transfeminism
- 1.16 White feminism
- 1.17 Womanism
- 1.18 Women of color feminism
- 2 Waves of feminism
- 3 Sexism
- 4 Sex- and body-related concepts
- 4.1 Bodily autonomy
- 4.2 Body positivity
- 4.3 Lactivism
- 4.4 Male gaze
- 4.5 No means no
- 4.6 Pro-choice
- 4.7 Rape
- 4.8 Rape culture
- 4.9 Reproductive justice
- 4.10 Sex-positivity
- 4.11 Sex strike
- 4.12 Sexual consent
- 4.13 Sexual harassment
- 4.14 Sexual objectification
- 4.15 Slut-shaming
- 4.16 SlutWalk
- 4.17 Topfreedom
- 4.18 Yes means yes
- 5 Law- and work-related concepts
- 5.1 Androcracy
- 5.2 Career woman
- 5.3 Double burden
- 5.4 Double day
- 5.5 Emotional labor
- 5.6 Gender pay gap
- 5.7 Glass ceiling
- 5.8 Glass escalator
- 5.9 Nineteenth Amendment
- 5.10 Occupational segregation
- 5.11 Pink-collar worker
- 5.12 Second Shift
- 5.13 Title IX
- 5.14 Women's suffrage
- 6 Other feminist concepts
- 6.1 Androcentrism
- 6.2 Antifeminism
- 6.3 Bechdel test
- 6.4 Cinderella complex
- 6.5 Foresister
- 6.6 Gender neutrality
- 6.7 Gender performativity
- 6.8 Gender-neutral language
- 6.9 Herstory
- 6.10 Heteropatriarchy
- 6.11 Male privilege
- 6.12 Malestream
- 6.13 Men's rights movement
- 6.14 Patriarchy
- 6.15 The personal is political
- 6.16 Phallocentrism
- 6.17 Postfeminism
- 6.18 Pro Feminism
- 6.19 Protofeminism
- 6.20 Purplewashing
- 6.21 Sisterhood
- 6.22 Straw feminism
- 6.23 Toxic masculinity
- 6.24 Trans inclusivity
- 6.25 Triple oppression
- 6.26 Women of color
- 6.27 Women-only space
- 6.28 Women's studies
- 6.29 Womon; womyn
- 7 Gender-identity-related terms
- 8 Relevant social justice concepts
- 9 Internet neologisms, portmanteaus and abbreviations
- 10 Feminist eponyms
- 11 See also
- 12 References
The theory holding that men and women should have equal rights socially, politically and economically, as well as a range of political and social movements geared towards achieving this equality.
Feminism melded with anarchism, seeing the way to gender equality in the dismantling of hierarchical structures in society. Also called anarcho-feminism.
Feminism focussed on the representation of black women.
A movement representing Chicana and Latina women.
Feminism combined with concerns about indigenous sovereignty, focussed on decolonization and the empowering of indigenous women.
Feminism holding that gender equality can be achieved through equal rights for all individuals without respect to gender.
More often than not, this is a euphemism for libertarian anti-feminists who want to co-opt the label in order to prop up their oftentimes reactionary criticisms of feminism.
Feminism concerned with the ways in which the type of oppression experienced by women is effected by their other identities, such as ethnicity, sexuality, transgender status etc.
A current of feminism advocating that women direct their energies toward other women rather than men, seeing lesbianism as the practical application of feminism.
Feminism encouraging women to achieve and maintain their own equality through their own actions and through campaigning for political and legal reform. In a sense, the polar opposite of radical feminism.
Lipstick feminism can be seen as a reaction to the common prejudice that feminists are ugly and hate sex. They embrace, among other things, the idea that wearing make-up and suggestive clothing can be empowering for women.
Feminism as promoted to and accepted by relatively large numbers of people. In recent years, it has come to mean fourth-wave feminism as promoted through celebrities and through popular feminist blogs like Everyday Feminism or Feministing.
Feminism intertwined with postmodern theory and ideals, usually seeing gender and ideas of the feminine as constructs of language. A conscious departure from what is perceived as the "modernist" polarity of liberal vs. radical feminism.
Feminism based on the idea that an inherently patriarchal society and its institutions are the foundation of women's oppression and must be radically overhauled to achieve equality. To some extent, the term has been hijacked by nominally feminist groups and individuals with anti-sex work and anti-trans views, who use "radical feminist" as a political euphemism in a similar manner to "gender-critical".
