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Hindutva

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Hindutva (which can be literally translated into English as "Hinduness"[note 1]) is a word coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1923 pamphlet entitled Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? It forms the basis of the Hindu nationalist movement in India.

The Hindu nationalist movement, though primarily concentrated in India, has global presence and a section of the Indian diaspora living in the Europe and North America fund Hindutva groups in those countries, as well as in India.

What is Hindutva?[edit]

Savarkar, the founder of the Hindutva notion, was an atheist[1][2][note 2] and admirer of Mussolini's Italian fascism and Hitler's Nazism.[note 3] As per Savarkar, who defined Hindutva as an ethnic and political identity, a Hindu is a person whose ancestors lived in the land he called "Akhand BharatWikipedia's W.svg" (Greater India, which consists of India and several nation states in the Indian subcontinent) as well as the land in which their religion originated. Here religion means all religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, i.e. Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. He excluded all religions originated outside of India. Savarkar's concept of Hindutva was ethnic, of which religion was a part of. But another key figure in the Hindu nationalist movement, M. S. GolwalkarWikipedia's W.svg, reversed this relation. Golwalkar said, "with us culture is but a product of our all-comprehensive religion, a part of its body and not distinguishable from it."[3] By "all-comprehensive religion", he meant Hinduism.

Many of Savarkar's views were contradictory. Savarkar tried to project himself as a progressive who rejects religious dogma by writing that the term Hindutva was not reserved for "believers of the dogmas and religious practices that go by the name Hinduism".[4] On the other hand, as per the tradition in Hinduism, he emphasized the "protection" of cows, saying, "To protect and sustain the cow is our personal and familial duty. At least in the case of Hindusthan, it is also our national duty."[5] Most modern Hindutva advocates involve dogmas and religious practices as an integral part of their ideology.

Hindutva is a far-right-wing ideology.[6] The three essentials of Hindutva are common nation (rashtra), common race (jati) and common culture/civilisation (sanskriti).[7] Lancaster University lecturer Amalendu Misra notes that for Savarkar, a common ancestry, a common history and a common religion form the basis for national identity. Thus, the essentials of Hindu identity, as per the notion of Hindutva, are the following:[8]

  1. bond of common blood[8] or blood purity, which was central to Nazi ideology,
  2. common civilization,[8]
  3. common culture and[8]
  4. common law and rites.[8]

Savarkar's idea of Hindu identity is religious and territorial.[8] It is also very similar to the Blood and SoilWikipedia's W.svg of the Nazis.[9]

There are contradictory statements and views among people associated with the Hindu nationalist movement regarding the question of irreligion and atheism. Y. Sudershan Rao, who was appointed the head of the Indian Council of Historical ResearchWikipedia's W.svg (ICHR) after the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) formed government in 2014, tries to explain the meaning of "Hindu" arguing, "Hindu in ancient times was a name given to people who were living to the east of the Indus riverWikipedia's W.svg up to KanyakumariWikipedia's W.svg. Hindus were religious, nonreligious and irreligious. As a historian, I look at it that way."[10] This argument includes irreligious people as Hindu, if Hindu is defined as an ethnic identity. On the other hand, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the largest Hindu nationalist organization in India, constructs the idea of an "ideal Hindu family". According to a leader of the organization, "We also want people to see to it that their households look like proper Hindu homes: a tulsi plant, images of Hindu gods, the gayatri mantraWikipedia's W.svg, etc. should ideally be physically there."[11] This idea of an "ideal Hindu family" obviously excludes atheists, contradicting the view that irreligion comes within the Hindutva fold.

Hindutva in practice[edit]

Hindutva advocates are accused of practical violence like riots, forcibly converting non-Hindus to Hinduism, suppressing freedom of speech and freedom of expression by banning books, films and other cultural media which they don't like, and terrorizing people through mob violence. In general, Hindutva advocates reject the idea of freedom of choice. In India, an umbrella organization called the Sangh Parivar champions the concept of Hindutva. The Sangh comprises organizations such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Bajrang Dal, Vishwa Hindu Parishad and others.

