RationalWiki:Annotated Bible/Exodus

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See the main article on this topic: Book of Exodus
The King James Versionaccept no substitutes!

Exodus Chapter 1[edit]

Exodus 1:1[edit]

Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.

Exodus 1:1 Notes[edit]

Even the Jews were on Team Jacob, apparently.

Exodus 1:2[edit]

Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah,

Exodus 1:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:3[edit]

Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,

Exodus 1:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:4[edit]

Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.

Exodus 1:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:5[edit]

And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.

Exodus 1:5 Notes[edit]

"The loins of Jacob." Sexy.

Exodus 1:6[edit]

And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation.

Exodus 1:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:7[edit]

And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them.

Exodus 1:7 Notes[edit]

This is the Biblical equivalent of a two-minute establishing shot.

Exodus 1:8[edit]

Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.

Exodus 1:8 Notes[edit]

See Genesis 46:1 for some background on Joseph and his sojourn into Egypt. In short, Joseph led the Hebrews into Egypt to escape a famine in Canaan, and enjoyed good relations with the then Pharaoh. In Genesis 50:2 Joseph, on his death bed, assured his brothers that God would come to their aid and lead them to their promised land. He neglected to mention that God wouldn't be particularly expedient or pleasant while doing this.

Note that the titles "king" and "pharaoh" are used interchangeably throughout Exodus, and the actual name of the pharaoh is not mentioned, which doesn't help attempts to attach a date to the events of this book.

Exodus 1:9[edit]

And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we:

Exodus 1:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:10[edit]

Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land.

Exodus 1:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:11[edit]

Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses.

Exodus 1:11 Notes[edit]

It's odd that the Israelites went along with this, considering that they were described only two verses earlier in Exodus 1:9 as "more and mightier than [the Egyptians]."

It is also notable that the "Pharaoh" character is only ever called that: it is never said which Pharaoh he is, almost as if the Israelites weren't ever held as slaves in Egypt and so only knew the ruler's title or something.

Exodus 1:12[edit]

But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.

Exodus 1:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:13[edit]

And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

Exodus 1:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:14[edit]

And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour.

Exodus 1:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:15[edit]

And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah:

Exodus 1:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:16[edit]

And he said, When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then ye shall kill him: but if it be a daughter, then she shall live.

Exodus 1:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:17[edit]

But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men children alive.

Exodus 1:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:18[edit]

And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them, Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men children alive?

Exodus 1:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:19[edit]

And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwives come in unto them.

Exodus 1:19 Notes[edit]

It is not a judgmental claim to notice that the midwives have clearly violated the Ninth Commandment.

Exodus 1:20[edit]

Therefore God dealt well with the midwives: and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty.

Exodus 1:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 1:21[edit]

And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that he made them houses.

Exodus 1:21 Notes[edit]

The midwives probably don't have long to enjoy those houses, if later events are anything to go by. As the saying goes: What God giveth, God shortly afterwards smasheth to pieces with fire and pestilence during a hissy fit.

Exodus 1:22[edit]

And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.

Exodus 1:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 2[edit]

Exodus 2:1[edit]

And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi.

Exodus 2:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:2[edit]

And the woman conceived, and bare a son: and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months.

Exodus 2:2 Notes[edit]

See Moses.

Jerome's Chronicle[1] places this event around 1592 BCE. Some other sources say ~1400 BCE, but both of them practically place them in the Copper Age, where keeping track of stuff isn't that important.

Exodus 2:3[edit]

And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river's brink.

Exodus 2:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:4[edit]

And his sister stood afar off, to wit what would be done to him.

Exodus 2:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:5[edit]

And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river; and her maidens walked along by the river's side; and when she saw the ark among the flags, she sent her maid to fetch it.

Exodus 2:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:6[edit]

And when she had opened it, she saw the child: and, behold, the babe wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of the Hebrews' children.

Exodus 2:6 Notes[edit]

Jews and Christians would be in a very awkward place but for this violation of the Fifth Commandment.

Exodus 2:7[edit]

Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go and call to thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?

Exodus 2:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:8[edit]

And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the maid went and called the child's mother.

Exodus 2:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:9[edit]

And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages. And the women took the child, and nursed it.

Exodus 2:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:10[edit]

And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses: and she said, Because I drew him out of the water.

Exodus 2:10 Notes[edit]

The name "Moses" sounds vaguely like the Hebrew word meshitihu, to draw out. This of course raises the question: why in the holy heck would an Egyptian princess give a baby of indeterminate ethnicity a Hebrew name? More to the point: why would an Egyptian princess know the language of the slaves in the first place? The only slaves she would speak to would be palace slaves who would speak Egyptian. The answer, scholars say, is that she didn't: Moses is an Egyptian name. Editors later cooked up a folk etymology to hide Moses' Egyptian origins (and perhaps even partial ethnicity).

Exodus 2:11[edit]

And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren.

Exodus 2:11 Notes[edit]

The Bible skips a bit where Moses grows, leaving out how he learned about his true heritage, or possibly some other fun omens that appeared during his growth.

Exodus 2:12[edit]

And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.

Exodus 2:12 Notes[edit]

The fact that Moses makes sure nobody is looking proves he knows that killing is a naughty thing, despite not having received the Ten Commandments yet. This is confirmed two verses later, where Hebrews felt similarly. So much for needing God as a moral guide.

Exodus 2:13[edit]

And when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews strove together: and he said to him that did the wrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?

Exodus 2:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:14[edit]

And he said, Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said, Surely this thing is known.

Exodus 2:14 Notes[edit]

Nobody was around, yet Moses was identified as killing the Egyptian? It must have been the Hebrew that told his story to others. No good deed goes unpunished.

Exodus 2:15[edit]

Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian: and he sat down by a well.

Exodus 2:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:16[edit]

Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.

Exodus 2:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:17[edit]

And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock.

Exodus 2:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:18[edit]

And when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that ye are come so soon to day?

Exodus 2:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:19[edit]

And they said, An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock.

Exodus 2:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:20[edit]

And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.

Exodus 2:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:21[edit]

And Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter.

Exodus 2:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:22[edit]

And she bare him a son, and he called his name Gershom: for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land.

Exodus 2:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:23[edit]

And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.

Exodus 2:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 2:24[edit]

And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.

Exodus 2:24 Notes[edit]

So it's perfectly fine to forget about a promise to someone.

Exodus 2:25[edit]

And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto them.

Exodus 2:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 3[edit]

Exodus 3:1[edit]

Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.

Exodus 3:1 Notes[edit]

New Living Translation is the odd one out, calling this Mount Sinai.

The location of Mount Sinai is known, but is well south of Israel.[2]

Exodus 3:2[edit]

And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.

Exodus 3:2 Notes[edit]

On his return to Horeb / Sinai, it will become clear that Moses will worship any damn thing that's on fire.

Just as other examples of similar weird things elsewhere in the Bible (see Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation] to name just two), it's quite debatable if seeing that was just the result of a bad trip/high fever deliriums/schizophrenic nightmares/whatever.

Exodus 3:3[edit]

And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.

Exodus 3:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:4[edit]

And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.

Exodus 3:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:5[edit]

And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.

Exodus 3:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:6[edit]

Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

Exodus 3:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:7[edit]

And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows;

Exodus 3:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:8[edit]

And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

Exodus 3:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:9[edit]

Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them.

Exodus 3:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:10[edit]

Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt.

Exodus 3:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:11[edit]

And Moses said unto God, Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?

Exodus 3:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:12[edit]

And he said, Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be a token unto thee, that I have sent thee: When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.

Exodus 3:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:13[edit]

And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?

Exodus 3:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:14[edit]

And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

Exodus 3:14 Notes[edit]

Other translations use "I AM WHO I AM".

The term "הָיָה" (’eh·yeh) was used as a translation for "I AM". However, his name was probably known well enough in Genesis, considering that there was a mountain named based off the name of God.

Exodus 3:15[edit]

And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, the LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.

Exodus 3:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:16[edit]

Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt:

Exodus 3:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:17[edit]

And I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, unto a land flowing with milk and honey.

Exodus 3:17 Notes[edit]

So they are going to a promised land that already has people living there? What could possibly go wrong?

Exodus 3:18[edit]

And they shall hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath met with us: and now let us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.

Exodus 3:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:19[edit]

And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty hand.

Exodus 3:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:20[edit]

And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go.

Exodus 3:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:21[edit]

And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty.

Exodus 3:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 3:22[edit]

But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.

Exodus 3:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 4[edit]

Exodus 4:1[edit]

And Moses answered and said, But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice: for they will say, The LORD hath not appeared unto thee.

Exodus 4:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:2[edit]

And the LORD said unto him, What is that in thine hand? And he said, A rod.

Exodus 4:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:3[edit]

And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it.

Exodus 4:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:4[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand, and take it by the tail. And he put forth his hand, and caught it, and it became a rod in his hand:

Exodus 4:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:5[edit]

That they may believe that the LORD God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared unto thee.

Exodus 4:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:6[edit]

And the LORD said furthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into thy bosom. And he put his hand into his bosom: and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow.

Exodus 4:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:7[edit]

And he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again. And he put his hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and, behold, it was turned again as his other flesh.

Exodus 4:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:8[edit]

And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign.

Exodus 4:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:9[edit]

And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land: and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land.

Exodus 4:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:10[edit]

And Moses said unto the LORD, O my LORD, I am not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.

Exodus 4:10 Notes[edit]

Even major biblical figures had flaws, but this doesn't prevent the superstition of God creating disabled children as a form of punishment.

Exodus 4:11[edit]

And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the LORD?

Exodus 4:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:12[edit]

Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say.

Exodus 4:12 Notes[edit]

Of course God could simply swagger in to Pharaoh's castle and make a pretty strong case for his letting the Hebrews go free, but no, that would be far too simple for Yahweh. The only way he could be more vague and indirect would be to communicate his will to Pharaoh by sending a pack of dogs to bark messages in Morse code, or perhaps using a dream to indicate seven years of prosperity followed by seven years of famine.

Exodus 4:13[edit]

And he said, O my LORD, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send.

Exodus 4:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:14[edit]

And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee: and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart.

Exodus 4:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:15[edit]

And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth: and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do.

Exodus 4:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:16[edit]

And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people: and he shall be, even he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God.

Exodus 4:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:17[edit]

And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs.

