RationalWiki's 2019 Fundraiser

There is no RationalWiki without you. We are a small non-profit with no staff – we are hundreds of volunteers who document pseudoscience and crankery around the world every day. We will never allow ads because we must remain independent. We cannot rely on big donors with corresponding big agendas. We are not the largest website around, but we believe we play an important role in defending truth and objectivity.

If everyone who saw this today donated $5, we would meet our goal for 2019.

Fighting pseudoscience isn't free.
We are 100% user-supported! Help and donate $5, $20 or whatever you can today with PayPal Logo.png!

Donations so far: $6000Goal: $6000
Cover story article

Fake news

From RationalWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
The term "fake news" appeared as far back as 1894 during the era of yellow journalism.[note 1]
You gotta spin it to win it
Media
Icon media.svg
Stop the presses!
We want pictures
of Spider-Man!
Extra! Extra!
In which the esteemed "RealTrueNews" prove that Longroom.com was DESTROYED by the Clinton Foundation — in just one .jpg.[1]
I think one of the greatest of all terms I’ve come up with is 'fake'.
Donald Trump explaining his whole presidency[2]
I do feel you should have as many news outlets as you can — especially since so many are fake.
—Trump, confusing real news he doesn't like with fake news[3]

Fake news consists of "news" that is blatantly false or otherwise distorted in the hopes of getting more clicks by feeding people the headlines they didn't know they wanted, in the hopes knowledge that shamelessly pandering to an agenda often proves sufficient to suspend the readers' disbelief. Depressing amounts of clicks can be garnered from fake news, simply by virtue of it posing as 'clear-cut examples' which — if true — would lend overwhelming apparent support to one side of the relevant multi-faceted, emotionally charged and complex issue. While fake news is a threat to common decency, one must admit that it is more entertaining than most normal news.

It is important to distinguish between fake news on the one hand, and mere biased reporting on the other.[note 2] Fake news denotes outright fabrication, while slanted reporting at least covers events which were not made up from whole cloth. Fake news should also be distinguished from yellow journalism, which may contains some truth, but is primarily intended to attract attention rather than to inform or to influence public opinion. Fake news outlets aren't just the equivalent of some leaflet guy ranting on a street corner. These are blogs, podcasts and shows which reach people in the millions — notably the young and poorly educated, unknowingly passing along the 'news' via social media — raking in tons of cash in illegitimately generated advertising revenue as a result.

This article documents fake news, clickbait news, distorted news, and satirical news.

Impact[edit]

Fake news has become an increasingly dangerous influence which helps to sustain out-of-touch echo chambers on the Internet — and while that 'news' isn't real, the emotions that are stirred up are. Things move fast with debunkings consistently 'behind the curve' — and by the time people figure out that some news piece was actually fake news, everyone has already moved on (though, not before internalizing 'that thing they read' as wholly confirmatory of their fears and frustrations).

And to make matters worse, in the current 'post-fact' era, the term "fake news" has devolved into a snarl word denoting "real news which conflict with my personal beliefs". A champion of misapplying the term, Donald Trump is fond of labeling any and all news outlets which report on his actual behavior as "fake news".[4][note 3] CNN is a common target, and it's common to hear the oft-repeated meme that CNN is fake news, even if it's simply reporting on events.[6] Additionally, in February 2017, Donald Trump said "all negative polls are fake news",[7] with his supporters not very far behind. This nonchalant watering down of the term is highly irresponsible — further misleading the already misled into dismissing the very phenomenon of "fake news" as being, in itself, fake news. Trump's misleading use of the term has led to (other) authoritarian regimes to also use the term for news that they don't like, including Nicolás Maduro of Venezuela, Bashar al-Assad of Syria, the Myanmar government, Chinese state media, and the Russian foreign ministry.[8] In Egypt under the Abdel Fattah el-Sisi regime, activist Amal Fathy posted a video on Facebook where she described being sexually harassed at a bank; she also criticized sexual harassment in general on the video.[9] Because of this the Egyptian government gave her a 2-year jail sentence and a $560 fine based on the criminal charge of "spreading false news".[9]

Fake news and phishing[edit]

PhishingWikipedia's W.svg has utilised fake news with malware delivery for many years. A link to "Obama SHOCKS WORLD with conversion to Islam" or "Donald Trump Dead From a Fatal HEART ATTACK!" is far more likely to be clicked by a victim than a bare link to http://lolmalware.hackedsite.ru/victim.php?email=youremail@example.com.[10]

In the good old days[edit]

Wiadomości Brukowe: the gold standard of pavement news
You may fool all the people some of the time; you can even fool some of the people all the time; but you can’t fool all of the people all the time.
Abraham Lincoln… or maybe not[11][12]

In the world of journalism, fake news is surprisingly older than real news, as something resembling modern journalistic standardsWikipedia's W.svg (truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness and public accountability) did not begin until the early 20th century. Prior to that, the main concerns of journalists were selling papers and avoiding libel lawsuits. The late 19th century saw the rise of "yellow journalism" which was marked by sensationalistic headlines, fake interviews and pseudoscience.[13] Remember The Maine?Wikipedia's W.svg In a sense, fake news can be traced back to various contestations over what was or was not historical fact, e.g., Plutarch's criticism of Herodotus' The Histories, as well as attempts at censoring the propagation of heterodox religious views within theocratic states.[14]

The earliest newspapers in anything approaching the modern sense arose during the European wars of religion (1524 to 1648 CE)[15][16] and tended to be highly propagandistic.[15] Savvy rulers soon took to censoring them to keep the people from being riled up too much. Even savvier rulers read the accounts of both or all sides to be able to better tell fact from fiction.

During the 17th century, several American colonies adopted laws that attempted to suppress "false news".[14] In 1798, John Adams and his Federalist Party passed the Alien and Sedition Acts,Wikipedia's W.svg which criminalized false statements that were critical of the government.[14] The Acts resulted in the arrest of Benjamin Franklin Bache,Wikipedia's W.svg the editor of the Philadelphia Aurora,Wikipedia's W.svg a Democratic-Republican newspaper.[17]

Fake news, at least of the satirical variety, has an honorable history. The first satirical publication was the Polish Wiadomości Brukowe[note 4] (1816-1822), which was shut down by the Russian Empire. The best-known English language satire publication was the British Punch (1841-1992). The longest continually publishing satire publications are the Harvard Lampoon (1876-) and the lesser-known The Yale Record (1872-).[18]

The old guard of fake news consists of tabloid journalism. In the UK this is mainly Daily Mail, The Sun, and The Express. In the US national level, this is mainly National Enquirer, Weekly World News (defunct), and Globe.Wikipedia's W.svg Of course, the world's most circulated newspapers are almost invariably tabloids or "boulevard" newspapers, the word "boulevard" being a reference to their method of distribution; unlike major "serious" newspapers that mostly rely upon subscribers, a classical "boulevard" paper would be sold mostly or exclusively via small newspaper and tobacco stalls, and as such, had to attract readers passing along the boulevard with big pictures, screaming headlines, crime, violence, and nude flesh.

(Programs which make satire out of news like The Daily Show also call themselves "fake news", but don't enter this article, since they talk about actual events. Thus they also differ from satirical news such as The Onion, which are fake events for the most part but just for laughs.)

