Miracle Mineral Supplement
Miracle Mineral Supplement, often referred to as Miracle Mineral Solution or MMS, is
bleach the name given by its promoter, former Scientologist and sometime Colonel Sanders lookalike Jim Humble (c. 1933–), to an aqueous solution of 28% sodium chlorite (NaClO2), a toxic industrial chemical known to cause fatal renal failure, in distilled water, prepared in a citric acid solution resulting in the formation of chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a potent oxidising agent used in water treatment and in bleaching. The name was first coined by author, Jim Humble, in his 2006 self-published book, The Miracle Mineral Solution of the 21st Century.
MMS is promoted as a cure for HIV/AIDS, malaria, viral hepatitis, the H1N1 flu virus, common colds, COVID-19, acne, cancer and much more (though apparently not gullibility). All evidence in support of this comes from Jim Humble's book and from anecdotes promoted by the ironically-named Humble who claims to be a billion-year-old God from the Andromeda Galaxy. MMS is often described as a water purifier (especially on eBay where sales of quack remedies are notionally banned) so as to circumvent regulations prohibiting the sale of unregulated medicines. In January 2010, The Sydney Morning Herald reported that one vendor admitted that they do not repeat any of Jim Humble's claims in writing in order to circumvent regulations against using it as a medicine.
In claiming to cure a broad spectrum of disparate and unrelated conditions, all without the basis of credible evidence, it fails the "Barrett Test" as proposed by Stephen Barrett who advises to "be skeptical of any product claimed to be effective against a wide range of unrelated diseases — particularly diseases that are serious. There is no such thing as a panacea or 'cure-all'."
Teenaged Welsh blogger Rhys Morgan (1994–) rose to prominence with his tale of taking on promoters of MMS in a forum for support of Crohn's sufferers (Morgan has Crohn's). He was hounded off the site and banned for criticising MMS. At least one importer has been convicted in the UK.
In recent years, MMS has been promoted as a "cure" for autistic children. In addition to the obvious dangers of subjecting a developing child's gastrointestinal system to industrial bleaching agents, forcing MMS on a non-consenting child almost certainly qualifies as child abuse and could potentially lead to legal repercussions for the caregiver, including loss of custody of the child. MMS has also been promoted to the anti-vaccination movement (antivax) at summit known as Autism One.
In December 2009 an alert was issued by the Belgian Poison Control Centre to the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. In response to this, an evaluation was performed by the French "Comité de coordination de toxicovigilance" in March 2010, warning about a dose-dependent irritation and possible toxic effects. They also warned that patients affected by serious diseases could be tempted to stop their treatments in favour of this alternative treatment.
A similar notice was released in July 2010 by the US Food and Drug Administration warning that the instructions for preparing the solution by mixing it with an acidic solution (e.g. orange juice) would produce chlorine dioxide, "a potent bleach used for stripping textiles and industrial water treatment." Because of reports including nausea, vomiting, and dangerously low blood pressure as a result of dehydration following instructed use, the FDA has advised consumers to dispose of the product immediately.
In the UK, the Food Standards Agency also released a warning, following the warnings from Health Canada and the US FDA, in it they stated that "MMS is a 28% sodium chlorite solution which is equivalent to industrial-strength bleach.
After four were hospitalized in the state of Victoria in 2014, the Australian Theraputic Goods Administration division of the Department of Health and the Victorian state Department of Health and Human Services released Safety Advisories on MMS, with one spokesperson describing it as "this isn't like drinking bleach, it literally is drinking bleach."
Following media attention towards MMS seminars in Ireland and New Zealand, politicians in both countries have taken up bills aiming to ban any sale of the compound. Irish parents who have used MMS on their children are facing criminal investigations.
Similar media attention towards Kerri Rivera, the main promoter of MMS as an autism cure, prompted the Illinois attorney general to send agents to Rivera's presentation at the 2015 Autism One conference and serve her with a subpoena. Unable to present proof of MMS' benefits, Rivera was forced to sign an agreement barring her from further promoting MMS or appearing at conferences in the state of Illinois. Rivera has since announced that she will no longer do MMS consultations for autistic kids, but her following of anti-vaccine parents remains active on social media.
Jim Humble's church was forced to move an MMS seminar in East Sussex, England to an undisclosed location after two venues refused to host the event. The meeting was infiltrated by reporters and undercover footage they collected led to accusations that speakers violated Britain's 1939 Cancer Act. Another seminar in Surrey was raided by police and Trading Standards agents.
