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Argentina

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Location in South America.
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Argentina is the second-largest country by area in South America and third largest by population. It was colonized by the Spanish in the sixteenth century, gaining independence in 1816.

Linguistically, Argentine Spanish has a very unique Italian flair, since 50% of its population holds Italian heritage; much of its population descends from European immigrants. While you don't need a language class to understand it if you already speak Spanish, Argentine Spanish is like "Spanish if you shoehorned some Latin into it."

Domestic politics[edit]

Argentine politics have tended to be revolution prone, with popular leaders displaced by authoritarian governments. The frequency with which this happened led to Gerardo Munck using it as a case study for how theories about how the legitimacy of government comes and goes. This cyclical relationship can best be seen in caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas, whose legacy within Argentina has been the subject of debate, as he has been portrayed both as a brutal tyrant and a dutiful public servant. A final coup brought an end to Peronism, which itself had been guilty of heavy censorship and political chicanery, and in the 1970s and 1980s the infamous "Dirty War" was waged by the military junta of Jorge Rafael Videla against internal opposition: some ten thousand Argentines were "disappeared, mainly by being dropped from helicopters." Members of the movement Madres de Plaza de Mayo ("Mothers of May Square") still search for those missing persons.

After the return to democracy, Argentina had a couple of economic crises. The country has since experienced economic growth, but corruption, unemployment, inflation and poverty are still widespread.

Abortion is in most cases illegal[1] complications following illegal abortions are a common cause of women's deaths.[2]

Far-right fascism in Argentina[edit]

The Arab League's in Argentina Issa Nakhle, edited, published the journal "America y Oriente", starting from November 20, 1952. Known for its systematical anti-Jewish campaign and its glorification of totalitarian regimes, particularly of the nazi Germany, the journal was "a very efficient arm of the Arab propaganda, and reached wide circulation amongst antisemitic nationalist groups, nazi elements and university circles.[3]

Tacuara was a far right fascist organization in Argentina since 1955 till late 1960s. There were several ultra fascistic groups in the 1960s, however, in terms of public notoriety, the Tacuara organization topped the list.[4] In the early 1960s it was clearly a neo nazi stormtroopers gang. It has gained international headlines by attacking Jews, especially in 1961 after Eichmann's trial. Arab League's Hussein Triki (1962-4), who collaborated with the Nazis in WW2, worked tightly with the Tacuara and neo nazi groups.[5] Some even charged he financed this group, at least in part.[6][7]

In 1962, Tacuara's Pro-Nazi, Hitler & Mussolini admirer[8] Joe Baxter visited Egypt, and Arab publications issued abroad, especially in South America, contained incitement against the Jews.[9]

In November 1962, months after neo-nazi Tacuara kidnapped 19 years old student carving on her a swastika in revenge for Eichmann,[10] the gang was saluted by Ahmad Shukairy[11][12][13] (who fought for Hitler in WW2,[14] in his saluting the nazi gang, he invited that its principles be adopted. In his speech he mentioned that the NYTimes wrote about them "recently", that very Sep.16.1962 article where the NYTimes explicitly stated its nazi nature[15]). It has subsequently cost him his post at the UN,[16] as more moderate Arabs removed him.[17]

Of noted Hussein Triki and Tacuara joined incident is: April 27, 1964: The Argentine Arab Youth Movement distributed leaflets inviting the public to a "big demonstration in support of the Arab League.".. At the meeting, slogans such as "Long Live Hitler," "Nasser and Peron," "Jews to the Crematoria" and "Make Soap out of the Jews" were voiced by participants, many of whom were identified by their uniforms, as well as by their Nazi salute, as members of Tacuara and Guardia Restauradora Nacionalista, neo-Nazi groups.[18]

In August of 1964, Hussein Triki was deported from Argentina.[19][20]

International politics[edit]

After the Second World War, the Juan Perón government provided shelter to a number of people wanted in connection with Nazi war crimes, even appointing some of them to significant government offices. The Catholic Church and some conservative Nazi supporters had helped them escape and it proved extremely difficult to get even top-level Nazis to trial. Israel famously captured Adolf Eichmann in Argentina to bring him to trial (and ultimately hang him) in Jerusalem, but other Nazis were luckier and many died unperturbed of old age with Argentina or other South American right-wing regimes holding their protective hand over them.

In 1982, the dictatorship ruling Argentina made the questionable decision to invade a bunch of rocks inhabited mostly by penguins. The British thought it was their bunch of rocks (in fairness, the islands' population is British); the ensuing war resulted in the resumption of the status quo and the deaths of almost one thousand people (mostly Argentine).

Trivia[edit]

Argentinians love sports, especially fútbol.

Argentina's primary export is Popes, in which they have cornered 100% of the market.

Argentina is one of several countries to claim a slice of Antarctica. It's also, along with Chile, one of the few to ignore the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 and continue to insist on its claims. Customs officials don't let that stop them having it both ways of course: they still shake down cruise ships returning from Antarctica on the grounds that they've left the country, even though by Argentina's own statements the ships haven't left it at all.

