India is a very large, very, very populated developing country (approximately 1.21 billion examples of Homo sapiens) according to the Census of 2011. It is very proud of its spiritual heritage, having given the world Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. It is also a very fractious country.
It is a vast nation marked by important religious, ethnic, and linguistic divides which have led to sporadic clashes between various groups since independence in 1947. While the country has had important episodes of conflict and endured a brief period of dictatorship under Indira Gandhi known as "the Emergency," it remains the world's largest democracy.
- 1 Politics
- 2 Economy
- 3 Military
- 4 Religious right
- 5 Terrorist attacks
- 6 Crimes against women
- 7 Gay rights
- 8 Sex in India
- 9 Human rights
- 10 Woo in India
- 11 Good News
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
India, of course, has a rich history of resisting western pressure (unlike, say, Egypt) on nukes and trademarks. On the other hand, this intransigence also resulted in the Paris climate talks: not only did Indians refuse to cut emissions, they pledged to double their coal output.
India also serves as an example that shows that Eastern polytheistic religions are not as immune to fundamentalism and violence as many in the West like to believe. The constitution of India guarantees freedom of religion for all. However, religion is an important factor among parts of the country's population, as seen in the success of the Hindu fundamentalist (commonly known as Hindu nationalist) Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP, in English, Indian People's Party), the second largest political party in the country. Additionally, religious law is allowed to govern personal matters such as divorce and inheritance, which has led to legal controversies. Indian blasphemy laws have also been used to punish criticism of religion, with conversion to or from any of them subject to legal hurdles.
There are two major political parties in India, the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The Communist Party of India is another player. However, a large number of states are governed by so-called regional parties, which more often than not, have their presence in that state only. For example, the states of West Bengal and Odisha in east India, or the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in South India have large regional parties in power.
The INC is widely considered secular and it has center-left orientation in political spectrum. However, the involvement of INC members in the anti-Sikh riots, coupled with statements of senior Congress leader Digvijay Singh where he described atheism as a negative attribute, leaves the secular nature of the INC open to debate.
The BJP has a center-right orientation and identifies itself as more conservative. Its parent, the right-wing RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) has promoted religious views by cherry-picking from ancient Indian texts and philosophers. Some of the BJP-governed states also have anti-conversion and anti-cow slaughter laws.
Other right wing organizations like Shivsena, Bajrang Dal and some members of VHP have been involved in hatred and violence towards Muslims and Christians. There have also been politicians who have called for violence against Hindus like Akbaruddin Owaisi. Recently one of the smaller political parties, the Aam Aadmi Party, won Delhi Assembly Elections against the two biggest political parties of the country, BJP and Congress.
India, along with the other seven South Asian countries, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives, Bhutan and Afghanistan, is part of a regional coalition named SAARC, though there are internal hostilities between India and Pakistan in SAARC which makes SAARC an ineffective multinational alliance.
After independence in 1947, India tried to implement a socialist-type economy, led by their first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who was a socialist. However it was a socialist mixed economy rather than a Soviet-style command economy. India's economy was framed in this model until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. After the USSR's dissolution, India adopted the Washington consensus and started to open its markets to the private sector. By 2007, India's economy had been rapidly growing, with a GDP of $1 trillion and a GDP growth rate of approximately 9.1%. Some have estimated that India will become an economic superpower. Despite this, poverty is a severe problem in India. Approximately 13.4% of Indians live below the poverty line. The benefits of economic liberalization have not been equitably spread, with urban centers gaining a lot more than the villages. Bureaucratic corruption is also a severe problem in India, and it makes economic progress a mere fraction of its potential.
According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 18,354,700 people are enslaved in modern day India, or 1.40% of the population. By this estimate, India has the fourth highest prevalence of slavery of any country, but the highest absolute number of slaves. This includes a variety of forms of slavery, including bonded labour, forced domestic service, forced begging, forced prostitution, forced marriage, and forced recruitment for armed services.