On 27 May 2015, a federal jury in the Eastern District of Washington returned a guilty verdict against Louis Daniel Smith for selling industrial bleach as a miracle cure for numerous diseases and illnesses, including cancer, AIDS, malaria, hepatitis, lyme disease, asthma and the common cold. On 27 October, Smith was sentenced to 51 months in prison.
"…the jury convicted Smith of one count of conspiracy to commit multiple crimes, three counts of introducing misbranded drugs into interstate commerce with intent to defraud or mislead and one count of fraudulently smuggling merchandise into the United States." "Before trial, three of Smith's alleged co-conspirators, Chris Olson, Tammy Olson and Karis DeLong, Smith's wife, pleaded guilty to introducing misbranded drugs into interstate commerce."
On 9 May 2016, Harris County Attorney Vince Ryan filed an injunction against Shane Hawkins of Angleton, Texas for promoting MMS at Houston-area hotels on behalf of the Genesis II Church. Ryan aimed to stop Hawkins from hosting further seminars, and kept open the possibility that Hawkins will be criminally charged. During the 2019-20 COVID-19 outbreak, the FDA issued a warning to this same "church", as they were touting this
holy sacrament of the Genesis II church! poison as a cure for the coronavirus.
The FDA issued a similar injunction to stop selling bleach as a treatment for COVID-19 to a branch of Genesis II located in Bradenton, Florida on April 17, 2019.  The "church" ignored the warnings, so the church was raided on July 8, 2020. Four individuals (Mark Grenon, Jonathan Grenon, Jordan Grenon and Joseph Grenon) were charged with conspiracy to defraud the United States, conspiracy to violate the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and criminal contempt. 
The sale of MMS is banned in Canada.
On May 2, 2020, Emma Dalmayne, an autistic mom and activist who had long been campaigning against MMS, excitedly announced via Twitter that MMS had been banned in the United States. Dalmayne tweeted an image of text from court papers.
When taken as directed by Humble, the likely effects include "severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, dehydration and hypotension. If the solution is diluted less than instructed, it could cause damage to the gut and red blood cells, potentially resulting in respiratory failure."
In animal studies, chlorine dioxide has been shown to impair thyroid function and reduce T4 cell count in monkeys after 6 months. Another study in rats resulted in reduced red blood cells count when exposed to 100 mg/L of chlorine dioxide concentration in their drinking water, after 3 months.
The United States Department of Labor restricts occupational exposure through inhalation of chlorine dioxide to 0.1ppm since concentrations at 10ppm resulted in deaths in rats after 10 days, while a case where a worker was accidentally exposed to 19ppm resulted in death. According to the same organisation "chlorine dioxide is a severe respiratory and eye irritant in humans."
Between 2009 and 2019, the FDA has directly linked seven deaths to people who have ingested MMS. 
MMS has become particularly popular amongst various far-right activists and conspiracy theorists, including Alan Keyes (who promotes it on his show) and several top supporters of the QAnon movement. Among QAnon supporters it is commonly touted as a supposed prevention and cure for the 2019-20 COVID-19 outbreak, which according to one of the pundits was created as part of a depopulation scheme backed by Bill and Melinda Gates. Take MMS to combat a depopulation scheme? The irony abounds…
Genesis II Church of Health and Healing: The chemical church
Probably in response to the growing regulatory crackdown on MMS, by 2018 Jim Humble formed a "church" known as "Genesis II Church of Health and Healing". Genesis II's two main functions are promoting MMS quackery and supporting the antivax movement.