Hindu nationalism[edit]

Hindu nationalism is an ethno-religious nationalism that aims to make secular India a Hindu state (Hindu Rashtra).

Goals of Hindu nationalists are:

Actions by Hindu nationalists[edit]

The Babri Mosque was a historic monument in India which was destroyed by Hindus due to a gripe regarding the location of a historical temple. Ayodhya is said to be the birthplace of the Hindu Avatar of Vishnu, Rama. It is further noted that Babur's commander-in-chief Mir Baki destroyed an existing Hindu temple at the site.[12] The Babri Mosque was one of the largest mosques in the state Uttar Pradesh, where 31 million Muslims lived. The ensuing riots are known as the Ayodhya Riots.

Political implications[edit]

In India's 2014 general election, the ruling Nehru-Gandhi dynasty leading the Congress Party lost its national legislative majority for the first time at the hands of the Hindu-centric, right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party. As a result of this change of power, the position of Prime Minister of India went to Narendra Modi, a militant Hindu nationalist previously implicated by Indian courts in enough religious violence that the United States had prohibited him from entering the country for quite a while. Later they welcomed him to the US and Obama visited him in India in 2015.

What do adherents of Hindutva notion say?[edit]

Forced sterilization of people on the grounds of their religion[edit]

Sadhvi Deva Thakur, vice-president of a Hindutva organization called Hindu MahasabhaWikipedia's W.svg, says that Muslims and Christians living in India should be forcibly sterilized, and for the purpose of doing this, the government should impose a state of emergency.[13][14]

The population of Muslims and Christians is growing day by day. To rein in this, CentreWikipedia's W.svg will have to impose emergencyWikipedia's W.svg, and Muslims and Christians will have to be forced to undergo sterilisation so that they can't increase their numbers
—Sadhvi Deva Thakur[13]

She also urged Hindus to have more children to increase their population.[13]

On women[edit]

The Hindutva organization Akhil Bharatiya Hindu MahasabhaWikipedia's W.svg (ABHM, translated into English as All India Hindu Assembly) wanted to impose a conservative dress code on school and college-going girls. Dharmapal Siwach, vice-president of the ABHM, also argued that the use of cell phones should be banned in the premises of educational organisations as he believed use of cell phones lead to "increasing obscenity". Siwach also believed that girls must wear dupattaWikipedia's W.svg, a kind of long scarf.[15]

Vulgar clothes lead to incidents of rape. To curb increasing obscenity in society, a particular dress code should be introduced in schools and colleges. The attire should cover the body and not be indecent. Moreover girls should be banned from wearing tight jeans and tops.
—Dharmapal Siwach of the ABHM[15]

Later the ABHM clarified that they did not demand ban on all jeans but "half-jeans" by which they probably meant caprisWikipedia's W.svg.[16]

We are not against girls wearing jeans but we are against girls wearing skimpy clothes.
—Lalit Bhardwaj, spokesperson of ABHM[16]

In 2015, a BJP MP (member of parliament) Sakshi Maharaj said that every Hindu woman must have four children.[17][18]

The time has come when a Hindu woman must produce at least four children in order to protect Hindu religion.
—Sakshi Maharaj, BJP MP

After this remark, another BJP political said that Hindu women should have five children.[19]

I want to tell my Hindu mothers and sisters that if they don’t have five children, there will be no equilibrium in India in future.
—Shymal Goswami, BJP politician[19]

However, the manifesto of the "Hindutva" party BJP, currently India's largest political party, is "committed to give a high priority to Women's Empowerment", education and wwelfare.[2]

The BJP has also been critical of the anti-women Triple Talaq law and the Shah Bano law.[20]

On cohabitation[edit]

ABHM vice-president Dharmapal Siwach wanted to criminalize cohabitation.[15]

Our culture is getting affected due to live-in- relationship (cohabitation) and hence a law prohibiting live-in-relationships should be enacted.
—Dharmapal Siwach of the ABHM[15]

Manipulating public education[edit]

Hindutva writer Dinanath Batra, who runs an organization euphemistically named Shiksha Bachao Andolan (Save Education Movement)[note 4], believes religious education should be an integral part of school curriculum.[21]