A type of radical feminism holding that feminists should completely avoid all forms of contact with men. In a sense, the extreme endpoint of lesbian feminism.
Sex worker-exclusionary radical feminism
Radical feminism hostile to and exclusionary of sex workers, seeing their work as colluding with the oppression of women. Adherents are called SWERFs for short.
Trans-exclusionary radical feminism
Radical feminism that excludes transgender women and does not see them as real women. Adherents are referred to as TERFs.
A current of feminism holding that patriarchy is connected to capitalism, and that gender equality should be achieved through ending both the economic and cultural sources of oppression.
Feminism emphasizing the liberation of transgender women and challenging cissexism.
Feminism that does not acknowledge the ways in which non-white women may experience sexism differently to white women. It is used to criticize white feminist women who are perceived to be racist. Usually a derogatory term.
Women of color feminism
Feminism focussed on the concerns of women of color.
Waves of feminism
Periods of activity in feminist history.
The feminist movement encompassing the 19th and early 20th century, focussed primarily on women's right to vote. The same period also saw women gain the right to education, including a university degree, and as a result to pursue professions such as medicine, and the acceptance of women as legal persons able to own property, etc.
The period of feminism beginning in the 1960s, working towards equal rights for women in other areas, such as equal pay. This period included the push for an Equal Rights Amendment to the US Constitution. It also saw greater reproductive rights including legalization of abortion in the US and UK.
Beginning in the 1990s, with a focus on individual identity and increasing the inclusiveness of feminism through intersectional theory, in order to represent the unique perspectives of women from a wide variety of demographics, such as women of color and LGBT women. It often focused on individualism and self-expression (e.g. riot grrl), and generally aimed to be less anti-sex and anti-fun than earlier generations.
The most recent wave, beginning in about 2012 and concerned primarily with combatting cyberbullying, sexual harassment, and violence against women.
Sexism is discrimination based on a person's gender or sex.
Superficially favorable attitudes, words and actions toward women which are actually based on sexist beliefs.
Sexism as expressed by overt antagonism towards women.
Sexism against women upheld by society and its institutions.
Misogynic attitudes and behaviours displayed by a woman.
Sexist attitudes toward women as internalized by a woman, manifesting as part of her self-concept.
The attitude that men are categorically superior to women, as held by a man.
Hatred of men.
Hatred of and discrimination against black women; an intersection of misogyny and racism.
Hatred of women.
Hatred of and discrimination against transgender women; an intersection of misogyny and transphobia.
The principle of having control over one's own body. Relevant to discussions about reproductive justice.
The advocacy of loving one's own body exactly as it is.
Women's activism to remove stigma from breastfeeding in public.
The depiction of women from a masculine point of view as sexualized objects. Coined by film studies academic Laura Mulvey in the 1970s, based on a feminist reading of Freud and Lacan; Mulvey noted that much film and media is structured for a heterosexual male viewer looking at a woman presented as a passive object of desire. The concept has now moved beyond post-structuralist academic circles to discussions particularly of visual media and literature, where female characters (even in kids' movies) are routinely sexualized with costume, makeup, positioning, lighting, photography, etc, all set up for male pleasure in quite a different way to male characters. More recently there has also been work on the homoerotic male gaze, men looking at men.
No means no
An anti-rape slogan emphasizing consent.
The stance advocating for a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy if she chooses.
A crime broadly defined as any sex act with someone who has not consented to it.
The normalization and pervasiveness of rape in society as a result of prevailing attitudes towards gender and sexuality.
A woman's freedom to make her own decisions regarding reproduction and pregnancy.
A positive attitude toward and valuing of sexual freedom, sexual identities and consent.
The withholding of sex from one's partner as a form of boycott or protest, with the aim of achieving a certain goal, such as ending war or violence.
The expression of uncoerced agreement to participate in sexual activity.
Unwanted sexual advances in a workplace or other professional situation where negative repercussions could result from refusal.
The treatment of a person as nothing more than a vehicle for one's own desire.
The shaming of a woman or girl for being or feeling sexual or having sexual partners.
An ongoing trans-national movement calling for an end to rape culture.