References[edit]

  1. Argentina: Abortion Law
  2. How the handmaid became an international protest symbol
  3. Anti Jewish Activities Arabs In Argentina, DAIA, 1958 PDF
  4. "Jewish social studies". Volume 31. p.128 (1969) Within the army, the neo-nazi group is directed by General Rauch (of German extraction), who for several months in 1962 held the sensitive cabinet post of Minister of the Interior. Another extremely vocal group in the Army is the LCN (National Counterrevolutionary League), comprised of retired officers who follow the creeds of Hitler and Mussolini. In terms of public notoriety, the Tacuara Organization heads the long list. The second neo-nazi organization was started in Argentina some years ago by the Arab League. Directed and inspired by a diplomat, Hussein Triki—a wellknown World War II collaboraor of the Axis..
  5. Raanan Rein, "Argentina, Israel, and the Jews: Perón, the Eichmann Capture and After". (2002 ) p. 402 Throughout the 1960s, Tacuara drew additional inspiration for its anti-Semitic and anti-Israel views from contacts both with neo-Nazi organizations in other countries and Hussein Triki, the Arab League's representative in Buenos Aires, who promoted anti-Semitism under cover of anti-Zionism and as part of the anti- colonialist, anti-imperialist struggle. Triki told Catholic circles  in Argentina that the Christian holy places in Israel were being desecrated and that the Catholic Church was persecuted there.” During the years of World War II, Triki had been a member of the nationalist movement in Tunisia. After the Allied victory in El Alamein, Triki escaped to Nazi-controlled territory where he disseminated propaganda against the Allies, collaborating with the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin El-Husseini, who at the time was directing Nazi propaganda broadcasts in the Middle East.
  6. Robert Weisbrot, ‎Robert Murciano, "The Jews of Argentina: From the Inquisition to Perón" (1979) p.255
  7. Juan José Sebreli, "Crítica de las ideas políticas argentinas" (2011)
  8. Dictionary of Irish Latin American Biography, "Baxter, José Luis (Joe) (1940-1973)"
  9. Harkabi, Yehoshafat (2017-09-08) (in en). Arab Attitudes to Israel. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-53133-7.  The offices of the Arab League are used as a centre for the dissemination of anti-Jewish material. Arab publications issued abroad, especially in South America, contain incitement against the Jews. For example, virulent anti-Jewish material, including extracts from The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, has been been published in Nacion Arabe, a periodical published in Argentina. Jose Baxter, leader of the Tacuara in Argentina, has visited Egypt... Shukairy defended the Tacuara at the UN, expressing the hope that it would spread to other Latin-American countries and that the UN would adopt its principles.
  10. "Report on Anti-semitism in Argentina." Social Research Center of DAIA, 2003. p.201 Graciela Sirota was a Jewish girl who was kidnapped and subjected to terrible tortures, after a swastika was tattooed on her chest. The kidnappers said everything they did to her was in revenge for Eichmann's execution.
  11. Facts, Volumes 15-17. Anti-defamation League of B'nai B'rith., 1963, p.424 In 1962 at the U.N., Shukairy even went so far as to praise the militant, anti-Jewish and neo-Nazi storm troop gang in Argentina known as Tacuara. He said: "Recently in Argentina, as was reported in The New York Times, a national movement..."
  12. Edy Kaufman, Yoram Shapira, Joel Barromi: Israeli-Latin American Relations, 1979. p.87
  13. "Los árabes apoyan en la ONU a los nazis de Tacuara", en La Luz, año 32, nº 816, 14 de diciembre de 1962, pp. 3 y 8 ["The Arabs support the Nazis of Tacuara at the UN"]
  14. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, Volume 107, Part 24, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961. p.5735
  15. "Argentine Youths in Nazi Group Salute and Cry: 'Hail Tacuara!'; Anti-Semitic Organization, Said to Be Growing, Asserts It Fights 'Zionism, Capitalism and Communism'" The New York Times. Sept. 16, 1962
  16. [1][2] The Jewish Floridian, December 21, 1962, p.1a, p.8a: Israel Urges UN Adopt Direct Peace Talk Move... One of the principal Arab detractors of Israel was missing today, and the Saudi Arabian position in the committee chamber was vacant. Shukairy left here Saturday, unannounced but not unnoticed. Having been recalled from his post by Saudi Arabia's King Feisal. A number of delegates, including Arabs embarrased by his volatile speeches stirring anti-Semitism and endorsing the neo-Nazi Tacuara movement of Argentina, had asked King Feisal to take him away  from the already highly charged UN scene.
  17. The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, December 7, 1962, p.10: Arabs Head Drive for Saudi Arabia to Remove UN Envoy Claim Ahmad Shukairy Embarrasses Moderates Urged Tacuara Salute UNITED NATIONS (JTA) A move for the recall by Saudi Arabia of its permanent representative to the United Nations, Ahmad Shukairy, was under way here, with Arab diplomats heading the drive. The desire for Shukairy's removal from the UN scene, long contemplated by more moderate Arabs here, gained heavy impetus here after the official Saudi Arabian spokesman declared openly a "salute" to the anti-Semitic Tacuara movement in Argentina and proposed that the UN "adopt" the Tacuara movement. Shukairy's "salute" to the Tacuara movement was voiced last Friday before the General Assembly's Special Political Committee...
  18. "Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress", Volume 111, Part 12. United States. Congress U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965. p.15915
  19. ARGENTINA TALKS OF OUSTING ARAB; Official Accused of Leading Anti-Semitic Campaign The New York Times, Aug. 9, 1964. p.9
  20. Argentina Reports Hussein Triki, Arab League Agent, Has Left JTA, Aug.31.1964