What we need in India is value-based education, education that will build character. We can’t do that without religion, so religious studies[note 5] must become a part of school curriculum.
—Dinanath Batra[21]

Batra has written some school textbooks which are taught in the Indian state of GujaratWikipedia's W.svg, where the Hindu nationalist BJP forms government. If one explores these in depth, what is written in his books are bound to give laughs as well as shock to any educated sane person. An example of blatant racism and horrible misinformation is given below:[22][23]

Once Dr RadhakrishnanWikipedia's W.svg[note 6] went for a dinner. There was a Briton at the event who said, "We are very dear to God." Radhakrishnan laughed and told the gathering, "Friends, one day God felt like making rotisWikipedia's W.svg[note 7]. When he was cooking the rotis, the first one was cooked less and the English were born. The second one stayed longer on the fire and the NegroesWikipedia's W.svg were born. Alert after His first two mistakes, when God went on to cook the third roti, it came out just right and as a result IndiansWikipedia's W.svg were born."
—schoolbook written by Dinanath Batra[22][23]

The above passage endorses classification of people based on skin color. It claims that Indian people are "just right" while people with lighter or darker skin color are the result of something going wrong.

Another blatant example of racism from his book is where people with darker skin color are depicted as violent criminals:

The aircraft was flying thousands of feet high in the sky. A very strongly built negro reached the rear door and tried to open it. The air-hostesses tried to stop him but the strongly built negro pushed the soft-bodied hostesses to the floor and shouted, 'Nobody dare move a step ahead'. An Indian grabbed the negro and he could not escape. The pilot and the Indian together thrashed the negro and tied him up with a rope. Like a tied buffalo, he frantically tried to escape but could not. The plane landed safely in Chicago. The negro was a serious criminal in the Chicago records and this brave Indian was an employee of Air IndiaWikipedia's W.svg.
—schoolbook written by Dinanath Batra[22]

Pseudoscholarship[edit]

Pseudoscience[edit]

The Sangh Parivar and Hindutva advocates in general also indulge in a lot of pseudoscientific claims. For example, it is not uncommon to find Hindutva proponents claiming that the discoveries of modern science are actually re-discoveries of what had been found ages ago by the ancient Hindu saints. Also, they tend to justify things like Ayurveda using pseudoscientific blabber.

Vedic Science is a concept used by Hindutva advocates to denote to the scientific tradition of ancient India.[note 8] Astrologer Gayatri Devi Vasudev writing for The Organiser, a publication of the main Hindutva organization in India, RSS, claimed that the distinction of science and pseudoscience (or protoscience) is Eurocentric and inapplicable to Vedic Science:

Western scientific thought draws on the traditions of Greek rationalist thinking according to which only what is within the purview of the five senses is taken cognisance of. Scientific methods follow some kind of closed scientific reasoning which insulates itself against facts that its methods cannot account for. How else can they [scientists] dare dismiss Jyotisha (astrology) which sees a level of existence beyond the purview of the five senses?
—Vasudev 2001[24]

Hindutva advocates even go as far to claim that religion and science is identical in India:

The idea of 'contradiction' is an imported one from the West in recent times by the Western-educated, since 'Modern Science' arbitrarily imagines that it only has the true knowledge and its methods are the only methods to gain knowledge, smacking of Semitic dogmatism in religion.
—Mukhyananda 1997:94[25]

Pseudohistory and pseudoarcheology[edit]

In 2014, after the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power, it appointed Y. Sudershan Rao, a history professor associated with a RSS-affiliated organization, as the head of the Indian Council of Historical ResearchWikipedia's W.svg (ICHR).[26] His appointment was also criticized by other historians and former members of the ICHR, including those sympathetic to the ruling party.[3] Rao believes that material evidence is not necessary to write the history of India. He said during an interview with the Outlook magazine,