A movement seeking to remove legal prohibition and social stigma from women going topless in public.
Yes means yes
Government in which the rulers are men.
A woman who considers her job, and success in her work, to be important in her life. This phrase is somewhat outdated, and can carry sexist and derogatory connotations.
The workload of someone who has to earn a living and perform unpaid domestic duties in the home.
The extended working day associated with a double burden.
Term coined by Arlie Hochschild in 1983 to refer to the need for women to keep smiling and present a cheerful countenance, especially in service jobs, while men are more allowed to be grumpy, cold, or neutral in workplaces. Today the term has been expanded to refer to a wide range of soft skills, life management, and domestic tasks.
Gender pay gap
The difference between the average earnings of women and men.
A metaphor to describe barriers that stop even the most high-achieving women from rising to the level of power enjoyed by their male counterparts.
The glass ceiling concept as applied specifically to Asian or Asian-American people, particularly women.
The glass ceiling concept as applied to women in law and military professions.
The phenomenon of men who enter traditionally female-dominated fields of work being quickly promoted over the women.
The 19th amendment to the United States constitution, granting women's suffrage in 1920.
The separation of people of different demographic characteristics - usually men and women - into different types of working roles within the workplace.
Someone who works in care-oriented professions, or in any field traditionally associated with women.
A synonym for double day.
A law in the United States, ratified in 1972, protecting equal opportunity for women in sports, as well as in public education. Initially the focus was on ensuring women's college sports received the same funding as men's, but more recently it has been a focus of Obama-era attempts to combat sexual harassment and sexual violence, and in the 2010s trans rights.
The right of women to vote in elections.
Other feminist concepts
The centering and normalization of men and men's perspectives, to the exclusion of women and non-binary people.
Opposition to feminism and its goals.
An imprecise gauge of the presence of women in media, based on the proportion of works that feature two named women who converse about something other than a man. Named for Alison Bechdel.
Mako Mori test
A variation on the Bechdel test, gauging the proportion of works that feature a named woman who has her own narrative arc that does not exist to support the narrative arc of a male character.
A phrase coined by feminist author Collette Dowling to describe women who have an unconscious fear of independence and desire to be taken care of.
A feminist of a previous generation.
The principle of avoiding letting a person's gender affect their treatment or the roles relegated to them.
A theory produced by feminist Judith Butler, holding that people construct and alter gender roles by causing the actions they perform to become associated with their own gender.
Language and words intended to avoid bias towards one gender.
A neologism referring to the presentation of history from a feminist perspective.
The idea that men in society have unearned benefits and privileges not available to women simply by virtue of being men.
The idea that mainstream social science findings are biased towards a masculine perspective, which is assumed to be applicable to women as well.
Men's rights movement
An antifeminist movement based on the belief that men, not women, are the real victims of societal discrimination and oppression. Adherents usually assert that feminism has overshot its mark and harmed men.
The organization of society in such a way that men hold more institutional power than women.
The personal is political
A figurative synonym for androcentrism.
Any movement reacting to any of the waves of feminism, working to either build on it, address perceived shortcomings, or oppose its continuation.
Support of feminism by people who are not deemed to be or do not identify as part of feminism; this term is sometimes used for men, in which case it is the inverse of antifeminist men.
Fundamentally feminist ideas appearing in a time period before the onset of the feminist movement.
Presenting an idea or action as feminist while concealing its antifeminist aspects. Is oftentimes used by critics of pornography and sex work as a means of calling out the more oppressive elements of sex-positivity.
The concept of unity between all women as sharing a universal experience; an important term in second-wave feminism.
Deliberate misrepresentations of feminism with the straw man fallacy.
Dysfunctionally excessive adherence to stereotypical male gender roles such as aggression, domination and repression of emotions.
The inclusion of transgender women in feminist discussions and in safe spaces.
The early 20th century theory that the three main oppressions faced by black women - racism, sexism and classism - are connected and must be overcome simultaneously. Somewhat of a precursor to intersectionality.
Women of color
An umbrella term encompassing all non-white women, including those of African, Asian, Latin or Native American descent.
An area where only women are allowed, serving as a space where women can be away from men.
An academic field encompassing study of women and the relationship between gender and politics.
An alternative spelling of woman/women, coined in order to exclude the word "man". Oftentimes used by TERFs as a euphemism for their views.