Exodus 4:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:18[edit]

And Moses went and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren which are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace.

Exodus 4:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:19[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt: for all the men are dead which sought thy life.

Exodus 4:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:20[edit]

And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt: and Moses took the rod of God in his hand.

Exodus 4:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:21[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

Exodus 4:21 Notes[edit]

The notion of God "hardening" Pharaoh's heart is controversial in that it suggests that Pharaoh was not operating of his own free will. There are conflicting accounts given in Exodus. In some cases Pharaoh is described as hardening his own heart while in Exodus 9:7 and Exodus 10:20, God is describing as hardening Pharaoh's heart. Apologists provide several suggestions to resolve this, one of which is that Pharaoh was himself responsible for the hardening, with God simply allowing Pharaoh to harden his own heart. This makes no sense in the context of Exodus 7:3, in which God clearly tells Moses that he shall harden Pharaoh's heart. Apologists have to try to claim that Pharaoh acted of his own volition since otherwise this appears to be an odd situation in which God deliberately hinders the Hebrews' fight for freedom in order to show off his powers and inflict suffering on the Egyptians as a whole — culminating in the wholesale massacre of the first born of Egypt.

Exodus 4:22[edit]

And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn:

Exodus 4:22 Notes[edit]

Granted there is nothing stopping God, an all-powerful deity, from just transporting his children out of there, but we wouldn't have a good story then right?

Exodus 4:23[edit]

And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn.

Exodus 4:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:24[edit]

And it came to pass by the way in the inn, that the LORD met him, and sought to kill him.

Exodus 4:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:24-26 are frequently bowdlerised in translations or just left out altogether (as far back as the first translation from Hebrew into Aramaic, all those thousands of years ago) because they're gruesome and they don't make any damn sense.

One interpretation of this passage is that Moses’ wife Zipporah circumcises their son and then throws the foreskin onto Moses's feet so that God doesn't kill Moses.[3]

Exodus 4:25[edit]

Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband art thou to me.

Exodus 4:25 Notes[edit]

Everybody loves a good ol' circumcision. (Also, "feet" is a common Hebrew euphemism for male genitalia. By casting her son's foreskin at Moses' junk she's symbolically circumcising him.)

Exodus 4:26[edit]

So he let him go: then she said, A bloody husband thou art, because of the circumcision.

Exodus 4:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:27[edit]

And the LORD said to Aaron, Go into the wilderness to meet Moses. And he went, and met him in the mount of God, and kissed him.

Exodus 4:27 Notes[edit]

…Um… depending how this is interpreted, Aaron could've been getting a little gay with Moses here. But then Leviticus (which specifically condemns (male) homosexuality) hadn't been written yet.

Exodus 4:28[edit]

And Moses told Aaron all the words of the LORD who had sent him, and all the signs which he had commanded him.

Exodus 4:28 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:29[edit]

And Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of the children of Israel:

Exodus 4:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:30[edit]

And Aaron spake all the words which the LORD had spoken unto Moses, and did the signs in the sight of the people.

Exodus 4:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 4:31[edit]

And the people believed: and when they heard that the LORD had visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.

Exodus 4:31 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 5[edit]

Exodus 5:1[edit]

And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness.

Exodus 5:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:2[edit]

And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.

Exodus 5:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:3[edit]

And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice unto the LORD our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword.

Exodus 5:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:4[edit]

And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the people from their works? get you unto your burdens.

Exodus 5:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:5[edit]

And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many, and ye make them rest from their burdens.

Exodus 5:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:6[edit]

And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying,

Exodus 5:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:7[edit]

Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves.

Exodus 5:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:8[edit]

And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof: for they be idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God.

Exodus 5:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:9[edit]

Let there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labour therein; and let them not regard vain words.

Exodus 5:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:10[edit]

And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spake to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw.

Exodus 5:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:11[edit]

Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it: yet not ought of your work shall be diminished.

Exodus 5:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:12[edit]

So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw.

Exodus 5:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:13[edit]

And the taskmasters hasted them, saying, Fulfil your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw.

Exodus 5:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:14[edit]

And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick both yesterday and to day, as heretofore?

Exodus 5:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:15[edit]

Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants?

Exodus 5:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:16[edit]

There is no straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us, Make brick: and, behold, thy servants are beaten; but the fault is in thine own people.

Exodus 5:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:17[edit]

But he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle: therefore ye say, Let us go and do sacrifice to the LORD.

Exodus 5:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:18[edit]

Go therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks.

Exodus 5:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:19[edit]

And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in evil case, after it was said, Ye shall not minish ought from your bricks of your daily task.

Exodus 5:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:20[edit]

And they met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came forth from Pharaoh:

Exodus 5:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:21[edit]

And they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us.

Exodus 5:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:22[edit]

And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, LORD, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people? why is it that thou hast sent me?

Exodus 5:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 5:23[edit]

For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done evil to this people; neither hast thou delivered thy people at all.

Exodus 5:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 6[edit]

Exodus 6:1[edit]

Then the LORD said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh: for with a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land.

Exodus 6:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:2[edit]

And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD:

Exodus 6:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:3[edit]

And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.

Exodus 6:3 Notes[edit]

Why couldn't God reveal His real name then? Why use a fake name?

Exodus 6:4[edit]

And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers.

Exodus 6:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:5[edit]

And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant.

Exodus 6:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:6[edit]

Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments:

Exodus 6:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:7[edit]

And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God: and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

Exodus 6:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:8[edit]

And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the LORD.

Exodus 6:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:9[edit]

And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.

Exodus 6:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:10[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

Exodus 6:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:11[edit]

Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Exodus 6:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:12[edit]

And Moses spake before the LORD, saying, Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; how then shall Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips?

Exodus 6:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:13[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus 6:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:14[edit]

These be the heads of their fathers' houses: The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi: these be the families of Reuben.

Exodus 6:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:15[edit]

And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman: these are the families of Simeon.

Exodus 6:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:16[edit]

And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari: and the years of the life of Levi were an hundred thirty and seven years.

Exodus 6:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:17[edit]

The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to their families.

Exodus 6:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:18[edit]

And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the life of Kohath were an hundred thirty and three years.

Exodus 6:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:19[edit]

And the sons of Merari; Mahali and Mushi: these are the families of Levi according to their generations.

Exodus 6:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:20[edit]

And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty and seven years.

Exodus 6:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:21[edit]

And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri.

Exodus 6:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:22[edit]

And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Zithri.

Exodus 6:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:23[edit]

And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.

Exodus 6:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:24[edit]

And the sons of Korah; Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph: these are the families of the Korhites.

Exodus 6:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:25[edit]

And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and she bare him Phinehas: these are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families.

Exodus 6:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:26[edit]

These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom the LORD said, Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies.

Exodus 6:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:27[edit]

These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and Aaron.

Exodus 6:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:28[edit]

And it came to pass on the day when the LORD spake unto Moses in the land of Egypt,

Exodus 6:28 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:29[edit]

That the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, I am the LORD: speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto thee.

Exodus 6:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus 6:30[edit]

And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me?

Exodus 6:30 Notes[edit]

Moses makes this claim frequently, always forgetting about Aaron. Oddly, God was only angry on the first time it was asked in Exodus 4:10

Exodus Chapter 7[edit]

Exodus 7:1[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.

Exodus 7:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:2[edit]

Thou shalt speak all that I command thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel out of his land.

Exodus 7:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:3[edit]

And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

Exodus 7:3 Notes[edit]

This is an unequivocal example of God claiming that he will interfere with the free will of Pharaoh and inflict terrible suffering upon the people of Egypt as part of a strange game in which God forces Pharaoh to decline the requests that he himself has commanded Moses to make. Essentially he has set Moses an impossible task, and then Moses is rebuffed by Pharaoh, God steps in to deliver indiscriminate suffering upon the Egyptian people.

Exodus 7:4[edit]

But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.

Exodus 7:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:5[edit]

And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them.

Exodus 7:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:6[edit]

And Moses and Aaron did as the LORD commanded them, so did they.

Exodus 7:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:7[edit]

And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three years old, when they spake unto Pharaoh.

Exodus 7:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:8[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying,

Exodus 7:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:9[edit]

When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent.

Exodus 7:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:10[edit]

And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent.

Exodus 7:10 Notes[edit]

Such a parlor trick is little different to God instructing Aaron to invite Pharaoh to "pick a card, any card". If God has already decided to directly interfere in the situation then one might ask why he doesn't simply teleport the Hebrews to safety or perhaps offer Pharaoh a magic trick that's at least as impressive as those seen in a good Las Vegas show?

Exodus 7:11[edit]

Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments.

Exodus 7:11 Notes[edit]

This is in line with the implication of the later "thou shalt have no gods before me" that the Pentateuch was written at a time when Judaism was at least partially polytheistic: God wasn't the only god, just the best god. Here, appealing to the Egyptian gods works, implying they exist but aren't as powerful as YHWH. Christianity would later rationalize this by claiming the Egyptian priests just ganked some power from Satan.

Exodus 7:12[edit]

For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.

Exodus 7:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:13[edit]

And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

Exodus 7:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:14[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.

Exodus 7:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:15[edit]

Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thine hand.

Exodus 7:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:16[edit]

And thou shalt say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness: and, behold, hitherto thou wouldest not hear.

Exodus 7:16 Notes[edit]

While this verse in the Bible implies that free will exists, God had already hardened the pharoh's heart to prevent making a more suitable decision. With just one verse, the Pharoh is accused of disobeying God, despite it being God's will that he do so.

Exodus 7:17[edit]

Thus saith the LORD, In this thou shalt know that I am the LORD: behold, I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.

Exodus 7:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:18[edit]

And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall lothe to drink of the water of the river.

Exodus 7:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:19[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.

Exodus 7:19 Notes[edit]

A reader could be forgiven for wondering why God provides magical artifacts to his followers? Couldn't he simply will things to occur, or is God somehow limited? Such events betray the primitive origins of these stories, and are particularly evident when comparing God of the Old Testament to the modern definition of God. Yahweh was a very anthropomorphic god: He could experience anger, sorrow, could be persuaded to change his mind (see Exodus 32:11-14), and enjoyed the smell of burnt offerings. God would actually converse directly with people, and when angry would hurl fire and lightning at people. This is very notable in Genesis 3:8-21, in which God physically walks around in Eden and has a form similar to humans. The verses also describe God as being ignorant of Adam and Eve's hiding place until they respond to his calls.