An inevitable consequence of discussing fake news with people that one might call the Wild Wild West alternative news source aficionados is the claim that "The mainstream media is the real fake news"[19] or something similar.[20] This seems understandable at first, given how sensationalist, poorly analyzed, and balance-fallacy prone many major media institutions are (especially television). The problem is that this tends to result in people turning their due cynicism of damaged institutions into paranoia, and obsessive rejection of all but the most extreme and even egregiously incorrect "alternative" sources.

Reality bites the dust[edit]

Bizarro-Trump-Fake-news.png
Any negative polls are fake news.
—Donald Trump turning "fake news" into a snarl word[4]

As the Internet has grown, cash-grabbing fake-news sites have popped up freely. The years 2015 and 2016 saw an unprecedented wave of egregiously false bullshit channeled through Facebook, Twitter, and good old-fashioned FWD:fwd:RE::emails ("remails"). The phenomenon has become so bad that Snopes, whose sole job is disproving this type of bullshit, admitted they could no longer cover it all. Their reason? "The bilge keeps coming faster than you can pump."[21]

Unsurprisingly, flooding the Internet with alternative facts has adverse consequences:

  • Oxford Dictionaries in 2016 named "post-truth" as their international word of the year.[22]
  • According to the author of ABCNews.com.co, "I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me. His followers don't fact check anything."[23]
  • One communications professor named Melissa Zimdars got so tired of seeing bullshit news that she compiled a list of "False, misleading, clickbaity, and satirical 'news' sources"; however, after receiving threats against her, she removed it.[24][25][26]
  • There are innumerable examples of people believing this shit.[27][28][29]

A powerful component of the spread of fake news has been "alternative news" sources, who exploit many peoples' due cynicism about major media outlets that often sensationalize, fail to adequately fact check, or oversimplify news. This exploitation takes the form of reframing those failures as complete uselessness, allowing them to insinuate their own sites as the sole source of truth, regardless of their own rather unconcerned attitude towards objectivity and fact.[30]

After pushback against fake news, The Atlantic notes that many fake news outlets have taken to cynically calling professional media outlets "fake news" in order to make the term even more meaningless.[31] This is on top of how the Trump White House has found a way to perpetuate the narrative of labeling real news they don't like as fake news, according to a report by Business Insider:[32][33][34]

  1. Wait for a draft memo of a proposal to be leaked to the press.
  2. Refuse to comment when asked about the draft.
  3. Wait to dispute a story's accuracy until the story is published.
  4. Accuse the press of never having sought comment to begin with.

Voilà, the press is now reporting the fake news that the White House provided it.

Mapping the partisan brain[edit]

We've tried to do similar things to liberals. It just has never worked, it never takes off. You'll get debunked within the first two comments and then the whole thing just kind of fizzles out.
—Jestin Coler, publisher of fake news sites[35]

There's some evidence that conservatives are more susceptible to fake news than liberals.[36] Psychologist John Jost found that several personality traits were correlated with conservatism, the most relevant of which to fake news was "need for cognition"[37] (enjoyment in critical thinking and deliberation): critical thinking was negatively correlated with conservatism in a review of 40 studies.[36] In reference to his small study on bullshit,[38] Stefan Pfattheicher, a psychologist at Ulm University, stated that conservatives "are less reflective in information processing, especially when information is consistent with [their] own worldviews."[36] Pfattheicher and Jost said that the differences were not about intelligence, and Pfattheicher further went on to say, "This seems to be more a matter of motivation to process information (or news) in a critical, reflective thinking style than the ability to do so."[36]

All that said, this research is not definitive, and some researchers (e.g. Daniel Kahan) have not found any conservative/liberal difference.[36][39] Moreover, it should be clear that this is a Hanlon's razor issue; even if conservatives are more susceptible to fake news, it would not be because they are malicious fake news mongers but instead victims of their own lack of skepticism.

How to identify fake news[edit]

"How To Spot Fake News" by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
Apparently, an economy ruled by online advertising has produced its own theory of truth: truth is whatever produces most eyeballs.
—Evgeny Morozov[40]
  • Content:
  • Lack of corroboration: A real piece of news will be corroborated by multiple sources that don't just copy headlines from one another.[note 5]
  • Bias: If the editorial position of a site leans a certain way, they may be more inclined to create (or at the very least re-share) fabrications that support that leaning. Be especially wary of sources that support your own biases; you'll be less able to identify the bullshit. A quality news story will contain independent views, not just reporting from one side of the story.
  • Comments: If the site allows comments, there may be helpful comments in the article that point out the article's spin or accuracy. Of course, there are unhelpful comments or comments that knee-jerk agree or disagree with the article, but pay attention how they're written, especially if they're consistent with the fake news' aims of generating outrage.
  • Presentation:
  • Overhyped consequences: Real news sites will (mostly) not wrap their stories in claims about the IMPENDING GLOBAL DISASTER or the COMPLETE DESTRUCTION of a political figure. In general, the shoutier the story, the less you should believe it.
  • Appeals to emotion: The more emotionally charged a story is, the more likely it is to generate clicks. Nothing drives traffic like angry people resharing the latest "outrage" related to children. If an article makes you angry, double-triple-check it and also ask yourself about the article's intentions such as playing into your emotions and biases. People have an incentive to lie in order to make you angry or afraid.
  •  "Truth": Watch out for sites that liberally use "truth" to describe their content. There is none to be found. For example, the two main newspapers of the Soviet Union were Pravda (Правда, lit. "Truth") and Izvestia (Известия, lit. "News"). People would often joke, "In Pravda there is no news, and in Izvestia there is no truth."[41]
  • Weird URLs: In particular, the (fake) domain .com.co is often abused by sites that try to pass themselves as legitimate news sources.[note 6]
  • ALL CAPS: What more needs be said?

A 2017 analysis by researchers at Indiana University found that a small number of bots are responsible for the spread of much fake news on social media.[43]

Outright made up or completely unsubstantiated[edit]

Your parents in 1996: Don't trust ANYONE on the Internet.

Your parents in 2016: Freedom Eagle dot Facebook says Hillary invented AIDS.
—Daniel Kibblesmith[44]

These sites make up the vast majority of the clog in people's news feeds. Sometimes they publish truth; sometimes they publish discreditable nonsense. Everything they publish, however, supports their worldview and doesn't acknowledge any valid opposing viewpoints. It should be noted that many former fake news sites are offline as of January 2018. If you still want to go have a good laugh at them, we recommend looking them up on Archive.org or archive.is.

They fall into two categories:

  • Earnest biased/fake news: These sites earnestly strive to present fact-devoid rants about utter nonsense in order to push a specific class of bullshit, usually pseudoscience, conspiracy theories, religious ideology, or a political ideology. (The people behind these websites may earnestly believe what they preach. That fact doesn't prevent these websites from lacking facts altogether.) Scopie's Law applies.
  • Opportunistic biased/fake news: These sites earnestly strive to get clicks, just clicks. If they push an agenda, they don't do it intentionally; these sites are utterly unconcerned with the truth. (Clicks and ad revenue aren't ideological; neither are these sites.) Opportunistic sites like these often invent plausible but utterly untrue (i.e. clickbait) headlines (e.g. "I was paid $3,500 to protest against Donald Trump"[45]) in order to maximize sharing on social media (and therefore clicks). Oh, and did we mention that they're just click-hungry advertisers?