Western schools of thought look at material evidence of history. We can’t produce material evidence for everything. India is a continuing civilisation. To look for evidence would mean digging right though the hearts of villages and displacing people. We only have to look at the people to figure out the similarities in their lives and the depiction in the RamayanaWikipedia's W.svg and the MahabharataWikipedia's W.svg. For instance, the Ramayana mentions that RamaWikipedia's W.svg had travelled to Bhad­ra­chalamWikipedia's W.svg (in Andhra PradeshWikipedia's W.svg). A look at the people and the fact that his having lived there for a while is in the collective memory of the people cannot be discounted in the search for material evidence. In continuing civilisations such as ours, the writing of history cannot depend only on archaeological evidence. We have to depend on folklore too.
—Y. Sudershan Rao, head of the Indian Council of Historical Researh[27]

His statement is full of fallacies and other nonsense which is refuted below.

Rao's argumentRationalWiki editor User:ThisIsYeah responds
Western schools of thought look at material evidence of history.Historians actually use a method called oral historyWikipedia's W.svg to record non-material evidence. It deals with collective memory and individual construction of history, so Rao is straw manning here. The difference between oral history and Rao's "method" (if you can call it that) is that the former has a critical approach, whereas Rao simply takes folklore at face value. Rao also sets up a false East/West dilemma, a technique used by fundamentalists in Asia to attack the supposed Euro- and Americentric scientism of "Western" academia and replace it with their preferred brand of pseudoscience.

We can’t produce material evidence for everything. India is a continuing civilisation.See my hands waving!. Sorry Rao, as Christopher Hitchens so pithily put it: "What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence." Rao also forgets to explain what "a continuing civilisation" is and why it means we should ditch normal criteria for conducting historical enquiries. Rao seems to be taking a page from the book of paranormal woo peddlers who make all kinds of excuses for why their branch of woo doesn't work when subjected to controlled experiments. Try imagining a Dane, making this same argument and insisting that the tales of Thor and the JörmungandrWikipedia's W.svg has to be taken as fact(oids), because Denmark is part of "a continuing Norse civilisation". Try again.

To look for evidence would mean digging right though the hearts of villages and displacing people.Argument from adverse consequences. It's also a red herring or possibly an escape hatch bordering on an emotional appeal ("Oh, the poor farmers!" - as if anyone suggests that it's necessary to move in with bulldozers and demolition crews and raze the houses of villagers. Contrast with how we've acquired knowledge of other ancient, but still inhabited, sites, such as Rome, Jerusalem, Jericho or Istanbul).

We only have to look at the people to figure out the similarities in their lives and the depiction in the RamayanaWikipedia's W.svg and the MahabharataWikipedia's W.svg.If this seems familiar, it's because it's a Hindu version of the old biblical literalist nugget of "these events were real, hence the entire Bible must be correct!" Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, Rao. Rao is also begging the question, because he use the fact that folklore match written epics which were originally oral epic as evidence that the written version is correct. This is patently absurd because it amounts to using the correspondence between the depiction of Spider-Man in the movies and in the comics as "evidence" that Spider-Man must be real and that the movies are essentially documentaries. It's what we call circular evidence.

For instance, the Ramayana mentions that RamaWikipedia's W.svg had travelled to Bhad­ra­chalamWikipedia's W.svg (in Andhra PradeshWikipedia's W.svg). A look at the people and the fact that his having lived there for a while is in the collective memory of the people cannot be discounted in the search for material evidence.Here Rao combines the appeal to tradition with an argumentum ad populum. Why would the fact that countless people have believed something for a long time mean it's real? Loads of people believed in the pantheon of the Greco-Roman or ancient Egyptian religions, but practically no one do so now. Why should we accept Rao's myths?

In continuing civilisations such as ours, the writing of history cannot depend only on archaeological evidence. We have to depend on folklore too.And so we return to the hand waving, ad hoc'ing and argument by assertion. Yeah, Rao, keep repeating it and it will magically become a good argument...

Hindutva advocates propagate the pseudolinguistic Indigenous Aryans theory which asserts that the speakers of Indo-European languages are "indigenous" to the Indian subcontinent.

Hindutva writer P. N. Oak claimed Taj MahalWikipedia's W.svg was a Hindu temple.[28]. P.N. Oak is considered a fringe writer even among many Hindus and Hindu nationalists.