|Genesis II sacraments:||RationalWiki:|
|Sodium chlorite 22.4% (MMS)||Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) "is not known to occur naturally." Sodium chlorite is a strong oxidant that can cause multiple health problems, including kidney failure.|
|HCl 4%, Hydrochloric Acid (MMS Activator)||Hydrochloric acid occurs naturally in the stomach. "Ingestion of concentrated hydrochloric acid can also cause severe corrosive injury to the mouth, throat esophagus, and stomach, with bleeding, perforation, scarring, or stricture formation as potential sequelae."|
|Chlorine Dioxide (MMS1, Activated MMS)||Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) does not occur naturally. It is a powerful bleaching agent.|
|Calcium Hypochlorite Turning into Hypochlorous acid in Water (MMS2)||Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2 or CaCl2O2) does not occur naturally. "The toxic effects of sodium and calcium hypochlorite are due primarily to the corrosive properties of hypochlorite. If you ingest a small amount of household bleaches (3-6% hypochlorite) you may experience gastrointestinal irritation. If you ingest a more concentrated commercial bleach (10% or higher hypochlorite) or hypochlorite powder you may suffer severe corrosive injuries to the mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach with bleeding, perforation, and eventually death. Permanent scars and narrowing of the esophagus may occur in survivors of severe intoxication."|
|Calcium bentonite Clay||Bentonite is one of the clays that people eat (geophagia). The FDA has warned that consumption of bentonite can lead to elevated lead levels in the body, which "can cause serious damage to the central nervous system, the kidneys, and the immune system."|
|DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide)|
With membership, Genesis II offers a "letter of religious exemption from vaccinations and/or mandatory medications" and a membership card that states that "All members are exempt from any means not chosen, including but not limited to: vaccinations, medications, X-rays, scans, implants, mandatory voting, and health insurance mandated by a human government or authority." The text of this statement is alarmist because US governments have been loathe to actually arrest, subdue and vaccinate people — rather that has been compulsion (a fine in the precedent-setting case, and typically denial of public school entrance for unvaccinated children in modern times). The letter attempts to claim a religious exemption, primarily by citing 2 Corinthians 3:16-17,[note 1] but hypocritically the website states elsewhere that the "church" is non-religious:
“”The Genesis II Church of Health & Healing is a non-religious church welcoming people from all walks of life, religions, colors, creeds and belief systems.
The letter includes a list of chemicals that are (sometimes) contained in vaccines and their alleged dangers:
|In all cases, the amount of these chemicals in vaccines is very low.|
|Thimerosol:[sic] (Mercury) Highly poisonous to the human body||Thiomersal was phased out of vaccines starting in 1999. The use of the mercury-based chemical was part of the autism omnibus trial, which showed that the chemical was not responsible for autism. Also, thiomersal is substantially less toxic than other mercury compounds (e.g. methylmercury).|
|Squalene – adjuvant causing autoimmune response in the body||Squalene is found naturally in plants and animals, including humans. It is added to some vaccines to enhance the immune response to the vaccine itself. Twenty two million doses of flu vaccine have been administered safely.|
|Formaldehyde — a known cancer-causing agent||Formaldehyde is produced naturally in humans. It is used to inactivate viruses so that they can be safely used in vaccines without causing disease. Formaldehyde has a long-record of safe use in vaccines.|
|Aluminum — a neurotoxin that has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease||Most vaccines contain a very small amount of either aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4). Both of these aluminum compounds occur in nature.The amount of aluminum that could pass into the brain from vaccines is so low that the risk is exceedingly low. The neurotoxicity of aluminum is primarily restricted to people incapable of removing excess ions from blood, such as people with renal failure. There is currently no strong evidence that aluminum or other metals cause Alzheimer's disease|
|Triton X-100 — a detergent||Triton X-100 is used in the manufacturing process of vaccines "to prevent aggregation and precipitation of biomolecules". Triton X-100 has a low toxicity (i.e., is not dangerous at low doses)|
|Phenol (carbolic acid)||Phenol is used as a preservative in vaccines. Phenols as a class of chemicals are naturally-occurring in  Naturally-occurring phenols are anti-oxidants, which are good for heath in amounts normally contained in food.|
|Ethylene glycol (antifreeze)||Vaccines do not contain ethylene glycol, an alcohol, which can cause intoxication and health problems. Vaccines do contain polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is used to inactivate the influenza virus in some vaccines. PEG has a low toxicity and is approved for use in food and toothpaste.|
|SV-40 — Cancer causing monkey virus||Some polio vaccines were contaminated with SV40 between 1955 and 1963, but studies found no increase of cancer in humans exposed to this virus.|
|Various antibiotics: neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin — which can cause allergic reactions in some people.||"Antibiotics are used to prevent bacterial contamination during manufacture." "However, the antibiotics most likely to cause severe allergic reactions (e.g., penicillin, cephalosporins and sulfa drugs) are not contained in vaccines."|
|MSG: Known neurotoxin||"MSG is used as a preservative and stabilizer in some vaccines." MSG in low to moderate amounts has been demonstrated to be safe. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, which naturally occurs in plants and foods. Glutamate is naturally-present in foods, particularly tomato, as is MSG (glutamate + table salt).|
Vaccines have repeatedly been shown to be safe and effective, and the risks have been show to be far-outweighed by the benefits, both individually and for the population as a whole. Genesis II is thus engaging in a curious form of simultaneous irrational chemophobia (with regard to vaccines) and irrational chemophilia (with regard to MMS). Like homeopathy, Humble is blissfully unaware of the concept of "the dose makes the poison" that is central to evidence-based medicine, but unlike homeopathy, Humble is promoting dangerous doses of chemicals in MMS while promoting chemophobia over safe doses of chemicals in vaccines.