The state of being male, female, intersex or other as defined by physical markers such as sex organs, hormones, gametes and chromosomes.
Identifying as the same gender as the one assigned at birth.
Transphobia as normalized by social systems.
Any conceptualization of the sociological and behavioural characteristics traditionally associated with a particular biological sex. This term may also refer to gender identity, gender expression or gender role. "Woman" and "man" are the genders traditionally associated with the biological sexes of "female" and "male" respectively.
The classification of gender into two mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories of man and woman, thus excluding people who are nonbinary, gender fluid etc.
A political self-identifying euphemism used by trans-exclusionary radical feminists.
The theory that gender is an externally-measurable attribute tied to biological sex, regardless of self-identity.
One's external presentation and communication of masculine, feminine or other gender through behaviour, dress, mannerisms, personality etc.
The subjective sense of self as being a man, a woman, somewhere in-between or other.
A socially-imposed role of being a man, woman or other gender based on one's perceived sex, along with the behaviours and attitudes that are traditionally considered socially acceptable or appropriate for this role.
Transgender-inclusive feminism; the opposite of TERF.
An umbrella term encompassing all individuals who identify as a gender other than the one assigned at birth.
Discrimination against transgender people.
A cisgender woman. This political term is primarily used in the context of trans-exclusionary radical feminism, encompassing only women who were assigned female at birth and thus excluding transgender women.
A social movement encouraging progressive atheists to embrace feminism and other social justice issues.
Activism aiming to raise the population's awareness of social inequality.
A theoretical framework which studies how individuals experience privilege and oppression differently according to their combination of different social identities, such as ethnicity, gender, sexuality etc.
The concept of a system of interconnected oppressions of different minority groups. Related to intersectionality.
Words or actions regarded as relatively subtle and usually unintentional discrimination or bigotry towards a marginalized group.
The unjust domination and subjugation of a demographic of people.
Movements to advocate for the poor or members of other marginalized demographics.
Anything that causes someone to relive a traumatic experience.
A caution that the material lying ahead may contain triggers for people who have been through trauma.
Internet neologisms, portmanteaus and abbreviations
(Of a man) The stealing of a woman's idea to present as one's own without giving due credit.
A derogatory term, often used in alt-right circles, for feminists who are perceived to be either sexist against men, dare to say something the alt-right doesn't like, or who speak out about topics not believed to be important or real, eg. sexism in the media, rape culture, gender pay gap, etc. Some may also use the term "femistasi".
Liberal feminism or a liberal feminist.
(Of a man) Explaining to a woman something related to her own direct experiences in a way that condescendingly assumes superior knowledge.
The occupying of an undue amount of space by a man spreading his legs wide, in a context where this causes inconvenience or cramping for others.
Not all men
A defensive response based on a misinterpretation of complaints about sexism as generalizations of all men. The phrase has become a popular antifeminist hashtag.
Radical feminism or a radical feminist.
Relating to French feminist and existentialist philosopher Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986).
An early form of feminism, named for American 19th century women's rights activist Amelia Bloomer (1818-1894).
Pertaining to American feminist and gender theorist Judith Butler (b. 1956).
A supporter of Andrea Dworkin and her philosophy.
Relating to American feminist writer and activist Betty Friedan (1921-2006).
Relating to American feminist writer and sociologist Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935).
Relating to American feminist writer bell hooks (b. 1952).
Relating to American feminist social critic Camille Paglia (b. 1947).
Relating to American feminist literary critic Elaine Showalter (b. 1941).
Relating to French feminist author Monique Wittig (1935-2003).
- What Is Third‐Wave Feminism? A New Directions Essay, R Claire Snyder, Signs, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Autumn 2008), pp. 175-196 (22 pages)
- See the Wikipedia article on Male gaze.
- Film Theory 101 – Laura Mulvey: The Male Gaze Theory, Film Inquiry, Oct 27, 2015
- Masculinity, the Male Spectator and the Homoerotic Gaze, Patrick Schuckmann, Amerikastudien / American Studies, Vol. 43, No. 4, Engendering Manhood (1998), pp. 671-680
- Why was everyone talking about emotional labour in 2018?, Sophie Wilkinson, BBC Three, 24 December 2018
- See the Wikipedia article on Title IX.