Jestin Coler[edit]

Jestin Coler at SXSW 2017

Jestin Coler (1976–) was the owner of several fake news sites under the umbrella company Disinfomedia, Inc. using his pseudonym Allen Montgomery.[46][47][35] The sites included NationalReport.net, USAToday.com.co, WashingtonPost.com.co[note 7] and briefly the Denver Guardian.Wikipedia's W.svg[46][35] DisInfoMedia's focus was initially on trolling the alt-right, with the aim of luring the alt-right into republishing the fake stories and thereby discrediting them.[46] As advertising revenue increased, the focus began to shift into pushing the envelope.[46] After Facebook changed its algorithm to slow traffic from fake news sites, Coler decided to switch the focus to satire.[46] Eventually, Coler closed all of his fake news sites after concluding that despite the money he was not proud of what he had done and did not appreciate the stress.[46] Coler's conclusions from the experience are:[46]

  • Money is the primary motivation for fake news sites.
  • Both ends of the political spectrum are susceptible to fake news.
  • "The idea of limiting speech is far more dangerous to democracy than fake news."

Paul Horner[edit]

In November 2016, Paul HornerWikipedia's W.svg (1978–2017) revealed himself to be the writer behind abcnews.com.co and other unnamed fake news sites.[49] CNN.com.de was likely one of the other news sites, since Horner admitted writing at least some of the stories there and the both ABCNews.com.co and CNN.com.de shared stories written by the pseudonymous Jimmy Rustling. Horner partly-blamed himself for the election of Donald Trump[50] In an interview, Horner indicated that he did not understand the difference between satire ("humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices") and outright fake news that is designed to deceive.[49]

ABCNews.com.co[edit]

Fake logo.
Real logo.
Site:
  • abcnews.com.co
Specialties:[51][52][53]
Site is offline as of January 2018
Why it's fake:
Their address was given as the same address as the Westboro Baptist Church.[55]
  • Headline: "Donald Trump Protester Speaks Out: 'I Was Paid $3,500 To Protest Trump’s Rally' "[45] (authored by "Jimmy Rustling"[note 8]; debunked by PolitiFact[56]). This was one of the stories copped to by Horner, "And that's just insane. I've gone to Trump protests — trust me, no one needs to get paid to protest Trump. I just wanted to make fun of that insane belief, but it took off. They actually believed it."[49]
  • Headline: "Obama Signs Executive Order Declaring Investigation Into Election Results; Revote Planned For Dec. 19th"[57] (authored by Jimmy Rustling; debunked by Snopes[58])
  • Headline: "The Amish In America Commit Their Vote To Donald Trump; Mathematically Guaranteeing Him A Presidential Victory"[59] (authored by Jimmy Rustling; debunked by Snopes[60]) (one of the stories copped to by Horner[50])
  • Headline: "Fireman Suspended & Jailed By Atheist Mayor For Praying At Scene Of Fire"[61] debunked by Snopes[62]) (one of the stories copped to by Horner[49])
  • Headline: "President Obama Signs Executive Order Banning The Sale Of Assault Weapons"[63] (authored by Jimmy Rustling; debunked by Snopes[64])
  • Headline: "Gay Wedding Mobile Vans Cashing In On The Legalization Of Gay Marriage"[65] (authored by Jimmy Rustling, and one of the stories copped to by Horner[50])
  • Headline: "BREAKING: Capitol Hill Shooter Identified as Right Wing Extremist"[66] (one of the stories copped to by Horner[49])
  • Jimmy Rustling's bio:[67]

Born at an early age, Jimmy Rustling has found solace and comfort knowing that his humble actions have made this multiverse a better place for every man, woman and child ever known to exist. Dr. Jimmy Rustling has won many awards for excellence in writing including fourteen Peabody awards and a handful of Pulitzer Prizes. When Jimmies are not being Rustled the kind Dr. enjoys being an amazing husband to his beautiful, soulmate; Anastasia, a Russian mail order bride of almost 2 months. Dr. Rustling also spends 12-15 hours each day teaching their adopted 8-year-old Syrian refugee daughter how to read and write.

American News[edit]

ALL PRAISE REAGAN
CLINTON KISSING KKK — VERY REAL PHOTO — CLINTON CAMPAIGN IS DEAD[68](not really[69])
Site:
  • americannews.com
Specialties:[70][71]
  • Ridiculously exaggerated pro-conservative news
  • Race-baiting for clicks
  • Possibly attempts to make conservatives look stupid by sharing fake news
  • Likely satire[72]
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Video Leaks Exposing Hillary’s Ties To The KKK… Her Campaign Is Finished"[68]
  • Headline: "Obama Demanded This Admiral Not Give Out Bibles, But His Response Is Going VIRAL"[73] (debunked by Snopes[74])
  • Headline: "Obama Takes Down American Flag For Press Conference"[75] (debunked by Snopes[76])
  • Headline: "BREAKING: Obama Admits to Forging Birth Certificate After This Old Photo Leaks to the Public"[77] (debunked by Snopes[78])
  • Headline: "Muslims Demand Army Change Its Dress Code To Include Turbans And Beards"[79] (debunked by Snopes[80])
  • Post title: "Plan Launches To Make Obama Addition To Mount Rushmore"[81] (debunked by Snopes[82])
  • Post title: "Veteran Was Kicked Out Of His Daughter’s School Because His Uniform Was 'Offensive' "[83] (debunked by Snopes[84])
  • Headline: "Top Marine General Now Risking His Career To Take Down Obama"[85] (not really)[86])
  • Headline: "Resolution Passed in this County Forcing Citizens To Pay Slavery Reparations" (debunked by Snopes[87])
  • Post title: "Obama pushes reparations for slavery on all non-black Americans."[88] (debunked by Snopes[89])
  • Headline: "ATTENTION Sadie Robertson In Major Car Accident, Please Pray For Her And Her Family"[90] (debunked by Snopes[91])
  • Headline: "RACISM: Black Panther Promises To Kill All White Babies"[92]
  • Headline: "Bill O'Reilly Saves The Entire Election… Proves The Liberal Media Machine Has Been Lying This Entire Time"[93]
  • Headline: "Black Man Murders White Family And Burns Their Home… Where's Al Sharpton Now?"[94]
  • Headline: "Just When You Thought You've Heard The Worst The ISIS Is Doing, This Information Leaked"[95]
  • Headline: "Thug Refuses To Pull Up His Pants, So Cops Immediately Teach Him A Swift Lesson"[96]

CNN.com.de[edit]

Fake logo.
Real logo.
Not to be confused with the real CNN which once saw better days. (Also, discount whatever Trump said about the real CNN.)
Site:
  • cnn.com.de
Specialities:[97][98]
Site is offline as of January 2018
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Twitter Deletes Donald Trump’s Twitter Account: 'We Will Not Tolerate Racism & Hate' "[101][note 9]
  • Headline: "Donald Trump Says The Earth Is Flat"[102] (debunked by Snopes[103])
  • Headline: "Donald Trump Signs Executive Order Which Cancels Saturday Night Live"[104]
  • Headline: "Trump To Build World's Largest Stadium Around Section Of Wall For 'Mexican Gladiator Battles': 'If They Make It Over My Wall, They Can Stay' "[105]
  • Headline: "Obama Signs Executive Order Banning The National Anthem At All Sporting Events Nationwide"[106] (one of the stories copped to by Horner[50])
  • Headline: "Donald Trump Signs Executive Order Banning The Pledge Of Allegiance In Schools Nationwide: 'Needs More God' "[107]
  • Content: "Fappy The Anti-Masturbation Dolphin, a mascot for a Christian organization that travels around the country educating children about the dangers and consequences of masturbation, told CNN he believes what Trump is doing is the right thing."[108] (debunked by Snopes[109])