In time God became more abstract and less prone to direct intervention in the world. The qualities of omniscience and omnipotence would logically contradict the idea of an anthropomorphic god, and as scientific and philosophical knowledge advanced, God had to become increasingly ephemeral. Old Testament God threw lightning bolts and gave his followers magical artifacts, while modern God tends to express himself by giving people warm and fuzzy feelings, and by tossing the occasional tsunami or earthquake at regions that, regardless of their behavior, would be considered at a higher risk of experiencing such disasters. A tsunami would perhaps be more impressive if it were to strike Switzerland or Zimbabwe while leaving all churches and Christians untouched.

Exodus 7:20[edit]

And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.

Exodus 7:20 Notes[edit]

See the main article on this topic: G'Tach

Some scholars theorize that the Egyptian plagues may be a mythologised account of the effects of the gargantuan Minoan eruption[4] between 1642–1540 BCE, now thought to have been about four times as violent as the eruption of Krakatoa. It is distinctly possible that Exodus represents three different stories combined into one: a smaller exodus from Canaan by the Israelites which may have actually occurred, the tale of some weirdo getting his tribe to abandon their gods and worship a volcano, and the effects of a vastly larger volcano on Egypt, with the first added to answer awkward questions about what the Egyptians were doing to make the latter happen, and how the Israelites could be sure they weren't doing it too.

Exodus 7:21[edit]

And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.

Exodus 7:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:22[edit]

And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said.

Exodus 7:22 Notes[edit]

Similarly to Exodus 7:11, The Bible states that Yahweh was not the only supernatural being in existence. Not only was Aaron with the help of Yahweh able to turn all the water in Egypt into blood, but Pharaoh's court magicians were also able to do so, with the help of some other being.

Exodus 7:23[edit]

And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he set his heart to this also.

Exodus 7:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:24[edit]

And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.

Exodus 7:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 7:25[edit]

And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river.

Exodus 7:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 8[edit]

Exodus 8:1[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus 8:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:2[edit]

And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs:

Exodus 8:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:3[edit]

And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs:

Exodus 8:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:4[edit]

And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants.

Exodus 8:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:5[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt.

Exodus 8:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:6[edit]

And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt.

Exodus 8:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:7[edit]

And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt.

Exodus 8:7 Notes[edit]

Same as Exodus 7:11 and Exodus 7:22: claims supernatural power on the part of the magicians.

Exodus 8:8[edit]

Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Intreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the LORD.

Exodus 8:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:9[edit]

And Moses said unto Pharaoh, Glory over me: when shall I intreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may remain in the river only?

Exodus 8:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:10[edit]

And he said, To morrow. And he said, Be it according to thy word: that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the LORD our God.

Exodus 8:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:11[edit]

And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people; they shall remain in the river only.

Exodus 8:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:12[edit]

And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto the LORD because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh.

Exodus 8:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:13[edit]

And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields.

Exodus 8:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:14[edit]

And they gathered them together upon heaps: and the land stank.

Exodus 8:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:15[edit]

But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

Exodus 8:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:16[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

Exodus 8:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:17[edit]

And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

Exodus 8:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:18[edit]

And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon beast.

Exodus 8:18 Notes[edit]

This is the magicians' last attempt to reproduce the plagues of their own. This was the best plan, given that their own efforts would have made the plagues worse - especially when it came to the plague of the firstborn.

Exodus 8:19[edit]

Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

Exodus 8:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:20[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus 8:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:21[edit]

Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are.

Exodus 8:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:22[edit]

And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.

Exodus 8:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:23[edit]

And I will put a division between my people and thy people: to morrow shall this sign be.

Exodus 8:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:24[edit]

And the LORD did so; and there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants' houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies.

Exodus 8:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:25[edit]

And Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, Go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land.

Exodus 8:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:26[edit]

And Moses said, It is not meet so to do; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the LORD our God: lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us?

Exodus 8:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:27[edit]

We will go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the LORD our God, as he shall command us.

Exodus 8:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:28[edit]

And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only ye shall not go very far away: intreat for me.

Exodus 8:28 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:29[edit]

And Moses said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will intreat the LORD that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, to morrow: but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.

Exodus 8:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:30[edit]

And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.

Exodus 8:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:31[edit]

And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained not one.

Exodus 8:31 Notes[edit]

Exodus 8:32[edit]

And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go.

Exodus 8:32 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 9[edit]

Exodus 9:1[edit]

Then the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus 9:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:2[edit]

For if thou refuse to let them go, and wilt hold them still,

Exodus 9:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:3[edit]

Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.

Exodus 9:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:4[edit]

And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel.

Exodus 9:4 Notes[edit]

The Lord makes it clear that he can already tell the difference between the Hebrews and Egyptians. This becomes more noticeable in the last of these plagues.

Exodus 9:5[edit]

And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, To morrow the LORD shall do this thing in the land.

Exodus 9:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:6[edit]

And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one.

Exodus 9:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:7[edit]

And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.

Exodus 9:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:8[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.

Exodus 9:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:9[edit]

And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt.

Exodus 9:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:10[edit]

And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast.

Exodus 9:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:11[edit]

And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.

Exodus 9:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:12[edit]

And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken unto Moses.

Exodus 9:12 Notes[edit]

Do we have free will or not? This verse disproves the entire free will argument.

Exodus 9:13[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus 9:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:14[edit]

For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth.

Exodus 9:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:15[edit]

For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth.

Exodus 9:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:16[edit]

And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.

Exodus 9:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:17[edit]

As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go?

Exodus 9:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:18[edit]

Behold, to morrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now.

Exodus 9:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:19[edit]

Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; for upon every man and beast which shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die.

Exodus 9:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:20[edit]

He that feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses:

Exodus 9:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:21[edit]

And he that regarded not the word of the LORD left his servants and his cattle in the field.

Exodus 9:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:22[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch forth thine hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.

Exodus 9:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:23[edit]

And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.

Exodus 9:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:24[edit]

So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.

Exodus 9:24 Notes[edit]

This is one of the most obvious signs of the account actually being of the effects of a massive volcano. It also gets referred to as a "hail of burning ice" in The Prince of Egypt, which is needlessly metal.

Exodus 9:25[edit]

And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.

Exodus 9:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:26[edit]

Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail.

Exodus 9:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:27[edit]

And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.

Exodus 9:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:28[edit]

Intreat the LORD (for it is enough) that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer.

Exodus 9:28 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:29[edit]

And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto the LORD; and the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know how that the earth is the LORD's.

Exodus 9:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:30[edit]

But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye will not yet fear the LORD God.

Exodus 9:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:31[edit]

And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.

Exodus 9:31 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:32[edit]

But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up.

Exodus 9:32 Notes[edit]

Truly God is merciful.

Exodus 9:33[edit]

And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth.

Exodus 9:33 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:34[edit]

And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants.

Exodus 9:34 Notes[edit]

Exodus 9:35[edit]

And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as the LORD had spoken by Moses.

Exodus 9:35 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 10[edit]

Exodus 10:1[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:

Exodus 10:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:2[edit]

And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD.

Exodus 10:2 Notes[edit]

This appears to be a confession that it's not Pharaoh that God's trying to impress, but the Israelites. This would explain why God keeps hardening the Pharaoh's heart. Though it kind of sucks for the people of Egypt to suffer in this way.

Exodus 10:3[edit]

And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me.

Exodus 10:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:4[edit]

Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:

Exodus 10:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:5[edit]

And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field:

Exodus 10:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:6[edit]

And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh.

Exodus 10:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:7[edit]

And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?

Exodus 10:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:8[edit]

And Moses and Aaron were brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God: but who are they that shall go?

Exodus 10:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:9[edit]

And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD.

Exodus 10:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:10[edit]

And he said unto them, Let the LORD be so with you, as I will let you go, and your little ones: look to it; for evil is before you.

Exodus 10:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:11[edit]

Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.

Exodus 10:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:12[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left.

Exodus 10:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:13[edit]

And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.

Exodus 10:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:14[edit]

And the locust went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.

Exodus 10:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:15[edit]

For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.

Exodus 10:15 Notes[edit]

This combined with the devastation of livestock that happens during God's little game would lead to an unprecedented famine in Egypt. There is no evidence of severe famine in this time period, and the main sources that make claims to the contrary tend to come from religiously themed publications engaging in circular reasoning. Certainly later famines (for example in 971 CE) tended to be caused by the Nile failing to flood — not bipolar flaming vengeance from the sky.

Exodus 10:16[edit]

Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.

Exodus 10:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:17[edit]

Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death only.

Exodus 10:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:18[edit]

And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.

Exodus 10:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:19[edit]

And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.

Exodus 10:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:20[edit]

But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.

Exodus 10:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:21[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.

Exodus 10:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:22[edit]

And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:

Exodus 10:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:23[edit]

They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

Exodus 10:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:24[edit]

And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you.

Exodus 10:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:25[edit]

And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.

Exodus 10:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:26[edit]

Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.

Exodus 10:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:27[edit]

But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

Exodus 10:27 Notes[edit]

Moses is traditionally claimed to have be the author of Exodus. To have written this book Moses must have been aware of God's games with Pharaoh's free will. Why didn't he ask God nicely if he wouldn't mind not being a jerk about the whole thing?

Exodus 10:28[edit]

And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.

Exodus 10:28 Notes[edit]

Exodus 10:29[edit]

And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.

Exodus 10:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 11[edit]

Exodus 11:1[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.

Exodus 11:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 11:2[edit]

Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver and jewels of gold.

Exodus 11:2 Notes[edit]

Borrow as many valuables as possible, safe in the knowledge that the subsequent departure from Egypt will mean that there shall be no need to return them. Some would call this theft.

Exodus 11:3[edit]

And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.

Exodus 11:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 11:4[edit]

And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:

Exodus 11:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 11:5[edit]

And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

Exodus 11:5 Notes[edit]

One of the better-known examples of God's breathtakingly callous disregard for the lives of innocents. See examples of God personally killing people.

Exodus 11:6[edit]

And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.

Exodus 11:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 11:7[edit]

But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.

Exodus 11:7 Notes[edit]

This is a bit rich considering that Moses will later in Exodus 32:27-28 lead a rampage through the Israelite camp that results in three thousand Israelites being put to the sword. Dog tongues are the least of their worries.

