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An ethnocracy (or ethnostate) is literally "rule by ethnic group." The clearest examples come from countries with large oppressed groups defined by ethnicity. Membership in the ethnostate and therefore citizenship is primarily based upon tribal affiliation. For example, apartheid-era South Africa had a white minority rule over a black majority, locking them out of government and business. A similar system was in place in old Rhodesia until the establishment of Zimbabwe. Within the U.S., the Jim Crow South functioned in much the same way with a white majority in control, even in areas that were predominantly African-American. Israel is more or less a modern day ethnocracy as it was built and created for the benefit of the Jewish people to live in.
The underlying presumption is that through the shared ethnic, linguistic and cultural homogeneousness, a harmonious society can be formed in which each citizen may find their own place. In such a state, conformity rather than individuality will be valued. The rate of organic change and growth in the society is slowed down as newer ideas take considerably longer to take root or to be embraced as fewer persons would want to be the odd man out.
The ethnocracy should not be confused with a nation which espouses civic nationalism which allows persons without regard to tribal, ethnic or national origin to enter it and assimilate into the cultural life of the country. Such states are heterogeneous in makeup, but homogeneous in embracing a common civic culture and values those allowing for harmonious co-existence of the people. This concept was borne out of the Enlightenment ideals and classical liberalism in Europe. Examples of such states include the United States, Russia, and Argentina.
A white ethnostate is a term referring to a country (or ethnostate) that is for whites-only (and in most cases free of Jews). The concept of a white ethnostate is very popular in neo-Nazi, White nationalist, alt-right and White supremacist circles and numerous locations have been proposed for an all-white homeland which include but not limited to:
- The Northwest Territorial Imperative otherwise known as the Butler Plan (named after Richard Girnt Butler the leader of the Christian Identity extremist group Aryan Nations), the plan in question would see the Pacific Northwest (consisting of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and a part of Montana sometimes even incorporating Canadian British Columbia, Yukon, Northeastern Colorado, Northern California and Utah, Alaska, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories of Canada) become an independent (and white) nation known as "The Northwest American Republic" complete with a flag (tricolour of blue, white, and green), coat of arms (a Northwest mountain with two swords in front), slogan ("Ex Gladio Libertas", Latin for "The Sword of Freedom"), preamble (which reads: In the name of the Divine Creator of all things we, the Aryan peoples of the Earth, do hereby set forth this Constitution of the Northwest American Republic, in order that we may secure the existence of our people and a future for White children ) and even a constitution laying out all the basic functions this Northwest white ethnostate would be, Neo-Nazi Harold Covington and his organization the Northwest Front are also major advocates of this plan. The now-defunct Oregon based Neo-Nazi organization Volksfront (aka Volskfront International) also were advocates for a whites-only Northwest state.
- On the other hand, some in The South such as the League of the South, Brad Griffin (writer of Occidental Dissent) and Identity Dixie (an alt-right/alt-south, Identitarian group) want to recreate the Confederacy or at the very least an independent Dixie state exclusively for Anglo-Celtic Southerners/White Southerners/Dixian/Southron/insert Southern name here-only which means African-Americans and other non-whites aren't exactly going to do well here in a white-dominated place. 
- Matthew Heimbach and the Traditionalist Worker Party's ethnostate of "Avalon" which would be a country built on the glorious principles of National Socialism.
- Notorious Neo-Nazi Billy Roper has also on multiple occasions have proposed the idea of a white ethnostate of his own and his plan "Project New America" (aka ShieldWall) would envision multiple white ethnostates in a (hypothetical) balkanization of America which include Ozarkia (which would comprise of the Ozarks region of Missouri), New America (which would stretch from the Appalachians to the Rockies to the Great Lakes and to the Texas Coast), and Franklin (named after the unrecognized state of the 1790s in what is now present day Tennessee).
- One person by the name of Tom Kawczynski of Jackman, Maine has proposed a New England-based ethnostate (covering Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire) called "New Albion" complete with a Confederate flag-esque flag swapping red with green and stars with pinecones and trees.
- The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, a Boer-Afrikaner South African Neo-Nazi organization that advocates for an Afrikaner-only "Volkstaat" in its agenda. Granted although most Boer-Afrikaner nationalists aren't exactly racists per se (such as Volksfront) the idea of an Afrikaner ethnostate has a racial element to it.
- The self-proclaimed Republic of Florida organization and militia founded by Jordan Jereb, "a white civil rights fighting for identitarian politics” advocates for the U.S. state of Florida to secede and become a white-centric ethnostate.
- Someone on the now defunct Atlantic Centurion has advocated for an alt-right white homeland called the "Amerikaner Free State" which would span most of America from the Northwest to the Great Lakes, to Northeast/New England all the way down to Louisiana.
- The convicted terrorist, Vietnam War ex-Green Beret veteran, white supremacist, white nationalist, antisemitic, former KKK member and leader of the White People's Party (WPP) Frazier Glenn Miller had proposed at one point a country called the "Carolina Free State" which would have been based in North Carolina and South Carolina as an all-white nation.
Despite the fact, white nationalists, Neo-Nazis, alt-righters and white supremacists have been unable to coordinate and form a single effective movement to create a white ethnostate together it's still bandied around and as long as these groups still exist expect discussion of this idea to continue.
Republic of New Afrika
On the reverse side of ethnic separatism, we have Black nationalists who want to create an all-black homeland within the black regions of the southeastern parts of the South, the movement is called the "Republic of New Afrika" established in 1968 and it would be a blacks-only state and the flag of the movement is the non-racist Pan-African flag. The New Black Panther Party (no relation to in particular to the Black Panther Party) and The Nation of Islam's Louis Farrakhan advocate for a Black state much in the same vein as white nationalists.
Blue! No, YELLOOoo…
Although at odds with liberal conceptions of the state, many countries present a "staatsvolk", or a constitutive people (ethnic hegemon) whose members believe themselves to be the true nation. For example, the official policy of Malaysia is Ketuanan Melayu (Malay supremacy), a special status for the Malay people that does not cover the significant numbers of Chinese, Indian, or some indigenous or quasi-indigenous peoples (Bumiputra policy in Malaysia, which applies to Malays but not entirely to all of the true indigenes, e.g., the orang asli). This also has religious implications, because one of the requirements for being considered a Malay is professing Islam. Many Burmans in Burma consider themselves to be the nation rather than the minority Karens, Kachins, Karenni, Mons, Pao, Rohingya, etc. Many Shona speakers in Zimbabwe believe they and not the minority Ndebele speakers, Europeans or Asians are the nation. China identifies all of its ethnic groups as being "Chinese" however it also home to more than 56 different ethnic groups too numerous to list most notably the Hui (Chinese Muslims), Uyghurs, Tibetans, Koreans etc. and some of these groups are already calling for their own states. Compare jus sanguinis rather than jus soli, where you and generations of your ancestors being born in a country is not sufficient for you to be a full citizen, e.g. Turkish denizens of Germany (although obtaining the German citizenship is relatively easy and many did so) or Korean denizens of Japan. According to the Jewish Israeli journalist Joel Schalit, the State of Israel is an ethnocracy in which Jewish Israelis dominate politically and socially.
- List of forms of government
- Switzerland — an example of a non-ethnocratic state
- Dialect continuum
- Ethnic cleansing
- Nationalism in history textbooks