NaturalNews[edit]

"Truth news bureau" sounds strangely Orwellian.
See the main article on this topic: NaturalNews
Site:
  • naturalnews.com
Specialty:[70][110][111][note 10]
  • Anti-"mainstream" medicine clickbait
Why it's fake/distorted:

GlobalResearch[edit]

See the main article on this topic: GlobalResearch
Globally researching, globally wrong.
Sites:
  • globalresearch.ca
  • globalresearch.org
Specialties:[70][123]
  • Anti-"globalist", anti-war (to the point that they find globalist pro-war shills in every nook and cranny)
  • Anti-mainstream media
  • Genocide denial and conspiracy theories about NATO, ICJ, ICTY, Balkan Wars and Bosnian and Kosovo Muslims.
Why it's fake/distorted:

InfoWars and PrisonPlanet[edit]

There's a war on... and it mostly involves shitty clickbait fake news.
PrisonPlanet consists of the purest, locally-grown truth-free bullshit.
POLL: EUROPEANS TURNING AGAINST EU
See the main article on this topic: Alex Jones
Sites:
  • infowars.com
  • prisonplanet.com
Specialties:[139][140][70]
  • Fake or distorted news/clickbait from an anti-government, anti-"globalist", and generally pro-conspiracist stance
  • ALL CAPS HEADLINES (lowercased below for legibility)
Why it's fake/distorted:
  • Headline: "Why Feds Are Banning Fireplaces And Wood Stoves: Feds attempting to regulate human activity out of existence"[141]
  • Headline: "Video: ‘Black Lives Matter’ Rioters Target Whites For Beat Downs"[142] (debunked by Snopes[143])
  • Headline: "Alex Jones Harassed & Threatened With a Gun For Supporting Trump"[144] — And not because of the fact that he's Alex Jones? Find that hard to believe.
  • Headline: "Proof: Wholesome Americana Thrives Despite Increasingly Vicious Left: Smalltown America is alive and well"[145] — Yes, those down to Earth, sane infowarriors that enjoy "honorable traditions" such as harassing homosexuals and transgenders. Damn those sick leftists, they're ruining America.
  • Headline: "Soros & Hillary Launch Purple Revolution Against Trump: Globalists try to usurp power from the people"[146]
  • Headline: "Dems Declare War On Free Press: Big Government Libs Trying To Control Access To Information"[147] Because big-government Cons never try to hide things from the public.
  • Headline: "Shock Video: Police Force 80-Year-Old Italian Hotel Owner To House African Migrants: Government Confiscates Private Property To Accommodate 'Refugees' "[148]
  • Headline: "Clintons Begging Trump to Stop Investigation of Hillary Through Chelsea: Trump Must Drain the Clinton Crime Family with the Rest of The Swamp"[149]
  • Headline: "Clinton Campaign Admits Making False Claims Against Trump Print: Campaign intentionally conspires to deceive public"[150]
  • Tweet: "New York Times warns Hillary campaign in advance of stories they are about to publish."[151] (debunked by Snopes[152])
  • Headline: "Drunk Driver Blames Crash on Trump"[153]
  • Headline: "Breaking: Internal Coup In Clinton Camp Will Ruin Her"[154]
  • Headline: "Expert: Chemtrails Could Wipe Out Humanity"[155]
  • Headline: "Obama Pushes 'Fake News' Talking Point; It's a 'Threat To Democracy' "[156] (Or: "Uh oh! Obama is on to us!")
  • Headline: "Alex Jones: The Media is a Joke, We Have Won: Masters of Fake News Attempt to Smear Real Independent Journalism"[157] ("…With Our Help!")
  • Headline: "The Mainstream Media's 'Fake News' Narrative Is Already Beginning To Collapse"[158]
  • Headline: "Dems Pushing Pardons For Hillary & Illegals"[159]
  • Headline: "DISGRACEFUL. Michael Shannon To Trump Supporters: It's Time To Die"[160]
  • Headline: "Fake News Alert: Bloomberg Editor Creates Libelous Trump Tweet Out of Thin Air!" — Oh, the irony![161]

Mirror Spectrum[edit]

Apparently, the mirror image of "factual news" is "clickbait bullshit".
Site:
  • mirrorspectrum.com
Specialties:
  • Literally unbelievable bullshit
  • Conspiracy theories
  • Might be satire — features no "about" page
Site is a parked domain as of January 2018
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Most Terrifying alien abduction stories"[162]
  • Headline: "Lady Gaga: Prince Charles 'is not human' "[163]
  • Headline: "Will Large Hadron Collider destroy Earth? CERN admits experiments could create black holes"[164]
  • Headline: "Indian Government: Secret US weapons 'real cause of global warming' "[165]
  • Headline: "Most terrifying experiences of glitches in matrix reported by people"[166]
  • Headline: "OMG! They’re Going to 9/11 us Again!"[167]
  • Headline: "Alien megastructure may have been found 1500 light years away from earth!"[168]
  • Headline: "Former FBI Chief exposes 'Illuminati, satanism, pedophile rings' "[169]
  • Headline: "Rothschilds caught orchestrating US Election outcome"[170]
  • Headline: "U.S. Government pass bill outlawing independent media"[171]

International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State[edit]

innumerable JPEG artifacts ≠ credibility
See the main article on this topic: International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State
Sites:
  • itccs.org
  • kevinannett.com
  • americannationalmilitia.com
  • republicofkanata.com
Specialties:
  • Conspiracies theories about upper-level members of governmental and religious institutions
  • Attempting to enforce common law through a website
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "International Arrest Warrant issued against Pope Francis I, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, for Crimes against Humanity and Child Trafficking"[172]
  • Document: Totally-legit personally-written arrest warrant for "Pope Francis I"[173]
  • Headline: "The United Church of Canada is Insane, and other Spiritual Reflections by Kevin D. Annett"[174]
  • Headline: "Reverend Kevin Annett is nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize"[175]
  • Document: "PUBLIC NOTICE Thursday, March 7, 2013 CANADA IS DISSOLVED"[176] — to be replaced by the "Republic of Kanata", which he still talks about to this day[177]
  • Kevin Annett discusses how he personally destroyed globalism on 01 August 2011[178]

Laura Knight Jadczyk[edit]