Revisionism of science and technology[edit]

Y. Sudershan Rao claimed that Indians used to fly aircraft, conduct stem cell research and use cosmic weapons 5000 years ago, and believes that the Indian epics the MahabharataWikipedia's W.svg and the RamayanaWikipedia's W.svg, which were written two millennia ago, are not fiction, but essentially history books.[note 9] He argues humans did not develop the art of fiction writing until a few centuries ago; hence, the events and things described in these epics must be real.[29]

In 2014, Indian prime minister Narendra Modi asserted that genetic science and IVF existed in ancient India. To support his claim, he pointed towards the Mahabharata and argued:

We all read about KarnaWikipedia's W.svg in the Mahabharata. If we think a little more, we realise that the Mahabharata says Karna was not born from his mother’s womb. This means that genetic science was present at that time. That is why Karna could be born outside his mother’s womb.
—Narendra Modi[30]

In the textbook Tejomay Bharat written by Hindutva writer Dinanath Batra which is taught in schools in the Indian state of Gujarat, it is claimed that television was invented in the age of Mahabharata ca. two millennia ago:

We know that television was invented by a priest from Scotland called John Logie Baird in 1926. But we want to take you to an even older DoordarshanWikipedia's W.svg… Indian rishisWikipedia's W.svg using their yogWikipedia's W.svg vidyaWikipedia's W.svg would attain divya drishti.Wikipedia's W.svg There is no doubt that the invention of television goes back to this.
—Dinanath Batra[31]

Dinanath Batra's textbook also claims that cars are an example of something first invented in ancient India:

What we know today as the motorcar existed during the Vedic period. It was called aanashva rath.[note 10] Usually a rath (chariot) is pulled by horses but an anashva rath means the one that runs without horses or yantra-rath,[note 11] what is today a motorcar. The Rig Veda refers to this.
—Dinanath Batra[31]

Hindu nationalist phraseology[edit]

The Hindu nationalist community use a lot of terms as euphemisms and snarl words.

  • Family values: The Hindu nationalist community use the code word "family values" to oppose sexual relations between people who are not bound by heterosexual marriage. It is used somewhat in the same sense Christian conservatives use it in the US.
  • Indian culture is another code word used by Hindu nationalist groups this one to describe anything that suits their agenda; anything they don't like becomes something that is "against Indian culture".
  • Indian Marxist is used to refer to Indian Marxists, but also as a snarl word by Hindu nationalists to refer to criticism of their agenda, similar to how American wingnuts whine about "Cultural Marxism". While there are real Indian Marxist academics[32], being a Marxist does not necessarily diminish the validity of their criticism, Hindu nationalists usually dismiss any criticism of their agenda as "Marxist". As such, this is similar to the opposite case of Indian academics calling the views of Indian academics with more controversial opinions as "nationalist", "saffronized" or "right-wing". This way Hindu nationalists try to discredit a well-known historian of ancient India, Romila ThaparWikipedia's W.svg, as a "Marxist", even though this designation is controversial.[33][34] Thapar is characterized as an Indian Marxist historian by scholars like Ronald Inden and Tom Bottomore.[35] In 2003, Thapar was appointed to the Library of Congress'sWikipedia's W.svg Kluge ChairWikipedia's W.svg in 2003. Her appointment faced hostility from Hindutva fundies, who, in an online petition, criticized her for 1) lacking required skills (e.g. she has no adequate knowledge of Sanskrit) and 2) her alleged affiliation with Indian Marxism,[36][37] but the Library of Congress ignored those fundies and, as philosopher Martha NussbaumWikipedia's W.svg put it, treated the petition with "the indifference that it deserved".[38]
  • Sickular is a word used to describe seculars. Here, Hindu nationalists are being less civil and don't hide their hostility towards secularism.[39]

Hindutva movement worldwide[edit]

The Hindutva movement is not an Indian-only phenomenon. It is present worldwide, in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and many other countries. A number of organizations, mostly in the form of non-profits, constitute the movement and a section of the Hindu Indian diaspora in different countries support these organizations. An average supporter of an Hindutva organization may not adhere to the extremist beliefs of these organizations, but they join or support these organizations out of a perceived sense of alienation in a country where Hindus constitute a religious minority.