Alternative medicine relies strongly on the appeal to nature fallacy, and so Genesis II is unusual among alt-med proponents in that it simultaneously promotes ingestion of known dangerous chemicals, some of which are synthetic (sodium chlorite, chlorine dioxide, and calcium hypochlorite), while claiming chemophobia for vaccine adjuvants, some of which are natural (squalene, formaldehyde, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, phenols, MSG) and all of which are safe).
Jim Humble is not the first person to put forth the idea of forming a church based on chemical usage. In 1965, inspired by Timothy Leary, Arthur Kleps came up with the idea of forming a church based on LSD as a sacrament: the Neo-American Church. It didn't end so well the first time around.
- Enforcement Actions against Miracle Mineral Supplement (MMS) Marketers (Quackwatch)
- "Archbishop" Jim Humble's online bookstore
- Genesis II
- MMS Wiki — apparently affiliated with Humble and Genesis II
- A link to a YouTube video of a 2014 BBC TV program showing how so-called "Miracle Mineral Solution" is promoted by Jim Humble's "Genesis-2-Church" .
- A 2016 attempt to reboot the MMS franchise … www.quantumleap.is, fronted by Kacper Postawski.
- "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are".
-  Rawstory, "Quack defends bleach enemas to ‘cure’ autism"
- Here's Why Authorities Want to Stop the Sale of Jim Humble's Miracle Cure by Craig Malisow (November 1, 2016 | 4:00am) Houston Press.
- Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies, McGraw-Hill Professional; 8th edition (March 28, 2006), ISBN 978-0071437639
- Belgian Poison Centre, "Chlorates" accessed 2011-02-17
- Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Robert E. Gosselin, Roger P. Smith, Harold C. Hodge, Jeannet Braddock. Uitgever: Williams & Wilkins; 5 edition (September 1984) ISBN 978-0683036329
- Sodium Chlorite — Summary Report of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products — Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit 
- Health Canada, "Health Risks Associated with Use of Miracle Mineral Solution"], 12 May 2010
- Acute sodium chlorite poisoning associated with renal failure. Lin JL, Lim PS. Ren Fail. 1993;15(5):645-8. PMID 8290712
- FDA Warns Consumers of Serious Harm from Drinking Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS) (July 30, 2010) U.S. Food & Drug Administration (archived from August 3, 2010).
- The Miracle Mineral Solution of the 21st Century by Jim V. Humble (2006) ISBN 0982471203.
- Warning letter (January 06, 2009) U.S. Food & Drug Administration (archived from July 10, 2009).
- Backyard cancer 'healer' deceived patients by Marissa Calligeros (April 24, 2009) The Brisbane Times (archived from July 15, 2009).
- Deadly chemical being sold as miracle cure by Erik Jensen (January 9, 2010 — 12.00am) The Sydney Morning Herald.
- 'Miracle' chemical dubbed a danger" by Sarah Harvey (05:00, Jan 24 2010) Sunday Star Times.
- Miracle Mineral Supplement whale.to (archived from June 1, 2008). Tinfoil hat recommended.
- Radionics: Shadow government whale.to (archived from October 11, 2019).
- Ten Ways to Avoid Being Quacked by Stephen Barrett, (2 April 1997) Quack Watch.
- The man who encourages the sick and dying to drink industrial bleach: Vulnerable people with cancer, Aids, influenza and malaria are being urged to drink Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS) – described by the FDA as 'industrial bleach' by Martin Robbins (15 Sep 2010 07.30 EDT) The Guardian.
- MMS, or how to cure autism with bleach. Brought to you by AutismOne (May 30, 2012) lbrb.