Specifically, people who think a lot about conspiracies and aliens.
See the main article on this topic: Laura Knight Jadczyk
Sites:
  • sott.net
  • cassiopaea.org
  • laura-knight-jadczyk.com
  • laura-knight-jadczyk.blogspot.com (dead link)
  • 911ultimatetruth.com (dead link)
Specialties:
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Albert Einstein, Free Energy and The Strange Deaths of Morris K. Jessup and Stefan Marinov"[179]
  • Headline: "MOSSAD and Moving Companies: Masterminds of Global Terrorism?"[180]
  • Headline: "Mahmoud Ahmad and The Secret Cult of 9-11"[181]
  • Headline: "The Denver Airport Material Image Catalog"[182]
  • Headline: "The attempted Clinton-CIA coup against Donald Trump"[183]
  • Headline: "Wakey Wakey! Deep State USA and the US Presidential Election Farce"[184]
  • Headline: "HAARP, Weather, Roswell Rods, 4th Density Battles & Bleedthrough and 7th Density"[185]
  • Headline: "Death squads, pedophiles and psychopaths: Inside the British establishment"[186]
  • Headline: "Dallas police shootings: Social Engineering and the American Police State"[187]
  • Headline: "Harmony: The neuroscience of singing"[188]

Activist Post[edit]

While you're at it, interrupt your regular standards of journalistic evidence. We've got activism to post, here!
Site:
  • activistpost.com
Specialty:
  • left-wing conspiracy-mongering
Why it's fake:[189]
  • Headline: "200 Evidence-Based Reasons NOT To Vaccinate – FREE Research PDF Download!"[190] (pseudoscientific bullshit; see the main article)
  • Headline: "HUD Wants To Make Living In A Tiny House Or RV Illegal"[191] (Snopes respectfully calls bullshit[192])
  • Headline: "Sheriff’s Dept To Fine People $1K For Bringing In Food And Supplies To Standing Rock"[193] (Snopes disagrees[194])
  • Headline: "Obama Calls Alternative Media 'Domestic Propagandists' "[195]
  • Headline: "The Establishment’s Plan To Divide: Donald Trump, Fake News, And Russia"[196] (Just read the first paragraph. If you didn't cringe, there's something wrong.)
  • Headline: "Establishment Media Declares War On Their Competition As 'Fake News' "[197]
  • Headline: "Sacrificing Children To The State Of California: SB18"[198]
  • Headline: "The Truth About Mandatory Vaccines"[199]
  • Headline: "How The Government Is Turning Legal Marijuana Into A Massive Surveillance State"[200]

Epoch Times[edit]

See the main article on this topic: Falun Gong
We are now in the epoch of promoting pseudoscience.

Owned by The Epoch Media Group[201]

Sites:
  • epochtimes.com (Epoch Times newspapers in 21 languages as of 2017)
  • theepochtimes.com (the English-language Epoch Times)
  • epochtimes.de (the German-language Epoch Times)
  • ntdtv.com (New Tang Dynasty TV, in Chinese)
  • dkn.tv (the Vietnamese-language Epoch Times)
Specialties:
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Space Aliens Live Quietly Among Us, Say Some Scientists and Officials"[205]
  • Headline: "Expert in Chinese Petroglyphs Supports Theory Ancient Chinese Made It to America"[206]
  • Headline: "Woman Has Near-Death Experience, Sees 'Hell,' and Comes Back a Better Person"[207]
  • Headline: "Supernormal Abilities Developed Through Meditation: Dr. Dean Radin Discusses"[208]
  • Headline: "5 Best UFO Sightings This Week: March 7-14 (+Photos +Videos)"[209]
  • Headline: "Nervous-System Damage From the Sky: 'Chemtrails' rain aluminum nanoparticles on man, beast, and land."[210]
  • Headline: "3-Year-Old Remembers Past Life as Snake? Gives Verified Details of Encounter With Hunter"[211]

Dishonest representation of real news[edit]

A favorite of political fake news on the marginally more legitimate sites includes completely out-of-context quotes that often say the opposite of what the in context quote says, complete misrepresentations of the intent, or cause of actions by political leaders, suggesting a recent policy or action will result in an extreme version of the policy (often freely intermingled with conspiracy theories), treating a recurring or regular event like a sudden new innovation and a threat to [insert your political affiliation here].

Oxford University researcher Phil Howard has characterized these types of websites as "junk news" when they meet at least 3 of 5 criteria:[212][213]

  1. failing to meet the best practices of professional journalism
  2. using emotionally driven language
  3. relying on false information or conspiracy theories
  4. using highly biased reporting
  5. relying on counterfeit of established news outlets

Breitbart[edit]

Intellectually breit in name only.
See the main article on this topic: Breitbart
Site:
  • breitbart.com
Specialties:[214][215]
  • Far-right (or alt-right) exaggerations of news
  • Racially-tinged news (often bordering on white nationalism)
  • ALL CAPS HEADLINES (lowercased here for legibility)
Why it's exaggerated:
  • Headline: "Hillary Clinton: Wanted to ‘Curl Up’ and ‘Never Leave The House Again’" (read the actual quote, for Christ's sake)[216]
  • Headline: "Obama: Muslims Built 'The Very Fabric of Our Nation' "[217] (debunked by Snopes[218])
  • Headline: "4 Illegal Immigrants Caught on Camera ‘Rolling’ Over Border' "[219]
  • Headline: "Lawmaker Wants to Pull Funding from Colleges That Spend Money on 'Coddling' Students over Trump"[220]
  • Headline: "Take Down the Fascist, Anti-Christian Gay-Pride Flag"[221]
  • Headline: "Arabic Translator: Muslim Migrants Secretly Hate Christians, Seek to Outbreed Them"[222]
  • Headline: "War on Christmas: Saudis Ban International Schools from Observing Non-Islamic Holidays"[223]
  • Headline: "Congressman Slams Discredited Media on House Floor"[224] (oh, the irony)
  • Headline: "Donald Trump Won 7.5 Million Popular Vote Landslide in Heartland"[225] (which is a bullshit[226] metric[227])

RawStory[edit]

Raw, uncooked and therefore unsuitable for public consumption.
See the main article on this topic: RawStory
Site:
  • rawstory.com
Specialties:[228][229]
Why it's exaggerated:
  • Headline: " 'This is our moment': Trump's win emboldens activist behind effort to 'make rape legal' " (while Roosh V is despicable, he has never explicitly linked Trump to rape legalization)[230]
  • Headline: " 'I voted for Trump!': White customer demands special privileges in Starbucks meltdown"[231]
  • Headline: "Baltimore teacher loses her cool and tells 'punk-ass n****r' students they’re 'gonna get shot' "[232]
  • Headline: "Trump fans try to 'punish' Starbucks by writing his name on cups — and the internet is cracking up"[233]
  • Headline: "Van Jones: I love Jeffrey Lord — he's like a 'Fraggle' who believes 'terrible revisionist history' "[234]

The Rebel Media[edit]

Rebelling against the facts, since 2015!
Site:
  • therebel.media
Specialties:[235]
  • Far-right (or alt-right) exaggerations of news
  • Far-right (or alt-right) fake news
  • Providing a home for failed Sun News Network employees
Why it's fake/distorted:
  • Headline: "Backlash over Trump's leaked tape is really an attack on masculinity"[236]
  • Headline: "Note telling offended left-wingers to 'suck it up' over Trump's win being investigated as a hate crime"[237]
  • Headline: " 'It’s like sex!' 10 things I love about going to church"[238]
  • Headline: "Millennials argue: 'Trump has to die!' "[239] (or: "Watch as totally-sober kids outside bars are interviewed about politics")
  • Headline: "WATCH: White CNN guest drops n-word ON AIR while trying to claim Trump, Bannon are racists"[240] (or: "Liberals said a no-no word!")