Militarily, India is the strongest country in South Asia. The Indian military is third largest in the world in terms of military personnel, and the Indian Army is the second largest standing army. The Indian Navy is the fifth largest navy and the Air Force is the fourth largest air force in the world. Historically, the Indian military heavily relied upon Soviet arms and technical assistance, although it continuously developed indigenous technology. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, India has built most modern military technologies domestically, or with collaboration with foreign countries. The Indian Air Force maintains approximately 1300 combat and non-combat aircraft, the Indian Army maintains nearly 5000 main battle tanks, and the Indian Navy employs 155 vessels, including one aircraft carrier. Six nuclear powered submarines are under construction and the Navy is undergoing a rapid modernization and expansion. Aircraft of the Indian Air Force include the 4.5 generation fighter Sukhoi Su-30MKI, which is IAF's primary air superiority aircraft. India is a de facto nuclear power. At present, India possesses two intermediate-range ballistic missiles: Agni II with a range of 2,000–2,500 km, and Agni III with a range of 3,500 km. India is developing an intercontinental ballistic missile named Surya.
There are concerns of human rights violations associated with the Indian military. The Indian Peacekeeping Force in Sri Lanka is accused of human rights violations. According to the Human Right Watch,
“”Attacks on civilians by militant groups[note 2] and Indian security forces continued unabated before and after the change in government. Notwithstanding the repeal of POTA,[note 3] the government continues to use other legislation to shield security forces from accountability. Indian military, paramilitary, and police forces have engaged in serious human rights abuses not just in conflict-zones such as Kashmir,[note 4] but also when dealing with criminal suspects and detainees.
India suffers a lot from terrorism due to both Muslim and Hindu terrorists. The Christian church with the "baptize them all" policy is also causing trouble in India. Large and small communal riots are common, and many people die from these riots every year. A major Indian party (Bharatiya Janata Party), along with the Hindu fundamentalist organization commonly known as Sangh Parivar, are advocates of Hindu nationalism known as Hindutva. There has been no anti-evolution activity in India, however, it seems Ken Ham wants to change that.
India is a target of terrorism from several militant groups. The primary ones are Kashmiri Separatists, Islamist fundamentalists, Naxals (Maoist), and a few other separatist movements mainly in the far north-eastern states. Christian separatists in Nagaland reached a tentative peace in 2015 after decades of insurgency. Allegedly, some groups of Islamist terrorists are trained and funded by India's rival, Pakistan. There was also a Sikh insurgency that has been largely crushed.
India accounts for the fourth highest number of deaths due to terrorist activities.
Crimes against women
It is not unusual for women to hold high office and positions of influence and the height of the glass ceiling is roughly comparable to that in Western countries. However, the patriarchy still remains dominant, and gender-specific crimes against women are shockingly prevalent.
One report ranks India the "fourth most dangerous country for women."
"If you love something set it free. If it comes back it's yours. If it doesn't,
it never was mutilate it beyond recognition" appears to be the philosophy of many lovestruck Indian men. Acid attacks are almost solely revenge attacks against women who spurn the advances or proposals of the attacker (or who seek a divorce). The extent of permanent disfigurement is equivalent to that of 3rd degree burns and often results in blindness and a life behind closed doors. Like most other crimes listed here, acid attacks were on the rise in the 2008, but have been dropping since 2016.
Sexual harassment and rape
Eve Teasing is a blanket term commonly used to describe all manner of sexual harassment ranging from catcalls to violent sexual assault. Even the media uses the term and, needless to say, it trivializes the gravity of crimes being reported.
Dowry is the practice of paying gifts or money to a guy's family in exchange for him agreeing to shack up with your daughter. Weird, isn't it? Despite being outlawed for 50 years, the practice is still widespread. If payment from the bride's family is not forthcoming, the groom's family (or the groom himself) may seek violent redress, often resulting in death. "Kitchen fires" happen with alarming frequency in households where a dowry dispute is occurring.
Thousands of women die in India each year as a consequence of dowry abuse.
Unsurprisingly, it happens a lot.
So you've decided to reincarnate as a female in India anyway
Of course, the trials and tribulations of being a woman in India can be easily avoided if you get aborted first. We are not referring to pro-choice abortion here; the mother rarely has a say in the matter. Systemic termination of female foetuses and newborns has a long history in India and it continues today, despite the government declaring it illegal. There are two principal reasons for this. Males are traditionally the breadwinners and prospective parents have a better chance of being financially provided for in their dotage. The second reason is dowry. Receiving a dowry is more attractive than paying one.