Exodus 11:8[edit]

And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.

Exodus 11:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 11:9[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.

Exodus 11:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 11:10[edit]

And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Exodus 11:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 12[edit]

Exodus 12:1[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt saying,

Exodus 12:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:2[edit]

This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

Exodus 12:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:3[edit]

Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:

Exodus 12:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:4[edit]

And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.

Exodus 12:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:5[edit]

Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:

Exodus 12:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:6[edit]

And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.

Exodus 12:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:7[edit]

And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.

Exodus 12:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:8[edit]

And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.

Exodus 12:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:9[edit]

Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof.

Exodus 12:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:10[edit]

And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.

Exodus 12:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:11[edit]

And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD's passover.

Exodus 12:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:12[edit]

For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.

Exodus 12:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:13[edit]

And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.

Exodus 12:13 Notes[edit]

Isn't this God? Shouldn't he know which kids to kill? It's kinda odd that he would need a reminder, especially after being able to discriminate in the previous plagues.

Exodus 12:14[edit]

And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.

Exodus 12:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:15[edit]

Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.

Exodus 12:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:16[edit]

And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.

Exodus 12:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:17[edit]

And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.

Exodus 12:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:18[edit]

In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.

Exodus 12:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:19[edit]

Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.

Exodus 12:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:20[edit]

Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.

Exodus 12:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:21[edit]

Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.

Exodus 12:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:22[edit]

And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.

Exodus 12:22 Notes[edit]

What about people who lived in tents, without lintels or door-posts?

Exodus 12:23[edit]

For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.

Exodus 12:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:24[edit]

And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.

Exodus 12:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:25[edit]

And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.

Exodus 12:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:26[edit]

And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service?

Exodus 12:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:27[edit]

That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD's passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.

Exodus 12:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:28[edit]

And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

Exodus 12:28 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:29[edit]

And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

Exodus 12:29 Notes[edit]

See Examples of God personally killing people

So this is pretty much the number 1 example of God being loving and kind and merciful. Slaying every firstborn, including the damn cattle!

Exodus 12:30[edit]

And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

Exodus 12:30 Notes[edit]

Remember the midwife housing scheme instituted by God in Exodus 1:21? Seems the midwives were right to fear God.

Exodus 12:31[edit]

And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.

Exodus 12:31 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:32[edit]

Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.

Exodus 12:32 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:33[edit]

And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.

Exodus 12:33 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:34[edit]

And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.

Exodus 12:34 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:35[edit]

And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:

Exodus 12:35 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:36[edit]

And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.

Exodus 12:36 Notes[edit]

This appears to be another example of God affecting the free will of people. In the context of Exodus, the Egyptians appear to be little more than meat-puppets in God's rather convoluted plan to impress the Hebrews.

In modern times God's action would be described as aiding and abetting robbery (or perhaps fraud).

Exodus 12:37[edit]

And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.

Exodus 12:37 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:38[edit]

And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

Exodus 12:38 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:39[edit]

And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.

Exodus 12:39 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:40[edit]

Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.

Exodus 12:40 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:41[edit]

And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.

Exodus 12:41 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:42[edit]

It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.

Exodus 12:42 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:43[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof:

Exodus 12:43 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:44[edit]

But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.

Exodus 12:44 Notes[edit]

Sure you can have some [special religious] food. I first need to hew off the tip of your penis. Hey, where are you going?

Exodus 12:45[edit]

A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.

Exodus 12:45 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:46[edit]

In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.

Exodus 12:46 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:47[edit]

All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.

Exodus 12:47 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:48[edit]

And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.

Exodus 12:48 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:49[edit]

One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.

Exodus 12:49 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:50[edit]

Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

Exodus 12:50 Notes[edit]

Exodus 12:51[edit]

And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.

Exodus 12:51 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 13[edit]

Exodus 13:1[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

Exodus 13:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:2[edit]

Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

Exodus 13:2 Notes[edit]

Some people have claimed this verse together with Jephthah killing his daughter in Judges 11 and even Abraham's attempted slaughter of Isaac in Genesis 22:10 is evidence of child sacrifice to Yahweh having been practiced.

Exodus 13:3[edit]

And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten.

Exodus 13:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:4[edit]

This day came ye out in the month Abib.

Exodus 13:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:5[edit]

And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month.

Exodus 13:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:6[edit]

Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD.

Exodus 13:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:7[edit]

Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters.

Exodus 13:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:8[edit]

And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt.

Exodus 13:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:9[edit]

And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.

Exodus 13:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:10[edit]

Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.

Exodus 13:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:11[edit]

And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee,

Exodus 13:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:12[edit]

That thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast; the males shall be the LORD's.

Exodus 13:12 Notes[edit]

This is the first male within a family or from cattle. Females are not counted even if they are first.

Exodus 13:13[edit]

And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem.

Exodus 13:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:14[edit]

And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage:

Exodus 13:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:15[edit]

And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.

Exodus 13:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:16[edit]

And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.

Exodus 13:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:17[edit]

And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:

Exodus 13:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:18[edit]

But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus 13:18 Notes[edit]

Two translations give a different location. New Jewish Publication Society of America Version and The Stone Edition Tanach use the Reed Sea. This slightly different name is still not enough to pinpoint the exact route, assuming that it did happen.

If sticking with the Red Sea, that is the large body of water now between Saudi Arabia and Egypt, Sudan, and Eritrea.

Exodus 13:19[edit]

And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.

Exodus 13:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:20[edit]

And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.

Exodus 13:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 13:21[edit]

And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:

Exodus 13:21 Notes[edit]

Hm...What could they possibly be walking towards?

Exodus 13:22[edit]

He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.

Exodus 13:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 14[edit]

Exodus 14:1[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

Exodus 14:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:2[edit]

Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.

Exodus 14:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:3[edit]

For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.

Exodus 14:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:4[edit]

And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so.

Exodus 14:4 Notes[edit]

The Hebrews are free, so why does God continue this sadistic cat-and-mouse game by compelling Pharaoh to pursue the Hebrews? Even if one assumes that Pharaoh was acting of his own volition, it is worth reviewing the events of the past few weeks. Pharaoh, and in some cases the Egyptians as a whole, have witnessed the following:

  • A man with a magic rod that can transform in to snakes that can devour magically summoned snakes
  • All water in Egypt transformed into foul-smelling blood for seven days
  • Mass eradication of fish from the fouled water
  • An invasion of frogs — subsequently covering Egypt in decaying frog corpses
  • Lice infesting man and beast alike (the first of the plagues not reproduced by the magicians)
  • Swarms of flies
  • Death of all Egyptian livestock (Israelite livestock unaffected)
  • A plague of boils
  • Burning hail that kills all beasts, herbs and humans in the fields (which didn't hit Hebrews)
  • Flax and barley smitten during the above plague (wheat and rye shown mercy)
  • A lot of locusts (the Biblical equivalent of Agent Orange), destroying even the wheat and rye left from the hail
  • Three days of darkness (Israelis somehow unaffected)
  • The death of all first-male-born humans and cattle. This affects every household in Egypt, but Israelites were spared by a ritual feast.

It is difficult to read Exodus without wondering why people were so insanely dumb in those days. In later stories the Hebrews witness regular displays of power and anger from God, yet if Moses turns his back for more than five minutes the Hebrews are off casting golden calves and partying as if they're not constantly being watched by an angry and omnipotent lunatic. Pharaoh too behaves very strangely for someone who has witnessed some pretty bizarre and destructive events. Although societies have varied, imagine the disruption in a modern nation if only a fraction of the above disasters were to occur. It's also difficult to imagine why the Egyptian army and the Egyptians as a whole had not risen up to overthrow Pharaoh, or at least demanded that he just let those damn Hebrews go!

Such destruction of the land would only be necessary if Israel would eventually conquer Egypt, and not be conquered themselves by Romans. However, by the book of 1 Kings, Egypt is yet another country that borders Israel. If Israel came from Egypt, why is there still Egypt?

Exodus 14:5[edit]

And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?

Exodus 14:5 Notes[edit]

One would think that the increasingly horrific series of disasters that befell them was a pretty good reason for letting the Hebrews go, but people in the Bible often have very short memories.

Exodus 14:6[edit]

And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:

Exodus 14:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:7[edit]

And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.

Exodus 14:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus takes place during the Bronze Age, where Iron Chariots aren't available.

All of Egypt's livestock has been killed at this point. Assuming the horses fared no better, what is driving the chariots?

Exodus 14:8[edit]

And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand.

Exodus 14:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:9[edit]

But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baalzephon.

Exodus 14:9 Notes[edit]

In Numbers 1:46, you will see that there are 605,500 male war-ready Israelites, not counting women or children. Opposing this with a small force of 600 chariots is possible, but not recommended. (This would also mean about a third to a half of the entire population of ancient Egypt was leaving, which would probably have showed up in the historic record).

However, a normal division is around 4000 infantry, and 1000 chariots. Aside from attacking with a smaller force than usual, the attackers are facing at least 200:1 odds against. This will never work unless the attackers have a significant advantage over the other side (and in this case the Israelites have an active deity on their side, plus, presumably, at least some weapons since they're able to conquer Amalek a few chapters later.)

Exodus 14:10[edit]

And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD.

Exodus 14:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:11[edit]

And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?

Exodus 14:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:12[edit]

Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.

Exodus 14:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:13[edit]

And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever.

Exodus 14:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:14[edit]

The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.

Exodus 14:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:15[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward:

Exodus 14:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:16[edit]

But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.

Exodus 14:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:17[edit]

And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.

Exodus 14:17 Notes[edit]

Note how the hearts of the Egyptians are hardened again by God, so they'll pursue the Israelites instead of letting them leave.

Exodus 14:18[edit]

And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.

Exodus 14:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:19[edit]

And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:

Exodus 14:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:20[edit]

And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night.

Exodus 14:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:21[edit]

And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.

Exodus 14:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:22[edit]

And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.

Exodus 14:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:23[edit]

And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.

Exodus 14:23 Notes[edit]

Protip: If a water is being magically held up as a left and right wall through magic or divine intervention, make sure you have the ability to sustain said wall. You don't have to be an expert in tactics to recognize a trap in plain sight.

Exodus 14:24[edit]

And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,

Exodus 14:24 Notes[edit]

Seems Moses already has line of sight to the volcano place where God is. Despite this, there's a lot of padding between here and Exodus 19 when he gets there, probably because one of the writers thought this book wasn't nearly boring enough to be in the Bible.