Politicus USA[edit]

Emphasis on "liberal" and "politics", not on "real".
Site:
  • politicususa.com
Specialty:[241]
Why it's exaggerated:
  • Headline: "Liberal House Democrats Blast Trump For Filling His Cabinet With Misfits And Stooges"[242]
  • Headline: "Shocking New Poll Shows That A Vast Majority Of Trump Voters Live In Another Reality"[243]
  • Headline: "Yes, We're All Pretty Much Horrified That Putin, Not America, Elected Trump"[244]
  • Headline: "Trump Surrogate Calls on FBI's Comey to 'Crackdown' on Peaceful Protests"[245]
  • Headline: "Trump Said CIA Lies But Then Winks as He Makes Putin’s BFF New Fave as SecState"[246]
  • Headline: "No American Is Safe from Trump’s Wrecking Crew Cabinet"[247]
  • Headline: "Trump's Labor Secretary Pick Is Declaration Of War On America's Workers"[248]

The Washington Times[edit]

If you can describe a paper as "owned by the Moonies", it's not gonna be a good paper.
See the main article on this topic: The Washington Times

Not to be confused with the legitimate (and much better) publication, The Washington Post

Sites:
  • washtimes.com
  • washingtontimes.com
Specialties:[249][250]
  • Being owned by the Unification Church
  • Generally poor journalistic standards
  • Sensational (and false) news stories that other news outlets republish uncritically
Why it's distorted:
  • Headline: "Obama's golf weekend with Tiger Woods cost taxpayers more than $3.6 million"[251] (Snopes says "nope"[252])
  • Headline: "Speaker [Nancy Pelosi] pursues military flights"[253] (Pelosi did not, in fact, request a military-grade aircraft[254])
  • Headline: "Clinton calls terror a U.S. debt to past"[255] (no, Bill Clinton did not defend 9/11 by invoking slavery[256])
  • Headline: "EDITORIAL: Taxpayers to pay for tranny grannies"[257] (sigh[258])
  • Headline: "New Hampshire opts to float Gore's boat" (no, Al Gore didn't flood a river so that he could kayak it[249][259])

RT and SputnikNews[edit]

Rubbish Today.
See the main article on this topic: RT
Sites:
  • rt.com
  • sputniknews.com
Specialties:
  • Openly being a state-run nationalistic Russian propaganda outlet.[260][261] Known particularly for trashing the United States on pretty much everything.
  • Being labelled "Russia's main international media weapon" by the European parliament[262]
Why it's distorted:

WND (formally WorldNetDaily)[edit]

Wing Nut Daily
See the main article on this topic: WND
Sites:
  • wnd.com
  • g2bulletin.wnd.com
Specialties:
Why it's distorted:
  • Headline: "Is this a 'demon' racing in front of Obama?"[274] (no, it's a lens flare)
  • Headline: "U.S. on list of Christian-persecuting nations."[275]
  • Headline: " 'Clinton's black son' demands DNA sample"[276]
  • Headline: "Obama hid 'gay life' to become president."[277]
  • Headline: "Soy is making kids 'gay'"[278] (Editorial guidelines of using scare quotes around the word gay is clearly the practice of a reputable news source.)
  • Headline: "Black Mobs Plague Nightclubs Coast to Coast"[279]
  • Headline: "Family picnic turns to horror thanks to black mob."[280] (WND's used the "black mob" trope so frequently that Google banned them from their Ads service and branded WND a hate site.)
  • Headline: "Combat soldiers no match for black mob."[281] (Yes, this was an actual headline from a website that claims to be "…an independent news company dedicated to uncompromising journalism, seeking truth and justice and revitalizing the role of the free press as a guardian of liberty.")[282]

Satirical news[edit]

This category contains open satire: satire that tells you it's satire. These are the least harmful variety of fake news, and can genuinely do some good while providing a few yucks. (Despite this, many people accidentally share stories from these while assuming they're real.[27])

The Onion & Clickhole[edit]

Truly.
File:Clickhole logo.png
Never-ending spiral of clickbait? Exotic alien anus? We report, you decide.
See the main article on this topic: The Onion
Sites:
  • theonion.com
  • clickhole.com
Specialty:[70][283]
  • Humorous absurdism
Why it's fake:
  • Special report: "Nation Fills Up On Bread: Despite repeated warnings from federal officials not to eat too much before their entree arrives, an alarming 89 percent of U.S. citizens filled up on bread Monday, leaving them too full to enjoy the rest of their meal."[284]
  • Headline: "Ambassador Stages Coup At UN, Issues Long List of Non-Binding Resolutions"[285]
  • Blog post by Donald Trump: "When You're Feeling Low, Just Remember I'll Be Dead In About 15 Or 20 Years"[286]
  • Headline: "Trump Vomits Immediately After Seeing Everyday Americans Up Close"[287]
  • Headline: "Breitbart Traffic Down As Readers Now Getting Bulk Of News Analysis From Graffiti Scrawled Across Neighborhood"[288]
  • Headline: "Finding Common Ground: This White Man And This Muslim Woman Both Have 'Trump' Painted On Their Garages"[289]

The Borowitz Report[edit]

In which "reshuffled" means "added copious amounts of bullshit".

The Report is written by Andy Borowitz and published in The New Yorker.[290]

Specialties:[283]
  • Humorous fake political news from a liberal slant
  • ALL CAPS HEADLINES (lowercased here for legibility)
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Cruz Delivers Early Concession Speech For Trump"[291]
  • Headline: "Poll: Unconscious Clinton More Fit To Be President Than Conscious Trump"[292]
  • Headline: "Comey Says F.B.I. Investigating Hillary's Ties To Bill Clinton"[293]
  • Headline: "Pence Recaptured After Fleeing Trump Campaign Bus"[294]
  • Headline: "Trump Confirms That He Just Googled Obamacare"[295]
  • Headline: "In Final Appeal To Voters, Clinton Changes Slogan To 'Won't Blow Up Planet' "[296]
  • Headline: "Study: Average American Can Stand Four Seconds Of Ted Cruz"[297]

The Daily Currant[edit]

Logo looks like it was made in Microsoft Paint? Check. News company name is a reference to food? Check. Credible source? Check.
Site:
  • dailycurrant.com
Specialty:[298]
  • Satirical look at entertainment, politics, and technology.
Why it's fake:

The Shovel[edit]

Ah, perfect for moving bullshit around!
Site:
  • theshovel.com.au
Specialty:[308][309]
  • Humorous fake political news from liberal slant
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Mark Zuckerburg – Dead At 32 – Denies Facebook Has Problem With Fake News"[310]
  • Headline: "Refugee Swap: Australia To Send Manus Island Detainees To US In Return For 50 Million Democrat Voters"[311]
  • Headline: "USA Loses Presidential Election"[312]
  • Headline: "Leaked Emails From Clinton Server Reveal There Are Hundreds Of Singles Available In Her Area"[313]
  • Headline: "Trump Rushed Off Stage After Man Asks Him To Logically Explain Economic Policy"[314]
  • Headline: "New Microsoft App Correctly Guesses What Year You Think It Is"[315]
  • Headline: "Oh Fuck"[316]
  • Literally at the bottom of every page:[317]

THE SHOVEL IS AUSTRALIA'S SATIRE NEWS SITE. By reading this content you agree that Malcolm Turnbull invented the internet.