If you survive birth or infanticide, you stand a 27% chance of being married off while still a minor. The practice has been outlawed since 1929, but hey, Rome wasn't built in a day. Notably, the 1929 law fixed girl's marriage age at 14 but it was amended in 1940 to 18. The age of consent is 18 for unmarried girls but 16 for married girls making forced marriage easier.
Becoming a child-bride isn't the worst that could happen. Child trafficking for forced labour, prostitution or domestic servitude (a.k.a. rape) is a thriving industry that victimizes India's poor and marginalized communities.
Gay rights are not recognized in India. Homosexuality used to be legally classified as "carnal intercourse against the order of nature", punishable by imprisonment from 10 years to life. Some journalists have argued that the Victorian-era values imposed by the British colonialists have been an influence on this homophobia and the anti-gay laws. Leaders of the Indian National Congress, Aam Aadmi Party, the Communist Party of India (Marxist), and even the right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party have voiced support for the legalization of homosexuality. In 1996 a film named Fire caused a lot of controversy in India due to its positive portrayal of lesbianism. In 2009, a court order was passed removing the bans on gay sex imposed by the British, however, on 11 December 2013 the Indian Supreme Court overturned the 2009 court order and re-criminalized gay sex saying it was an issue to be dealt with in Parliament.  However in 2017, new judges in the Indian Supreme Court determined there was a right to privacy in the constitution and in 2018 they have said gay sex is not wrong and have reversed the verdict on the section saying it would be decided in a few months. On 6 September 2018, the bans were ruled unconstitutional.
Sex in India
In addition to homophobia, there are many other sexual taboos within Indian society, some of which have been criminalized; this, ironically, from the people that gave us the Kama Sutra. The sale of sex toys is banned, and publishing hardcore pornography is a crime.
On September 2018, India legalized homosexuality.
India has a mixed record on human rights: since independence there have been periods when they have been under grave threat. This includes the Emergency of 1975-77 when human rights and the rule of law have been suspended and India ruled by decree; at the same time a mass sterilization campaign saw many men sterilized against their will. Narendra Modi's government seems to threaten a similar era of rights abuse. India's minorities, including non-Hindu religious groups such as Muslims and Sikhs, as well as lower-caste Hindus, have seen changes in their status as different governments have alternately tried to provide help and victimised or scapegoated them.
Sikhs, who are largely concentrated in the province of Kashmir which is disputed with Pakistan, have long faced oppression. Two important dates were in 1984 when the Indian army stormed the most sacred Sikh religious site, the Golden Temple in Amritsar, resulting in the deaths of around 500 Sikh militants and civilians, and in 2019 when Modi revoked Kashmir's autonomy and imposed severe new restrictions on its citizens.
India also has a mixed record in how it treats its Muslim minority. This includes the 2002 Gujarat riots, in which 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, as well as widespread rape and looting and destruction of homes; Narendra Modi was Chief Minister of Gujarat at the time and is accused of allowing the murder or hundreds of Muslims. In 2018 the US State Department condemned India's treatment of Muslims in its annual report on religions freedom, condemning mob violence and possible collusion by the police.
There is a long history of violence towards dalits and other low-caste people.
Woo in India
Established religious beliefs aside, much woo is accepted and practiced in India. In poor, rural regions, you may still find people who are subject to attacks based on accusations of witchcraft. Medical pseudoscience is widely accepted. Standing up to scientific scrutiny simply doesn't enter the picture. A relatively more recent "medical practice", Homeopathy, has gained widespread popularity. India has at least one large hospital devoted to the practice of unani, a type of heroic medicine. The health and well-being of millions of Indians is compromised daily because of the pervasiveness of many such superstitions.
A peculiar aspect about Indian politics is that many politician pay homage to religious leaders in their ashrams, not just to traditional Hindu or Muslim leaders but even to transparent charlatans like the late charismatic Sathya Sai Baba, whose organizations were involved in a lot of charity.
Some Indian gurus formed with their ashrams a state within a state, but there seems to be some change to it lately after fraudulent "gurus" such as Asaram Bapu and Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh were arrested for sexual assault. (Ram Rahim Singh has been convicted in a murder case and two rape cases as of 2019).