- Dangerous Interventions: MMS and Autism by Emily Willingham (June 6, 2012) Thinking Person's Guide to Autism.
- MMS: Yes, It Is Bleach by Emily Willingham (January 11, 2013) Thinking Person's Guide to Autism.
- Bleaching away what ails you: In an attempt to cure autism, some parents have taken to using Miracle Medical Solution (MMS), a "supplement" that is in reality a form of powerful bleach. They’re even giving autistic children bleach enemas. I wish I were kidding, but I'm dead serious. by David Gorski (May 28, 2012) Science-Based Medicine.
- Evaluation des risques liés à la consommation du produit dénommé «Solution Minérale Miracle» (MMS) by Patrick Nisse et al. March 2010) Comité de coordination de Toxicovigilance.
- Praise for Rhys Morgan, 15, over 'miracle' cure alert (15 October 2010) BBC News.
- Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS) Safety Advisory, Australian Government Department of Health
- Health Warning on 'Miracle Mineral Solution' (4 November 2014) Department of Health & Human Services, State Government of Victoria, Australia (archived from March 4, 2015).
- Senator to raise ‘Miracle cure’ group's Irish seminar in Seanad by Fiachra Ó Cionnaith (20 September 2014) Irish Examiner.
- Bill to ban unethical products like Ebola 'cure' before Parliament by Kurt Bayer (5 November 2014) The New Zealand Herald.
- Parents quizzed over bleach treatment for autism by Seán McCárthaigh (13 April 2015) Irish Examiner.
- State Takes Action Against “Miracle Treatment” For Children: "There are people — complete quacks — that are out there promoting very dangerous chemicals," Atty. Gen. Lisa Madigan says by Phil Rogers (Published June 24, 2015 • Updated on June 24, 2015 at 11:01 pm) NBC Chicago.
- The fake cancer cure conference the 'healers' tried to keep secret: "That's what I need!" an elderly lady called out from the audience, her frail voice filled with excitement by Laura Donnelly & Justin Stoneman (10:02AM BST 25 May 2015) The Telegraph.
- Trading Standards take action on 'Miracle Mineral Solution' by Dave (June 20, 2015) Skeptical Science.
- Seller of "Miracle Mineral Solution" Convicted for Marketing Toxic Chemical as a Miracle Cure (May 28, 2015) The United States Department of Justice.
- Seller of "Miracle Mineral Solution" Convicted for Marketing Toxic Chemical as a Miracle Cure (May 28, 2015) The United States Department of Justice.
- Harris County attorney sues to stop church's sale of toxic 'miracle cure' by Todd Ackerman (May 9, 2016 Updated: May 9, 2016 6:36 p.m.) The Houston Chronicle.
- "Coronavirus In Texas: FDA Orders Church To Stop Promoting COVID-19 Miracle Cure" (April 10, 2020 at 8:28 am) CBS DFW, 2020.
- "Feds issue injunction against Bradenton church distributing ‘Miracle Mineral Solution’" by ABC7 staff, 2020 April 27
- "Federal agencies, hazmat crews respond to Florida church selling COVID-19 ‘miracle solution’" by ABC7 staff, 2020 July 8
- The man who encourages the sick and dying to drink industrial bleach - The Guardian
- The fake cures for autism that can prove deadly - The Guardian
- Parents are poisoning their children with bleach to 'cure' autism. These moms are trying to stop it. - NBC News
- Tweet by Emma Dalmayne
- Warning against consumption of Miracle Mineral Solution (24 September 2010) Food Standards Agency.
- Alert issued on danger supplement (24 September 2010) BBC News.
- Chlorite (sodium salt) (CASRN 7758-19-2) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (archived from February 24, 2003).
- Subchronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and related compounds in drinking water in the nonhuman primate by J. P. Bercz et al. (1982) Environ. Health Perspect. 46:47–55. doi:10.1289/ehp.824647.
- Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water by M. S. Abdel-Rahman et al. (1984) International Journal of Toxicology 3(4):277-284. doi:10.3109/10915818409009082.
- Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Chlorine Dioxide United States Department of Labor (archived from March 22, 2011).
- Don't Drink Bleach, the F.D.A. Says: Alarmed about misinformation online, the agency warned about bleach solutions that are being marketed as cures for autism, H.I.V./AIDS and cancer. by Christine Hauser (2019 Aug 13) The New York Times.