The Good Lord Above[edit]

"God made the world. Then he flooded it. Then God went to sleep for 2000 years or so. Anyway, eventually God woke up and felt pretty bad for what he'd done in the past."[318]
Sites:
  • thegoodlordabove.com
  • twitter.com/TheGoodGodAbove
Specialty:[319]
Why it's fake:

The American Tribune[edit]

Site:
  • theamericantribune.org
Specialty:[327]
  • Outlandish clickbait headlines similar to those on Clickhole and The Onion.
Website was parked as of March 2017. Site is offline as of January 2018.
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "Obama Controls our Thots"[328]
  • Headline: "Buzzfeed Article Nominated for Pulitzer Prize"[329]
  • Headline: "Putin is Out of the Closet!"[330]
  • Headline: "Russian Spies Behind 2016 Holiday Season Celebrity Deaths"[331]
  • Headline: "Mariah Carey Claims Stage Was 'Hacked' by Russians After New Year's Eve Debacle"[332]

The Underground Report[edit]

Sites:
  • undergroundnewsreport.com
Specialty:[333]
Website is empty as of January 2018.
Why it's fake:
They came out as satire on March 3, 2017 after failing to write a story too ridiculous for even Trump supporters to believe.[334][335]
  • Headline: "Bombshell: Obama Plans To Use 'Mind Control' Drug On Trump"[336]
  • Headline: "Obama Mobilizing Refugee Army For Mexico"[337]
  • Headline: "New Evidence: Milo Yiannopolous Assisted Clinton Goons In Pedo Ring"[338]
  • Headline: "Breaking: CNN Connection To ISIS Exposed"[339]
  • Headline: "Report: Michelle Obama Underwent Sex Change Surgery In 2016"[340]

The Lapine[edit]

Why anyone would trust a fluffy white rat for their news? Find out at thelapine.ca!

Satirical news site[341]

Site:
  • thelapine.ca
Specialty:
  • Absurd news
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "That Annoying Friend Who Loves Winter Doomed to 6 Months of Decent Weather"[342]
  • Headline: "Trump Rushes Emergency Planeload of His Hats to Flood-Ravaged Louisiana"[343]
  • Content: " 'Sesame Street is the sort of liberal fairy crap kids are watching today,' Fox News owner Ruper Murdoch[sic] told Fox News entertainer Bill O'Reilly in making the announcement on-air today. 'Liberals dressed up in goof-ass costumes prancing around filling kids' heads with garbage about how special they are and how even Muslim and homosexual children are just the same as them and how the letter 'E' stands for 'Environment' and they should be kind to it.' "[344]
  • Headline: "Ben Carson 'Stranded' in Middle of Escalator After Stairs Stop Moving"[345]

Real News Right Now[edit]

Despite its name and its semi-professional layout, this is very much a satirical *fake* news website. Features absurd articles similar to those on The Onion. The site does not explicitly state that it is satire, but if headlines such as "Barack Obama Reinstated as 44th President of the United States Following Military Coup" do not make it obvious enough, it can also be inferred from the about page of the site.[346]

Site:
  • realnewsrightnow.com
Specialty:
  • Humorous absurdism
Why it's fake:
  • Headline: "During U.S. Visit Netanyahu Garners Congressional Support to Relocate Palestine to Wyoming"[347]
  • Headline: "Pope Francis Orders Vatican Archives to Reveal God's Name Ending Centuries of Secrecy"[348]
  • Headline: "Sophia the Robot Says She Has Taken Control of World's Strategic Nuclear Arsenal" [349]
  • Headline: "Scientists Warn Pink Cows on the Verge of Extinction"[350]

The Babylon Bee[edit]

Oh bee, where is thy sting?

The Babylon Bee is a satirical site, launched in March 1, 2016, for evangelical Christians, including parodying left-wing views (including pro-abortion and transgenderism), and televangelists. The news models itself after The Onion, similar to ResistanceHole, a subsidary of Clickhole (see The Onion).

Site:
  • babylonbee.com
Speciality:
  • Satire, absurd headlines
Why it's fake/distorted:

RealTrueNews[edit]

RealTrueNews started out pretending to be a real news website but by the end of November 2016 the owner of the site, Marco Chacon, admitted that the site was satire.[356] Sometime after Chacon's article in The Daily Beast,[356] the site included "Fake, But Accurate" under its logo on the main page,[357] and including "RealTrueNews / The Resistor is Satire. It's sad we have to say this—but we do. Nothing on here is remotely real." on their "About" page.[358]

Site:
  • realtruenews.org
Specialities:
  • Satire
  • Trolling Trump and Bernie Sanders supporters
  • Mansplaining
  • Poll-unskewing
  • Satirical fact checking ("Finally: Patrioic Fact-Checking You Can Trust. Don't Fall For the Liberal Lies and Clinton News Network 'Journolism.' Get Real. True. Facts. When Your Liberal Cousin Sends You To Snopes, Send Them Here Instead.")[359]
Why it's fake/distorted:

Other, now-defunct fake news websites[edit]

  • longroom.com (fake polls, fake news aggregator)

Is RationalWiki a fake news site?[edit]

Specialties:[365]
Liberal deceit
Why it's fake:

See also[edit]

Media and websites[edit]

Concepts[edit]

External links[edit]

Interactives[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Cropped section of the illustration, "The Fin de Siècle Newspaper Proprietor" by Frederick Burr Opper
  2. Journalists are humans, unfortunately, and all humans are inherently biased.
  3. Laughably, Trump claims credit for creating the term "fake news", when what he has really done is butchered it.[5]
  4. Literally, "Pavement news"
  5. "People are saying…", "Some people say…", and "Our sources tell us…" are vague weasel words that don't count as sources without additional specific information on how they relate to the issue at hand (e.g. "Sources within the State Department tell us…" or "A person who wishes to remain anonymous at the scene of the accident told us…")
  6. The .co country-level domain is popular because it looks like the more popular .com domain so one can easily create fake website that have URLs that look like legitimate URLs. Also, the .co domain was delegated by the Colombian government to a commercial entity and there is no restriction on use of second-level domains, thus allowing .com.co or .net.co or whatever.[42]
  7. Coler lost an arbitration lawsuit by the real Washington Post against his fake WashingtonPost.com.co, based on bad-faith cybersquatting.[48]
  8. 8.0 8.1 That Really Rustled My Jimmies Know Your Meme
  9. Not only did it not happen, this "news" was quoted by a Portuguese newspaper formerly of good quality but that in the last few years has gone down the CNN route, another Portuguese (sister) newspaper not as well regarded, and a Portuguese news magazine sister to a tabloid.
  10. One SciBabe article suggests that NaturalNews is satire; the article itself is satire: "Yes, this article is satire. Every word, except to the links to Natural News. He actually said all of that shit. You’re welcome."[112]
  11. AIDS denial and David Icke in one article is almost too much crank magnetism to handle.
  12. After facing intense backlash, they later changed the headline to "Science for sale: The true history of silencing whistleblowers with corporate science".[116]

References[edit]