Rice pullers and other bizarre scams abound to fleece the unwary.
Finally, some good news for a change here. The birth rate in India is falling rapidly, currently at 2.3. While India is still relatively young and thus will continue to grow quite a bit in the near future, it's quickly leveling off.
- Dhirubhai Ambani
- Bal Thackeray
- Michael Cremo
- B. R. Ambedkar
- See the Wikipedia article on Periyar E. V. Ramasamy.
- See the Wikipedia article on Sahodaran Ayyappan.
- Insurgent groups operating in India against the Indian government
- Prevention of Terrorism Act, a controversial act which was criticized by human rights activists for human rights violations
- A disputed territory which is the source of military conflicts between India and Pakistan
- Kazim, Hasnain, "The Führer Cult: Germans Cringe at Hitler's Popularity in Pakistan", Spiegel.
- Of course, the Americans among us can't exactly criticize them for that.
- The Times of India: Indian economy, mkt lose trillion-dollar status July 2, 2008
- The Wall Street Journal: India Defies Turmoil With Growth of 8.8% May 31, 2008
- India inching closer to China, will be an eco powerhouse by 2030: US report December 11, 2012
- World Bank Report 2018, Chapter 1, page 26
- Triennial Central Bank Survey, Foreign exchange turnover in April 2013: preliminary global results (PDF)
- Kevin Bales, et al. "India". The Minderoo Foundation Pty Ltd. https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/india/. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- An unsavoury fact: India tops global slavery index. May 31, 2016 http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/an-unsavoury-fact-india-tops-global-slavery-index/article8671904.ece
- GlobalSecurity.org: Indian Navy
- GlobalSecurity.org: Indian Air Force
- Bharat Rakshak
- rediff.com: Are you cut out for a career in the Armed Forces? April 17, 2008
- Arab News: Two Saudi warships to visit India July 27, 2008
- MISSLETHREAT.com: The Threat from India
- Kens Ham's blog
- "Naga movement: A brief history and peace accord with the Indian government", Zee News, 4 Aug 2015
- The World's Five Most Dangerous Countries for Women. Archived from the original at trust.org.
- India's acid victims demand justice. BBC, 9 April 2008.
- Crime in India - 2016. National Crimes Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs (India).
- Crime in India - 2017. National Crimes Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs (India).
- Dowry Prohibition Act
- Table 11, Child Protection, UNICEF
- See the Wikipedia article on Child Marriage Restraint Act.
- Govt Stands By 1949 Law Allowing Men Sex With 15-Yr-Old Wives
- Child Trafficking and You.
- The Guardian: India's literary elite call for anti-gay law to be scrapped September 17, 2006
- Lesbilicious: India debates legality of homosexuality October 15, 2008
- Bloomberg: Gandhi Slams India Court on Gay Rights in Shift for Ruling Party December 12, 2013
- India TV: No ban on gay sex, says AAP December 13, 2013
- People's Democracy: AIDWA Welcomes SC Directive February 10, 2002
- SC must review Sec 377 ruling, allow gay relationships: Jaitley, Chidambaram November 29, 2015
- newser: India Legalizes Gay Sex July 2, 2009
- See the Wikipedia article on Fire (1996 film).
- The Hindu: Supreme Court sets aside Delhi HC verdict decriminalising gay sex December 12, 2013
- India court legalises gay sex in landmark ruling, BBC News
- See the Wikipedia article on The Emergency (India).
- In 1976, more than 6 million men in India were coerced into sterilization, Mel Magazine
- A new India is emerging, and it is a country ruled by fear, Amit Chaudhuri, The Guardian, 8 Oct 2019
- See the Wikipedia article on Operation Blue Star.
- 'Kashmiris will erupt': fear grips region as Indian crackdown bites, The Guardian, 9 Aug 2019
- Narendra Modi 'allowed' Gujarat 2002 anti-Muslim riots, BBC News, 22 Apr 2011
- India's treatment of Muslims condemned by US government report, Independent, 23 Jun 2019
- See the Wikipedia article on Caste-related violence in India.
- India fertility rate halves over 40 years