In the United States, Hindu nationalists take the benefit of the liberal secular atmosphere of the pluralist American society[40] and draw on multiculturalist discourse for their presence, while at the same time they fund cultural and political organizations in India that spread hatred and commit acts of violence against India's religious minorities.[41][42] In Australia, Hindu nationalist organizations legitimise their activities through the rhetoric of liberal multiculturalism. At the same time, just like the American Hindutva organizations, they promote hatred against religious minorities in India.[42]

External links[edit]

Replies to criticism from a Hindu/Hindu nationalist point of view[edit]

Exposing Hindu nationalists[edit]

General[edit]

Hindu nationalist propaganda in education[edit]

Hindu nationalist pseudoscholarship[edit]

Hindu nationalism in Europe and North America[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Hindutva or Hindu-tva, Sanskrit -tva, neuter abstract suffix, So in English it is Hindu-ness.
  2. His atheism is not incompatible with Hinduism, see Atheism in HinduismWikipedia's W.svg
  3. Savarkar said this about Nazism and fascism, "Surely Hitler knows better than Pandit Nehru (refers to Jawaharlal NehruWikipedia's W.svg, the first prime minister of India) does what suits Germany best. The very fact that Germany or Italy has so wonderfully recovered and grown so powerful as never before at the touch of Nazi or Fascist magical wand is enough to prove that those political ‘isms’ were the most congenial tonics their health demanded." [1]
  4. Shiksha (Hindi) means education, Bachao (Hindi) means save, Andolan (Hindi) means movement.
  5. By using the term "religious studies", he does not refer to the secular academic discipline religious studies which analyzes religion from a non-religious point of view. He refers to theology when he uses the term.
  6. Sarvepalli RadhakrishnanWikipedia's W.svg, the first vice-president of India.
  7. Flat bread made from wholemeal flour and consumed in the Indian subcontinent.
  8. Quite similar to the Hare Krishnas use of the term "Vedic creationism" to give their brand of creationism some ancient Indian patina.
  9. Similar to how some people read the Bible.
  10. Aanashva is a name of a kind of rath, rath is a Hindi word which means chariot.
  11. Yantra is a Hindi word which means machine, hence yeantra-rath means a machine chariot.

References[edit]