It is also rather amusing that in a book full of ludicrous exaggerations, the volcano LORD only "troubles" the Egyptians.

Exodus 14:25[edit]

And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.

Exodus 14:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:26[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.

Exodus 14:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:27[edit]

And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.

Exodus 14:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:28[edit]

And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

Exodus 14:28 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:29[edit]

But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.

Exodus 14:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:30[edit]

Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.

Exodus 14:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 14:31[edit]

And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.

Exodus 14:31 Notes[edit]

Let's see: A sizeable fraction of the Egyptian army is now feeding the fishes and back in Egypt the country is with no heir to the throne, a large chunk of its manpower lost, and its economy ruined after the plagues. Why such a mess (not to mention its likely consequences as famines, civil war, neighbouring countries deciding to attack and annex Egypt, etc.) does not appear in other sources of the time is anyone's guess.

Exodus Chapter 15[edit]

Exodus 15:1[edit]

Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

Exodus 15:1 Notes[edit]

This passage down to Exodus 15:18 is speculated by some to have originally been an independent poem called the "Song of the Sea".[5]

Exodus 15:2[edit]

The LORD is my strength and song, and he is become my salvation: he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation; my father's God, and I will exalt him.

Exodus 15:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:3[edit]

The LORD is a man of war: the LORD is his name.

Exodus 15:3 Notes[edit]

Moses seems to at least be aware of God's nature.

Exodus 15:4[edit]

Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea.

Exodus 15:4 Notes[edit]

If you recall from Genesis 9:15, God made a covenant not to destroy all flesh using water. This is a loophole, by using it to destroy some flesh rather than all.

Exodus 15:5[edit]

The depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone.

Exodus 15:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:6[edit]

Thy right hand, O LORD, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, O LORD, hath dashed in pieces the enemy.

Exodus 15:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:7[edit]

And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble.

Exodus 15:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:8[edit]

And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together, the floods stood upright as an heap, and the depths were congealed in the heart of the sea.

Exodus 15:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:9[edit]

The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.

Exodus 15:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:10[edit]

Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them: they sank as lead in the mighty waters.

Exodus 15:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:11[edit]

Who is like unto thee, O LORD, among the gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?

Exodus 15:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:12[edit]

Thou stretchedst out thy right hand, the earth swallowed them.

Exodus 15:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:13[edit]

Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation.

Exodus 15:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:14[edit]

The people shall hear, and be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestina.

Exodus 15:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:15[edit]

Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them; all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away.

Exodus 15:15 Notes[edit]

Of course they need to ethnically cleanse these regions; how else would Moses and his band of desert bandits get enough Lebensraum?

Exodus 15:16[edit]

Fear and dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till thy people pass over, O LORD, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased.

Exodus 15:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:17[edit]

Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O LORD, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary, O LORD, which thy hands have established.

Exodus 15:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:18[edit]

The LORD shall reign for ever and ever.

Exodus 15:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:19[edit]

For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD brought again the waters of the sea upon them; but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea.

Exodus 15:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:20[edit]

And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.

Exodus 15:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:21[edit]

And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

Exodus 15:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:22[edit]

So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water.

Exodus 15:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:23[edit]

And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah.

Exodus 15:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:24[edit]

And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?

Exodus 15:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:25[edit]

And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet: there he made for them a statute and an ordinance, and there he proved them,

Exodus 15:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:26[edit]

And said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I am the LORD that healeth thee.

Exodus 15:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 15:27[edit]

And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters.

Exodus 15:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 16[edit]

Exodus 16:1[edit]

And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus 16:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:2[edit]

And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness:

Exodus 16:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:3[edit]

And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.

Exodus 16:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:4[edit]

Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.

Exodus 16:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:5[edit]

And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.

Exodus 16:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:6[edit]

And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt:

Exodus 16:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:7[edit]

And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur against us?

Exodus 16:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:8[edit]

And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.

Exodus 16:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:9[edit]

And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard your murmurings.

Exodus 16:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:10[edit]

And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.

Exodus 16:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:11[edit]

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

Exodus 16:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:12[edit]

I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God.

Exodus 16:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:13[edit]

And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.

Exodus 16:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:14[edit]

And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground.

Exodus 16:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:15[edit]

And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.

Exodus 16:15 Notes[edit]

It sounds more like they're eating mushrooms, which would explain a lot.

Exodus 16:16[edit]

This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents.

Exodus 16:16 Notes[edit]

1 omer = ~2.2 quarts or ~2.1 liters. Some translations use 2 quarts.

Exodus 16:17[edit]

And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less.

Exodus 16:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:18[edit]

And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating.

Exodus 16:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:19[edit]

And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning.

Exodus 16:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:20[edit]

Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them.

Exodus 16:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:21[edit]

And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted.

Exodus 16:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:22[edit]

And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.

Exodus 16:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:23[edit]

And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.

Exodus 16:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:24[edit]

And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein.

Exodus 16:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:25[edit]

And Moses said, Eat that to day; for to day is a sabbath unto the LORD: to day ye shall not find it in the field.

Exodus 16:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:26[edit]

Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none.

Exodus 16:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:27[edit]

And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none.

Exodus 16:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:28[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?

Exodus 16:28 Notes[edit]

And Moses should have said:

"And what commandments and laws would those be? You haven't given me any yet!"

Exodus 16:29[edit]

See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.

Exodus 16:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:30[edit]

So the people rested on the seventh day.

Exodus 16:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:31[edit]

And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.

Exodus 16:31 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:32[edit]

And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt.

Exodus 16:32 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:33[edit]

And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before the LORD, to be kept for your generations.

Exodus 16:33 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:34[edit]

As the LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept.

Exodus 16:34 Notes[edit]

Exodus 16:35[edit]

And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan.

Exodus 16:35 Notes[edit]

Yes, they were farting around in a desert for 40 years (or more, since as per the Flood narrative "40" here means an uncountable number). It might have been interesting to know more of what happened to them during that time, except that this book is already tldr.

It's also recommended to take a map and see how nonsensical it is that they needed 40 years or much more to transverse that short distance from the Red Sea (or Egypt if you're being generous), so either they got really lost (as in going too far east before noticing they were heading the (quite) wrong way and/or giving lots of turns, etc.) or God played with space — a sort of pocket dimension, so that short distance would actually be as if they had crossed, say, the entire Sahara desert to its western edge, then coming back if not more.

Even with manna, as noted here, the logistics of such a large population moving through the desert especially for so many years just using Bronze Age technology are left for the reader to ponder. Especially since no bones of people and animals left behind because they had died on the journey have been found, neither objects abandoned in the desert because they had broke down.

Exodus 16:36[edit]

Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.

Exodus 16:36 Notes[edit]

A very useful conversion ratio. Biblical scientific foreknowledge of metric, when you consider that ten ephahs equal one homer.

Exodus Chapter 17[edit]

Exodus 17:1[edit]

And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment of the LORD, and pitched in Rephidim: and there was no water for the people to drink.

Exodus 17:1 Notes[edit]

Some translations use Desert of Sin.

For survival, water is more important than food — apparently, people lived off manna for 40 years, but only had problems with water once they reached a new location.

Exodus 17:2[edit]

Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with me? wherefore do ye tempt the LORD?

Exodus 17:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:3[edit]

And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?

Exodus 17:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:4[edit]

And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying, What shall I do unto this people? they be almost ready to stone me.

Exodus 17:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:5[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go.

Exodus 17:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:6[edit]

Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink. And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.

Exodus 17:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:7[edit]

And he called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not?

Exodus 17:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:8[edit]

Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim.

Exodus 17:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:9[edit]

And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek: to morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in mine hand.

Exodus 17:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:10[edit]

So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.

Exodus 17:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:11[edit]

And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.

Exodus 17:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:12[edit]

But Moses hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.

Exodus 17:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:13[edit]

And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.

Exodus 17:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:14[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.

Exodus 17:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:15[edit]

And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovahnissi:

Exodus 17:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 17:16[edit]

For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn that the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.

Exodus 17:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 18[edit]

Exodus 18:1[edit]

When Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father in law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, and that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt;

Exodus 18:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:2[edit]

Then Jethro, Moses' father in law, took Zipporah, Moses' wife, after he had sent her back,

Exodus 18:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:3[edit]

And her two sons; of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been an alien in a strange land:

Exodus 18:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:4[edit]

And the name of the other was Eliezer; for the God of my father, said he, was mine help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh:

Exodus 18:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:5[edit]

And Jethro, Moses' father in law, came with his sons and his wife unto Moses into the wilderness, where he encamped at the mount of God:

Exodus 18:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:6[edit]

And he said unto Moses, I thy father in law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her.

Exodus 18:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:7[edit]

And Moses went out to meet his father in law, and did obeisance, and kissed him; and they asked each other of their welfare; and they came into the tent.

Exodus 18:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:8[edit]

And Moses told his father in law all that the LORD had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, and all the travail that had come upon them by the way, and how the LORD delivered them.

Exodus 18:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:9[edit]

And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which the LORD had done to Israel, whom he had delivered out of the hand of the Egyptians.

Exodus 18:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:10[edit]

And Jethro said, Blessed be the LORD, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh, who hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians.

Exodus 18:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:11[edit]

Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods: for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them.

Exodus 18:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:12[edit]

And Jethro, Moses' father in law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God: and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses' father in law before God.

Exodus 18:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:13[edit]

And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening.

Exodus 18:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:14[edit]

And when Moses' father in law saw all that he did to the people, he said, What is this thing that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand by thee from morning unto even?

Exodus 18:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:15[edit]

And Moses said unto his father in law, Because the people come unto me to enquire of God:

Exodus 18:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:16[edit]

When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and another, and I do make them know the statutes of God, and his laws.

Exodus 18:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:17[edit]

And Moses' father in law said unto him, The thing that thou doest is not good.

Exodus 18:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:18[edit]

Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee: for this thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone.

Exodus 18:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:19[edit]

Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee: Be thou for the people to God-ward, that thou mayest bring the causes unto God:

Exodus 18:19 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:20[edit]

And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do.

Exodus 18:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:21[edit]

Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens:

Exodus 18:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:22[edit]

And let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge: so shall it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear the burden with thee.