- Alan Keyes Is Helping Sell a Toxic Bleach 'Cure' to the Vulnerable and Desperate: The politician fronts a conservative web-based TV channel and appears in broadcasts with bottles of "Miracle Mineral Solution" on his desk. by Kelly Weill (Updated Dec. 07, 2019 7:21AM ET) The Daily Beast.
- QAnon Influencers Are Encouraging Their Followers to Drink Bleach to Stave Off Coronavirus by Matt Stieb (Jan. 28, 2020) New York Intelligencer.
- Genesis II Church of Health and Healing (archived from August 31, 2018).
- Genesis II Church of Health and Healing (archived from April 25, 2020).
- Sacraments MMS Wiki (archived from May 29, 2017).
- Chlorinated Drinking-Water; Chlorination by-Products; Some Other Halogenated Compounds; Cobalt and Cobalt Compounds: 2. Production, Use, Occurrence and Analysis (1991) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 52.
- See the Wikipedia article on Sodium chlorite § Toxicity.
- Hydrogen Chloride (Page last updated: October 21, 2014) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
- Chlorine dioxide (compound) PubChem, National Library of Medicine.
- FDA warns consumers about the dangerous and potentially life threatening side effects of Miracle Mineral Solution (August 12, 2019) U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
- Calcium hypochlorite PubChem, National Library of Medicine.
- Calcium Hypochlorite/Sodium Hypochlorite Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
- FDA warns consumers about health risks with Alikay Naturals – Bentonite Me Baby – Bentonite Clay (03/23/2016) U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
- Jim Humble (archived from February 7, 2020). "Disclaimer: The protocols described on this site are official sacraments of the Genesis II Church of Health and Healing. The reader accepts 100% responsibility for any and all use made of any information herein."
- Contact Jim Humble (archived from March 4, 2020). "These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease."
- Articles of association: Letter of religious exemption from vaccinations and/or mandatory medications (November 29, 2016) Genesis II Church of Health and Healing (archived from January 11, 2020).
- Our Church Genesis II Church of Health and Healing (archived from January 7, 2020).
- See the Wikipedia article on Jacobson v. Massachusetts.
- Our church The Genesis II Church of Health & Healing (archived from April 25, 2020).
- Thimerosal and Vaccines] U.S. Food & Drug Administration
- Squalene-based adjuvants in vaccines World Health Organization.
- Common Ingredients in U.S. Licensed Vaccines U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- See the Wikipedia article on Aluminium hydroxide.
- See the Wikipedia article on Aluminium phosphate.
- Study Reports Aluminum in Vaccines Poses Extremely Low Risk to Infants (02/06/2015) Food and Drug Administration.
- The Clinical Biochemistry of Aluminum by S. W. King et al. (1981) Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 14(1):1-20. doi:10.3109/10408368109105861.
- Aluminium, metals and dementia Alzheimer's Society.
- Determination of Triton X-100 in influenza vaccine by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis by Katja Heinig & C. Vogt (1997) Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry 359:202–206. doi:10.1007/s002160050560.
- Triton™ X-100 Surfactant: Safety Data Sheet (04/12/2016) The Dow Chemical Company.
- What are the Medical and Health Uses for Phenol? by Tim Jewell Health line.
- See the Wikipedia article on Naturally occurring phenols.
- Ethylene Glycol Toxicity by Aruba Iqbal et al. (12019) StatPearls Publishing.
- Vaccine Ingredients: Frequently Asked Questions HealthChildren.org, American Academy of Pediatrics.
- Polyethylene Glycols (PEGs) by V. O. Sheftel (2000) In: Indirect Food Additives and Polymers: Migration and Toxicology. Lewis Publishers. pp. 1114-1116.
- See the Wikipedia article on Polyethylene glycol.
- Immunization Safety Review: SV40 Contamination of Polio Vaccine and Cancer by K. Stratton et al. (2002) National Academies Press.
- Studies Find No Evidence That Simian Virus 40 Is Related To Human Cancer (August 25, 2004) Science Daily.
- Vaccine Ingredients — Antibiotics '"Vaccine Education Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
- What Goes Into a Vaccine? PublicHealth.org.
- See the Wikipedia article on Monosodium glutamate.
- See the Wikipedia article on Monosodium glutamate.
- General Vaccine Safety Concerns Vaccine Education Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (archived from November 24, 2014).
- See the Wikipedia article on Neo-American Church.