  1. Nandy, Ashis (2003). Time Warps: The Insistent Politics of Silent and Evasive Pasts. Delhi: Orient Longman. p.71. ISBN 9788178240718. OCLC 49616949.
  2. Kumar, Pramod (1992). Towards Understanding Communalism. Chandigarh: Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development. p.348. ISBN 9788185835174. OCLC 27810012.
  3. Vasant Kaiwar, Sucheta Mazumdar, Antinomies of Modernity: Essays on Race, Orient, Nation, p.47-48
  4. ^ Sushil Mittal (2008). Studying Hinduism: key concepts and methods. Routledge. pp.272–. ISBN 978-0-415-30126-8. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  5. Cow-protection and cow-worship
  6. Les Back and John Solomos (2000), Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader, p.591, ISBN 9780415156714. "It is important to note the marriage between far-right-wing Hindutva ideology and western New Ageism in the works of writers like David Frawley (1994, 1995a, 1995b) who is both a key apologist for the Hindutva movement and the author of various New Age books on Vedic astrology, oracles and yoga."
  7. Sharma, Arvind (2002). "On Hindu, Hindustan, Hinduism and Hindutva". Numen 49 (1). JSTOR 3270470. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Amalendu Misra, Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India, p.159-160
  9. "Savarkar, the proponent of Hindu blood as a unifying factor of cohesion, admiringly cited the example of the Nazis with respect to the theory of purity of blood making for a strong nation of one people." I. K. Shukla, Hindutva: An Autopsy of Fascism as a Theoterrorist Cult and Other Essays, p. 64
  10. Ramayan, Mahabharat historical sources, West dubs them myth: Y Sudershan Rao Economic Times
  11. RSS focuses on Hindu family values to unify community Hindustan Times
  12. Jesuit Joseph Tieffenthaler wrote in 1768: "Emperor Aurangzeb demolished the fortress called Ramcot, and erected on the same place a Mohammedan temple with three cupolas. Others believe that it was constructed by Babor." (Quoted by R.S. Sharma et al.: Historians Report, p.19)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Muslims, Christians should be forcibly sterilised: Sadhvi Deva Thakur, India Today
  14. Hindu Mahasabha Leader Sadhvi Deva Thakur Says Muslims, Christians Should Be Forcibly Sterilised, Huffington Post India
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha warns girls: ‘Vulgar clothes lead to rape'; wants ban on jeans, cell phones Financial Express
  16. 16.0 16.1 Never demanded ban on jeans but half-jeans, claims Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha DNA
  17. Every Hindu woman must produce at least 4 kids: Sakshi Maharaj Times of India
  18. India MP Sakshi Maharaj: Hindus must have more babies BBC
  19. 19.0 19.1 After Sakshi Maharaj’s ‘4 kids’ remark, a BJP leader now asks Hindu women to bear five children Indian Express
  20. http://indianexpress.com/article/india/instant-triple-talaq-verdict-supreme-court-bjp-says-it-protects-fundamental-rights-of-muslim-women-4808115/
  21. 21.0 21.1 India’s new school textbooks favor Hindu nationalist themes, making minorities uneasy Washington Post
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 What the government of Gujarat is encouraging children to read is dismaying Quartz
  23. 23.0 23.1 Top Indian educationalist accused of racism over portrayal of criminal 'negroes' The Telegraph
  24. Vasudev, Gayatri Devi. 2001. Vedic astrology and pseudo-scientific criticism, The Organiser (an English-language publication of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh), reprinted in The Astrological Magazine, cited after Sokal (2006:38)
  25. Mukhyananda, Swami. 1997. Vedanta in the Context of Modern Science: A (Comparative Study. Mumbai [Bombay]: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
  26. Ancient India had aeroplanes, nuclear weapons, says chief of India's premier history body India Today
  27. ‘Ramayana, Mahabharata Are True Accounts Of The Period...Not Myths’ Outlook
  28. The Tajmahal is Tejomahalay
  29. Fears grow in India about Hindu 'Modi-fication' of education, Reuters
  30. Plastic surgery to IVF: Things BJP says hum Indiawaale had before the world did Firstpost
  31. 31.0 31.1 Science lesson from Gujarat: Stem cells in Mahabharata, cars in Veda Indian Express
  32. Prominent examples include Irfan Habib, who has subtitled his book Essays in Indian History (Tulika, Delhi 1995) as Towards a Marxist Perception.
  33. Hating Romila Thapar Himal Southasianlink=wp:Himal Southasian
  34. http://www.sacw.net/Alerts/IDRT300403.html
  35. Romila Thapar, Jha and Sharma are quoted Marxist historians in the entry 'Hinduism' of 'A Dictionary of The Marxist Thought' (Tom BOTTOMORE et al, 1983, Harvard University Press, p. 204). Ronald INDEN, in his Imagining India [1990:pp. 154-156, 197] clearly refers to Thapar as a Marxist historian. A
  36. http://vishalagarwal.bharatvani.org/articles/indhistory/kluge.htm
  37. Romila Thapar's appointment to Library of Congress opposed Rediff
  38. Nussbaum, Martha Craven (2008). The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6.
  39. 'Mota maal' to 'Sickular': 10 ridiculously viral terms that drive Indian social media CNN IBN
  40. Hindutva Bigotry in America
  41. Kamat, Sangeetha and Biju Matthews (2003), 'Mapping political violence in a globalized world: The case of Hindu nationalism', Social Justice, 30:3, pp. 4–16.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Goldie Osuri (2011), 'Transnational Bio/Necropolitics: Hindutva and its Avatars (Australia/India)', Somatechnics. Volume 1, Issue 1, Page 138-160
Articles on RationalWiki about Hindu nationalism
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