Exodus 18:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:23[edit]

If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou shalt be able to endure, and all this people shall also go to their place in peace.

Exodus 18:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:24[edit]

So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father in law, and did all that he had said.

Exodus 18:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:25[edit]

And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.

Exodus 18:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:26[edit]

And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.

Exodus 18:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 18:27[edit]

And Moses let his father in law depart; and he went his way into his own land.

Exodus 18:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 19[edit]

Exodus 19:1[edit]

In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai.

Exodus 19:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:2[edit]

For they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount.

Exodus 19:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:3[edit]

And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel;

Exodus 19:3 Notes[edit]

Yet another reference to Yahweh being a volcano.

Exodus 19:4[edit]

Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself.

Exodus 19:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:5[edit]

Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:

Exodus 19:5 Notes[edit]

Proof that Yahweh is an ethnocentric racist.

Exodus 19:6[edit]

And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.

Exodus 19:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:7[edit]

And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the LORD commanded him.

Exodus 19:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:8[edit]

And all the people answered together, and said, All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the LORD.

Exodus 19:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:9[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever. And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD.

Exodus 19:9 Notes[edit]

Moses inhaling all those volcano fumes and the resulting hallucinations does explain a lot, don't you think? After all, how else would a volcano talk to someone?

Exodus 19:10[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them to day and to morrow, and let them wash their clothes,

Exodus 19:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:11[edit]

And be ready against the third day: for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai.

Exodus 19:11 Notes[edit]

This is where it gets interesting: in Exodus 33:6 and the rest of the Pentateuch, this same place is called Mount Horeb, meaning glowing / hot. God is specifically dwelling on a volcano. This is probably the thread that linked the tales of the Minoan Eruption and the Exodus together.

The references to Mount Sinai were probably, like the nonsense about rivers in Genesis 2:10-14, added later by the Priests to make things seem more local, but they didn't do a very consistent job.

Exodus 19:12[edit]

And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it: whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death:

Exodus 19:12 Notes[edit]

There is nothing suspicious about only Moses being allowed to talk to the active volcano LORD.

Exodus 19:13[edit]

There shall not an hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.

Exodus 19:13 Notes[edit]

"Touch my flaming rock and you'll DIE!" That's essentially what this verse is saying.

Exodus 19:14[edit]

And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes.

Exodus 19:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:15[edit]

And he said unto the people, Be ready against the third day: come not at your wives.

Exodus 19:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:16[edit]

And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the camp trembled.

Exodus 19:16 Notes[edit]

Looks like the Volcano Yahweh was really active angry that day.

Exodus 19:17[edit]

And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount.

Exodus 19:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:18[edit]

And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.

Exodus 19:18 Notes[edit]

These people are worshipping a volcano as God. It's not even subtle.

Exodus 19:19[edit]

And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice.

Exodus 19:19 Notes[edit]

"Your God says BOOM an awful lot, Moses."

Exodus 19:20[edit]

And the LORD came down upon mount Sinai, on the top of the mount: and the LORD called Moses up to the top of the mount; and Moses went up.

Exodus 19:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:21[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish.

Exodus 19:21 Notes[edit]

In Genesis 32:30, Jacob seen the face of God. Why do people now die if they see his face? (The answer is "because they're worshipping a volcano".)

Exodus 19:22[edit]

And let the priests also, which come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.

Exodus 19:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:23[edit]

And Moses said unto the LORD, The people cannot come up to mount Sinai: for thou chargedst us, saying, Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it.

Exodus 19:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:24[edit]

And the LORD said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee: but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the LORD, lest he break forth upon them.

Exodus 19:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 19:25[edit]

So Moses went down unto the people, and spake unto them.

Exodus 19:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 20[edit]

Exodus 20:1[edit]

And God spake all these words, saying,

Exodus 20:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:2[edit]

I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

Exodus 20:2 Notes[edit]

This introduces the Ten Commandments. Scholars often divide them into two "tables", with the first four being the first table, the duty of humans to God, and the rest the second table, the duty of humans to themselves and each other.

Most of them are ganked from existing laws by figures such as Hammurabi and Sargon of Akkad (no, not that one).

Exodus 20:3[edit]

Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

Exodus 20:3 Notes[edit]

This passage acknowledges the existence of other gods, but states not to worship them (or not to worship them as much as YHWH, if you prefer). See Monolatrism. This could also be held to forbid Christian Trinity, embarrassingly enough.

Other than the usual assertion that "other deities are actually demons in disguise", Christian attempts to rationalize this include that it refers to things such as money, celebrities, and hobbies to which people show the amount of dedication that occupy the place that, in their view, one should reserve to God. (Just imagine how utterly boring one's life would become if they actually took the latter idea to heart.)

Exodus 20:4[edit]

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.

Exodus 20:4 Notes[edit]

This passage was one of the many reasons for the split between Catholicism and Protestantism, with the Protestants accusing the Catholics of idolatry for their veneration of Mary and their ostentatious churches. It also filtered into Islam and is the reason for the prohibition of images of The Prophet, and in extreme cases forbidding representative art as a concept.

More extreme sects like the Jehovah's Witnesses take this to mean you can't have a picture of Jesus hanging in your living room.

This could be seen, if read at face value, as forbidding the making of images due to fears that they might be infused with a spirit and come alive, as with early Semitic myths of golem-magic.

Exodus 20:5[edit]

Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

Exodus 20:5 Notes[edit]

Apparently, God cannot even follow his own commandments. What a hypocrite.

Exodus 20:6[edit]

And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

Exodus 20:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:7[edit]

Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

Exodus 20:7 Notes[edit]

This is probably aimed at restricting use of the true name of God to the priests, so that the peons wouldn't invoke the Lord and see that nothing happened when they did.

Exodus 20:8[edit]

Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

Exodus 20:8 Notes[edit]

Under the laws laid out in Numbers, the death penalty is for not following this. It is also unclear which day is the Sabbath, and this is the subject of much disagreement. And of course, Jesus decided Christians didn't have to do this.

Exodus 20:9[edit]

Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:

Exodus 20:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:10[edit]

But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:

Exodus 20:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:11[edit]

For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

Exodus 20:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:12[edit]

Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.

Exodus 20:12 Notes[edit]

Compare to Matthew 10:34-38, Luke 14:26. Note also that your parents, under Mosaic law, can legally kill you if you don't follow this.

Exodus 20:13[edit]

Thou shalt not kill.

Exodus 20:13 Notes[edit]

This is usually parsed as "thou shalt not murder other humans" and many translations render it as "thou shalt not murder," though some particularly pacifist sects take this translation at its literal word.

Also the rest of this book and most of the rest of the Pentateuch are full of prohibitions with the death penalty for transgressing them., including defying your parents, eating lobster thermador, or wearing polycotton blend.

Exodus 20:14[edit]

Thou shalt not commit adultery.

Exodus 20:14 Notes[edit]

Seems easy enough, until Jesus ruins it and says looking with lust is adultery.

In terms of enforcement, it only counted as adultery if the woman was married at the time, since the later Old Testament is perfectly fine with men having as many wives, mistresses, concubines and female slaves as they could afford to keep in their household. And of course in the later Mosiac law it's made clear that under certain circumstances raping a woman just results in a man being forced to marry her, and that's not adultery either.

In other words, anyone who thinks this is a common sense rule doesn't understand it.

Exodus 20:15[edit]

Thou shalt not steal.

Exodus 20:15 Notes[edit]

Unless you're stealing from the Egyptians earlier on, or pillaging your neighbouring civilizations, which will be A-OK too. But apart from that...

Exodus 20:16[edit]

Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

Exodus 20:16 Notes[edit]

If using a strawman argument or quote mining counts as this, creationists are fucked.

Note the original understanding of the phrase "thy neighbour" was "other Israelites". Note that this also only outlaws a specific kind of lie, that is falsely accusing someone of doing something they have not committed, such as when the Religious Right talks about the "homosexual agenda", or when they accuse atheists of devil worship.

Exodus 20:17[edit]

Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

Exodus 20:17 Notes[edit]


Exodus 20:18[edit]

And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off.

Exodus 20:18 Notes[edit]

Yep, still a volcano.

Exodus 20:19[edit]

And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die.

Exodus 20:19 Notes[edit]

God being a volcano and all provides a convenient excuse for Moses to continue his con-artistry, don't you think?

Exodus 20:20[edit]

And Moses said unto the people, Fear not: for God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin not.

Exodus 20:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:21[edit]

And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was.

Exodus 20:21 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:22[edit]

And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.

Exodus 20:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:23[edit]

Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold.

Exodus 20:23 Notes[edit]

Christian churches tend to forget this one.

Exodus 20:24[edit]

An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.

Exodus 20:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:25[edit]

And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.

Exodus 20:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 20:26[edit]

Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon.

Exodus 20:26 Notes[edit]

Why would nakedness be a problem for God? Doesn't He see everything?

Exodus Chapter 21[edit]

Exodus 21:1[edit]

Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them.

Exodus 21:1 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:2[edit]

If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.

Exodus 21:2 Notes[edit]

This verse begins an example of slavery being endorsed by the Bible. See our article on slavery in the Bible for an overview.

Exodus 21:3[edit]

If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him.

Exodus 21:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:4[edit]

If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself.

Exodus 21:4 Notes[edit]

Despite the earlier mentioned time limit on the keeping of Hebrews as slaves, Exodus 21:4-6 provide a means by which Hebrew slaves can be emotionally manipulated into becoming slaves for life. If a slave is given a wife by his master, then after six years the slave must either leave her (and his children) behind or resign himself to a lifetime of slavery. One wonders how anyone could possibly be moral without Christianity.

Exodus 21:5[edit]

And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free:

Exodus 21:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:6[edit]

Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever.

Exodus 21:6 Notes[edit]

God considers it perfectly acceptable to brand humans as we would in modern times brand cattle.

Exodus 21:7[edit]

And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do.

Exodus 21:7 Notes[edit]

In God's eyes it's perfectly fine to sell daughters into slavery, and as a bonus they are not subject to the conditions attached to the holding of male slaves — in that female slaves can be kept indefinitely. The law requires female slaves to be freed if they should marry their owner or one of his sons. Based on the misogynistic standards of the time, this amounts to exchanging slavery for a more pleasant form of servitude.

Exodus 21:8[edit]

If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her.

Exodus 21:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:9[edit]

And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters.

Exodus 21:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:10[edit]

If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish.

Exodus 21:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:11[edit]

And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money.

Exodus 21:11 Notes[edit]

The only way that a female servant could go free was if she was neglected, that is, not being "bred" or being starved, penniless, into a hostile, barbaric world where you could become someone's wife if you were raped by that particular person (Exodus 22:16-17). So much for "family values".

Exodus 21:12[edit]

He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.

Exodus 21:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:13[edit]

And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee.

Exodus 21:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:14[edit]

But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die.

Exodus 21:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:15[edit]

And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death.

Exodus 21:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:16[edit]

And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.

Exodus 21:16 Notes[edit]

Yet another grand Biblical contradiction: in other verses in this chapter God considers it okay to own slaves, and yet here he outlaws it.

Exodus 21:17[edit]

And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.

Exodus 21:17 Notes[edit]

This is the verse that states that disobedient children could be put to death. No sensible person would kill their child for saying "I don't wanna clean my room." So much for "family values." This is also the reason why the Fifth Commandment states that one should honor their father and/or mother and they'll live a long life, because this is a culture where one is permitted to kill their children. So, when the context is taken into consideration, it means that obey your parents, or else.

Exodus 21:18[edit]

And if men strive together, and one smite another with a stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed:

Exodus 21:18 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:19[edit]

If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed.

Exodus 21:19 Notes[edit]

In a modern context this would equate to covering medical bills and compensating for loss of earnings during convalescence.

Exodus 21:20[edit]

And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished.

Exodus 21:20 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:21[edit]

Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.

Exodus 21:21 Notes[edit]

As with related laws that are ostensibly enacted to protect the welfare of slaves, and arguably help slaveowners protect their property, this verse presents a very obvious loophole to be exploited. It's fine to beat a slave to death so long as he takes a day or two to die.

Horrifyingly, this is sometimes pulled up by apologists as proof that the Israelites were enlightened in their treatment of slaves, even though all this meant was that a master could not legally beat their slave so much they died quickly.

Exodus 21:22[edit]

If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine.

Exodus 21:22 Notes[edit]

So when you kill a man, you die (see Exodus 21:12), but when you have killed a baby via a violence-related abortion of a pregnant woman, you merely pay a fine. Family values right there.
This verse causes problems for the religious pro-life set. For example, they pontificate that life begins at or near conception and that it is sacred and holds the same rights as someone who makes it past birth; however, that is in contradiction to the consequences of a man who kills another man (death according to Exodus 21:12) versus a man whose violence towards a pregnant woman causes an unborn male to be aborted (a monetary fine according to this verse). Well guys, which is it: does an unborn fetus have the same rights and protections as someone who is born, or does the fetus have less protection and status (as per this verse)?
And one can only speculate about what "no mischief follow" might mean following the mischief of damaging a woman to the extent that she aborts? Could there be a clearer indication that the buy-bull is the writing of ignorant, misogynistic, and superstitious iron-age men – and very far from anything that an omniscient creator of a universe might allow to end up in text, in his/her/its name?

Exodus 21:23[edit]

And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life,

Exodus 21:23 Notes[edit]

What is the definition of "mischief"? Would that be someone slipping on the bloody remains of the fetus on the ground? Or is it something to do with a subsequent rampage of the person who caused the woman to abort? E.g. not being satisfied with knocking a dead fetus out of the woman, he's decided to kill, or knock out an eye or a tooth, or lop off a hand or foot, or burn or wound or stripe something? Has anyone figured out how any of this is relevant to our modern societies, or is all of this nonsense just more evidence that the writings are very much a product of their times?

Exodus 21:24[edit]

Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,

Exodus 21:24 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:25[edit]

Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

Exodus 21:25 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:26[edit]

And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye's sake.

Exodus 21:26 Notes[edit]

It is left as an exercise for the reader to imagine just how badly you would have to beat someone in order to put out one of their eyes.

Exodus 21:27[edit]

And if he smite out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake.

Exodus 21:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:28[edit]

If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit.

Exodus 21:28 Notes[edit]

This is one of the laws that highlights one of the difficulties in Biblical literalism. A literal reading would limit this exclusively to oxen, and specifically to goring, yet such a reading makes little sense. It appears more sensible to read this as applying to any death or injury caused by rampaging livestock. In a way, this law could be sensible if a beast appears uncontrollable and dangerous, but stoning to death is clearly a cruel way in which to dispatch a beast that is hardly going to understand the consequences of its actions.

Vengeance against animals has been seen again in more modern times, most strangely when the residents of Hartlepool, England in the 19th century sentenced a monkey to death by hanging on suspicion of being a French spy.[6] How a non-human could actually engage in human espionage is a riddle for the ages. Especially since it should have been quite easy for the authorities to investigate, e.g. by pinning a tail on the monkey. Still, maybe it's right that a monkey should swing for its crimes?

Exodus 21:29[edit]

But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death.

Exodus 21:29 Notes[edit]

Both the rampaging livestock and the owner of said rampaging livestock are going to be put to death. Wouldn't it be far more practical to just fine the owner instead of executing him?

Exodus 21:30[edit]

If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.

Exodus 21:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:31[edit]

Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him.

Exodus 21:31 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:32[edit]

If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.

Exodus 21:32 Notes[edit]

These verses clearly indicate that the lives of free persons and slaves were not considered equal since the former being gored to death required the stoning of the owner while the latter merely required a monetary compensation (presumably to the owner of the slave).

Exodus 21:33[edit]

And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein;

Exodus 21:33 Notes[edit]

It's great to know that the omniscient creator of the universe had such forethought as to give sound and reassuring advice to people – for all time. Not sure about other readers, but I'm constantly worried about my neighbors digging pits into which my ox or ass could fall and perish, and I'm greatly reassured that gawd has my back. Admittedly, it is a pity that the same deity didn't get around to giving my neighbors such specific direction about identity theft and phishing schemes, but at least my ox and ass are covered.

Exodus 21:34[edit]

The owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his.

Exodus 21:34 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:35[edit]

And if one man's ox hurt another's, that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox also they shall divide.

Exodus 21:35 Notes[edit]

Exodus 21:36[edit]

Or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in time past, and his owner hath not kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the dead shall be his own.

Exodus 21:36 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 22[edit]

Exodus 22:1[edit]

If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.

Exodus 22:1 Notes[edit]

This is the punishment for theft, but why are there different amounts for oxen and sheep? Is one in higher demand than the other?

Exodus 22:2[edit]

If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him.

Exodus 22:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:3[edit]

If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.

Exodus 22:3 Notes[edit]

This is an ambiguous reading - either the thief is liable for breaking in, or killing the thief in daylight is liable. Second Opinion: It seems the reading indicates that if one catches a thief in the night it is permissible to kill him, but that should you find that you have been stolen from the next morning, you are not allowed to kill the thief. They must pay restitution, or be sold as slaves.

Exodus 22:4[edit]

If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double.

Exodus 22:4 Notes[edit]

For some reason, Exodus 22:1 gives a 5-to-1 or 4-to-1 ratio if the livestock is killed or sold, but if the thief still has the stolen animal, only a 2-to-1 ratio applies.

Exodus 22:5[edit]

If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.

Exodus 22:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:6[edit]

If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.

Exodus 22:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:7[edit]

If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double.

Exodus 22:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:8[edit]

If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour's goods.

Exodus 22:8 Notes[edit]

If the theft was perpetrated by the master of the house, wouldn't he be the thief and therefore covered under sub-section 22:7?

Exodus 22:9[edit]

For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour.

Exodus 22:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:10[edit]

If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it:

Exodus 22:10 Notes[edit]

So if a man delivers unto his neighbour an animal and is dishonest in causing it to die or be hurt or be driven away with no one seeing it (e.g. at night when the neighbor is away on a mead crawl), all he has to do is cross his fingers behind his back and give an oath to a deity, and hey presto: there's not a thing the neighbor can do about it. Cool!

Exodus 22:11[edit]

Then shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.

Exodus 22:11 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:12[edit]

And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof.

Exodus 22:12 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:13[edit]

If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn.

Exodus 22:13 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:14[edit]

And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good.

Exodus 22:14 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:15[edit]

But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire.

Exodus 22:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:16[edit]

And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.

Exodus 22:16 Notes[edit]

The right of a woman to choose? Your deity says nut to that. (BTW, there is not a single consensual marriage in the buy-bull.)

Exodus 22:17[edit]

If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.

Exodus 22:17 Notes[edit]

Female prostitution, worth 30 shekels (Leviticus 27:3) each attempt.
It's interesting how you don't often see this verse on a sign outside of your local church.

Exodus 22:18[edit]

Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.

Exodus 22:18 Notes[edit]

European witch hunts anyone?

Other translations use the term sorceress, even if one who uses harmful spells/twists the mind of others for personal gain given that Saul will later on (1 Samuel 28:7) look for one to summon the ghost of Samuel, which is the same meaning, not all spellcasters.

Rumors suggest that this be either a poisoner (which considering how actual witchcraft made extensive use of poisonous plants means there's actually not much difference. Just ask the goddess Hecate) or a (sacred, as some goddesses worshipped by the nations surrounding Israel had, like Ishtar priestesses who behave that way) prostitute instead, as the modern conception of witchcraft appeared during the Protestant Reformation era. King James was also reportedly obsessed with it, and that may have influenced this translation.

Some translations say "You shall not tolerate a sorceress."

Also, what about male sorcerers and other wielders of magic?

Exodus 22:19[edit]

Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.

Exodus 22:19 Notes[edit]

Leviticus 20:15-16 also commands that the beast be put to death. All in all a pretty bad day for the animal.

Exodus 22:20[edit]

He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed.

Exodus 22:20 Notes[edit]

Yet another acknowledgement of the existence of gods other than the Volcano Yahweh. This was, judging from the verses acknowledging the existence of other gods, that the ancient Israelites were polytheistic, and the best the authors of this book of infallible wisdom collection of guesses about the world could hope for was monolatrism, a religious system where other gods exist but only one is worshipped, a sort of proto-monotheism if you will, similar to Akenhaten's religious reforms that mandated the sole worship of the Aten.

Exodus 22:21[edit]

Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Exodus 22:21 Notes[edit]

Except of course when instructed by God to ethnically cleanse Israel so that the Hebrews can make it their new home. See Exodus 33:2.

Exodus 22:22[edit]

Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.

Exodus 22:22 Notes[edit]

This contradicts later passages where your brother can take your widow as his sex slave.

Exodus 22:23[edit]

If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry;

Exodus 22:23 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:24[edit]

And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.

Exodus 22:24 Notes[edit]

Family values in action. God doesn't give a fuck about the fate of your wives and children; he wants his vengeance now, damn it!
Has anyone witnessed this wax hot retribution delivered by sword, or was it just empty words?
Re. "and your wives", so that's a yes to polygamy?

Exodus 22:25[edit]

If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.

Exodus 22:25 Notes[edit]

Usury in this context is the loaning of money with interest. Specifically this would apply to Hebrews, and would not prevent the application of interest to loans offered to gentiles. Leviticus 25:36-37 and Deuteronomy 23:19-20 expand this to include all goods — not just money. Some interpretations of usury include the charging of fees in relation to loans. Restrictions on usury persist in varying forms within Judaism and Islam. Usury is not clearly tackled in the New Testament. The general anti-materialism stance of Jesus contrasts with the Parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:27), in which a servant is rebuked for burying his master's money for safety rather than investing it to earn a profit — with usury being a specific recommendation from the master. In Luke 6:35 Jesus appears to be advising his followers to lend "hoping for nothing".

Jewish law prohibits usury, and a similar situation exists in Islam. Modern Christian congregations are generally accepting of usury. The banking crisis of 2007-2010 is perhaps an ideal example of what happens when Christ's "hoping for nothing" approach is applied to banking, and certainly Irish banks as well as Spanish saving banks showed unquestionable dedication to taking Christ at his word, right up until the moment the International Monetary Fund arrived armed for bear.

Exodus 22:26[edit]

If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down:

Exodus 22:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:27[edit]

For that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.

Exodus 22:27 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:28[edit]

Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.

Exodus 22:28 Notes[edit]

How do Christians rationalize this, when this passage clearly says "thou shalt not revile the gods?" This passage, alongside many others, indicates the writers of Exodus were polytheists, or at best monolatrists (that is, the worship of one god while recognizing the existence of others). True monotheism in the Abrahamic religions wouldn't occur until the rise of King Josiah of Judah, the guy who commissioned the writing of Deuteronomy.

Exodus 22:29[edit]

Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me.

Exodus 22:29 Notes[edit]

Yet another verse in the Bible mandating human sacrifice. Man, Biblical "morality" is on a roll today. In the "official" Ten Commandments, God states that "all the first born are mine"; for some reason Yahweh had an unhealthy obsession with first-born children.

In fairness, Exodus 13:12-13 above states that when it comes time to offer up the first-born "all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem" meaning the sacrifice of first-born baby boys appears to be symbolic (perhaps akin to Abraham and Isaac, only with the dad knowing he doesn't have to commit infanticide). Exodus 13:14-22 actually tells you of the hypothetical and not-at-all awkward future conversation you'll have with that son when he eventually asks, "Um, dad, why do all you guys pretend to kill your first-born son? It's really weird. You didn't do that to me… right?"

Exodus 22:30[edit]

Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me.

Exodus 22:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 22:31[edit]

And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs.

Exodus 22:31 Notes[edit]

Exodus Chapter 23[edit]

Exodus 23:1[edit]

Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness.

Exodus 23:1 Notes[edit]

(Knock, knock, knock.) "Sorry to bother you, but we're looking for a defenseless Jewish girl. She wouldn't be in your attic by any chance?"
"Yes, yes; she's up there. I've been hiding her for 761 days but just this morning I read the bit about not raising a false report, so you better drag her off to Auschwitz".
"Ah, very good sir. This sort of black-and-white issue is exactly what religion helps to clarify."
"Yes, it's great that the omniscient creator of the universe gave us such obvious and useful direction so that we know what to do in all questions of morality."

Exodus 23:2[edit]

Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment:

Exodus 23:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:3[edit]

Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause.

Exodus 23:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:4[edit]

If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again.

Exodus 23:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:5[edit]

If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him.

Exodus 23:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:6[edit]

Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause.

Exodus 23:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:7[edit]

Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked.

Exodus 23:7 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:8[edit]

And thou shalt take no gift: for the gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous.

Exodus 23:8 Notes[edit]

This is best understood as referring to bribes. This is how the NIV renders the verse, and given the context it does not follow that a gift given for any reason would automatically "blind the wise". Don't worry, you're still allowed to exchange gifts at Christmas, although you should probably read Jeremiah 10:1-20 before putting up a Christmas tree.

Exodus 23:9[edit]

Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Exodus 23:9 Notes[edit]

This is almost identical to Exodus 22:21. It was probably so important it warrants a second mention, but certainly it wouldn't be the only example of information being repeated within books and across the Bible as a whole. The two creation stories in Genesis is perhaps one of the best examples.

Exodus 23:10[edit]

And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof:

Exodus 23:10 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:11[edit]

But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard.

Exodus 23:11 Notes[edit]

So the poor get to eat what they can gather from the land once every seven years? How generous. Come January 1st: eff off poor. If the local farmers happen to be in sync (regarding the six-to-one-year cycle), then the poor are going to have to tighten their belts for 72 months in that district. Perhaps the omniscient creator of the universe didn't get the memo that modern farming techniques can cause soil to be productive even after six years have passed, and therefore can provide food – even for the poor decade after decade?

Exodus 23:12[edit]

Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.

Exodus 23:12 Notes[edit]

Re. "the son of thy handmaid", could there be a more cringeworthy and era-establishing phrase?

Exodus 23:13[edit]

And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.

Exodus 23:13 Notes[edit]

Here again we have proof that the people of the day were polytheistic, but shouldn't the omniscient creator of the universe have known that there were no other gods but himself/herself?

Exodus 23:14[edit]

Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me in the year.

Exodus 23:14 Notes[edit]

Okay religious folk, how are you going obeying the three-feasts-a-year requirement? Here's a handy summary in case you forget one or more of them:

  • The feast of unleavened bread. That's no yeast for you for seven days (which might cause issues with the Subway supply chain). This appears to be associated with "passover", but you'll figure it out.
  • The feast of the harvest. Date to be determined, but towards the beginning of summer?
  • The feast of ingathering. Date also to be determined, but towards the end of summer should be okay.

Just because you live in a city and work as an investment banker doesn't mean you're off the hook for these three, so please try harder next year!

Exodus 23:15[edit]

Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)

Exodus 23:15 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:16[edit]

And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field.

Exodus 23:16 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:17[edit]

Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the LORD God.

Exodus 23:17 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:18[edit]

Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning.

Exodus 23:18 Notes[edit]

The priests God was really picky about how his sacrifices tasted and looked.

Exodus 23:19[edit]

The first of the first fruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.

Exodus 23:19 Notes[edit]

Because — God forbid — the priesthood should get real jobs and work like anyone else. Oh yeah, this is a great part, don't boil a baby goat in its mother's milk, because that would be creepy, right?

Exodus 23:20[edit]

Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.

Exodus 23:20 Notes[edit]


Exodus 23:21[edit]

Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him.

Exodus 23:21 Notes[edit]

…in 2,000+ years, has anyone (who isn't on medication) seen any evidence of the voice of the "angel" that has been sent to keep us in thine ways?

Exodus 23:22[edit]

But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.

Exodus 23:22 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:23[edit]

For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off.

Exodus 23:23 Notes[edit]

So much for treating your neighbors with kindness. Who needs diplomacy when you can just kill them all?

Exodus 23:24[edit]

Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images.

Exodus 23:24 Notes[edit]

So much for Exodus 23:9.

Exodus 23:25[edit]

And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee.

Exodus 23:25 Notes[edit]

This a falsifiable scientific theory. Is there any evidence that those who "serve the lord" are devoid of sickness?

Exodus 23:26[edit]

There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land: the number of thy days I will fulfil.

Exodus 23:26 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:27[edit]

I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee.

Exodus 23:27 Notes[edit]

Divinely-ordained genocide. Surely the Bible is the source of all that is good?

Exodus 23:28[edit]

And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

Exodus 23:28 Notes[edit]

And if that isn't enough pain for your enemies, I'm sending in the bees.

Exodus 23:29[edit]

I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee.

Exodus 23:29 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:30[edit]

By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.

Exodus 23:30 Notes[edit]

Exodus 23:31[edit]

And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee.

Exodus 23:31 Notes[edit]

This gives the Hebrews all the land between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Euphrates. Plenty of Lebensraum.

Exodus 23:32[edit]

Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.

Exodus 23:32 Notes[edit]

Yet another passage in the Bible recognizing the existence of other gods. Given that Exodus was written before Judaism became monotheist, this shouldn't be surprising.

Exodus 23:33[edit]

They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee.

Exodus 23:33 Notes[edit]

It should be dawning on the faithful by now that the buy-bull is basically a war manual. So much for "love thy neighbor".

Exodus Chapter 24[edit]

Exodus 24:1[edit]

And he said unto Moses, Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off.

Exodus 24:1 Notes[edit]

Even though it's written with a capital letter, it's worth reminding the reader that there is zero historical evidence that anyone named "moses" ever existed.

Exodus 24:2[edit]

And Moses alone shall come near the LORD: but they shall not come nigh; neither shall the people go up with him.

Exodus 24:2 Notes[edit]

Exodus 24:3[edit]

And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do.

Exodus 24:3 Notes[edit]

Exodus 24:4[edit]

And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.

Exodus 24:4 Notes[edit]

Exodus 24:5[edit]

And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD.

Exodus 24:5 Notes[edit]

Exodus 24:6[edit]

And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basons; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.

Exodus 24:6 Notes[edit]

Exodus 24:7[edit]

And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do, and be obedient.

Exodus 24:7 Notes[edit]

Here is the Bible's first missing book.

Exodus 24:8[edit]

And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.

Exodus 24:8 Notes[edit]

Exodus 24:9[edit]

Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel:

Exodus 24:9 Notes[edit]

Exodus 24:10[edit]

And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.

Exodus 24:10 Notes[edit]

When writing a fairy story, it's important to elevate the "hero" from the plebeian readers. Even though they might be scratching around in the soil for a meal (one year in seven according to Exodus 23:11), the poor readers of this tripe might be impressed by a "paved work of a sapphire stone" beneath the feet of the "gawd of (just) Israel".

Exodus 24:11[edit]

And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink.

Exodus 24:11 Notes[