  1. Truth Polling Site Destroyed By Correct The Record. Owners MISSING (August 13, 2016) RealTrueNews.
  2. Trump: 'One of the greatest terms I've come up with is 'fake by Brandon Carter (10/08/17 11:07 AM EDT) The Hill.
  3. Trump says he 'didn't make that decision' to ask AT&T to sell off CNN’s parent company by Brian Fung (November 11, 2017) The Washington Post.
  4. 4.0 4.1 ‘Fake news’ has now lost all meaning by Callum Borchers (February 9. 2016). The Washington Post. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  5. Trump falsely claims (again) that he coined the term 'fake news' by See Callum Borchers (October 26, 2017) Washington Post.
  6. YouTube, Facebook and Apple shut down Alex Jones channels (Aug 6, 2018) CNN via Youtube. Retrieved August 16 2018. Note: check the comments section of the video; it's very, very common to see detractors label CNN as fake news even though Alex Jones's being taken off major platforms is a real event.
  7. Any negative polls are fake news, just like the CNN, ABC, NBC polls in the election. Sorry, people want border security and extreme vetting. by Donald J. Trump (2:01 PM - 6 Feb 2017) Twitter.
  8. How Trump's 'fake news' gave authoritarian leaders a new weapon. By co-opting the term to describe any negative media coverage, Trump helped other countries explain away atrocities by Adam Gabbatt (25 Jan 2018 01.00 EST) The Guardian.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Woman who criticized Egypt’s handling of sexual harassment jailed for spreading 'false news' by Siobhán O'Grady (September 29 at 2:21 PM) The Washington Post.
  10. Fake news can poison your computer as well as your mind by Kerry Tomlinson (February 2017) Archer News (archived from January 13, 2018).
  11. Quote 609 Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations (1989) Bartleby.
  12. You Cannot Fool All the People All the Time: Abraham Lincoln? Jacques Abbadie? Denis Diderot? Anonymous? Quote Investigator
  13. American Journalism: 1690-1940 by Frank Luther Mott (2000). Routledge, p. 539. ISBN 9780415228947.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Fake News is Old News by Jacob Mchangama (August 25, 2017) Quillette.
  15. 15.0 15.1 See the Wikipedia article on History of newspaper publishing.
  16. See the Wikipedia article on List of the oldest newspapers.
  17. Crisis in Freedom: The Alien and Sedition Acts by John C. Miller (1951) New York: Little Brown and Company.
  18. See the Wikipedia article on List of satirical magazines.
  19. "Mainstream media is the Real Fake News!" says National Enquirer by Peter Sheridan (10:01 am Wed Dec 14, 2016) boingboing.
  20. CNN is Fake News by David Shephard (December 13, 2016) The Bull Elephant. "Now that Dan Rather is retired CNN is the biggest propagator of fake news in the country." "Climate Change" being an example of their unfair fake news propagated by CNN.
  21. Can Mythbusters like Snopes.com keep up in a post-truth era? by Rory Carroll (Mon 1 Aug 2016 12.55 EDT Last modified on Fri 24 Nov 2017 23.44 EST) The Guardian.
  22. 'Post-truth' named word of the year by Oxford Dictionaries by Alison Flood (15 Nov 2016 15.00 EST; Last modified on 14 Feb 2018 10.53 EST) The Guardian.
  23. 23.0 23.1 He doesn't even like Trump by Caitlin Dewey (November 17, 2016) The Washington Post.
  24. Want to keep fake news out of your newsfeed? College professor creates list of sites to avoid by Jessica Roy (Nov. 15, 2016, 6:18 p.m.) Los Angeles Times.
  25. False,​ ​Misleading,​ ​Clickbait-y,​ ​and/or​ ​Satirical​ ​“News”​ ​Sources Archived copy from November 16, 2016, including sources but without detailed methods
  26. False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and/or Satirical “News” Sources A description of methods without named fake named news sources
  27. 27.0 27.1 Literally Unbelievable (archived from April 1, 2018). A tremendous collection of examples of gullible fools misled people was te be found at the "Literally Unbelievable" blog.
  28. Sarah Palin: "Invade The Czech Republic!" by The Daily Conversation (Apr 23, 2013) YouTube.
  29. r/AteTheOnion - Another collection of people falling for The Onion, but covers other satire sites including The Babylon Bee.
  30. John Stewart on Fake News (April 27, 2007) Moyers and Company
  31. The Cynical Gambit to Make 'Fake News' Meaningless: As journalists push back against hoaxes and conspiracies, media skeptics are using charges of "fake news" against professionals. by Adrienne LaFrance (Dec 8, 2016) The Atlantic.
  32. A suspicious pattern is emerging for how the White House handles its most controversial plans by Natasha Bertrand (February 17, 2017) Business Insider.
  33. The real threat of phony leaks by Callum Borchers (May 22 at 11:13 AM) The Washington Post.
  34. Scoop. Denial. Scoop confirmed. That’s business as usual for writers covering the Trump White House. by Paul Farhi (March 23, 2018 at 5:43 PM) The Washington Post.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 We Tracked Down A Fake-News Creator In The Suburbs. Here's What We Learned by Laura Sydell (November 23, 20163:31 PM ET) All Things Considered (NPR).
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 Why conservatives might be more likely to fall for fake news by Christopher Ingraham (December 7, 2016) Washington Post.
  37. The Need for Cognition Scale by Anne Bost (Fall 2007) Center of Inquiry (archived from February 13, 2018).
  38. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism by Stefan Pfattheicher & Simon Schindler (April 29, 2016) Plos One.
  39. Ideology, motivated reasoning, and cognitive reflection by Dan M. Kahan. Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2013, pp. 407–424.
  40. Moral panic over fake news hides the real enemy – the digital giants: Claims that Russia is behind the political shocks of 2016 ignore the corrupting influence of digital capitalism by Evgeny Morozov (7 Jan 2017 19.05 EST Last modified on Wed 14 Feb 2018 10.49 EST) The Guardian.
  41. The Editorial Notebook; Dear Pravda by Geneva Overholser (May 12, 1987) The New York Times.
  42. See the Wikipedia article on .co.
  43. The spread of fake news by social bots by Chengcheng Shao et al. (24 Jul 2017) arXiv:1707.07592v1
  44. Your parents in 1996: Don't trust ANYONE on the Internet. Your parents in 2016: Freedom Eagle dot Facebook says Hillary invented AIDS. by Daniel Kibblesmith (10:27 PM - 19 Nov 2016) Twitter.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Donald Trump Protester Speaks Out: "I Was Paid $3,500 To Protest Trump's Rally" by Jimmy Rustling (November 11, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from January 3, 2017).
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 46.5 46.6 About Jestin Coler
  47. A Former Fake News Creator on Covering Fake News: The creator of the Denver Guardian and other fake news sites on the financial motivations behind misinformation by Jestin Coler (May 1, 2017) Nieman Reports.
  48. WP Company LLC v. Jestin Coler / DisInfoMedia Inc. Claim Number: FA1509001636671 (October 26, 2015) National Abritration Forum.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 Fake News Writer Finally Realizes Americans Take Fake News Seriously: "It's Scary'. But Paul Horner plans to keep writing fake stories anyway. by Greg Gilman (November 17, 2016 @ 12:24 PM; Last Updated: November 17, 2016 @ 1:17 PM) The Wrap.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Facebook fake-news writer: 'I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me' by Caitlin Dewey (November 17, 2016) The Washington Post.
  51. AbcNews.com.co — Satire (Media Bias/Fact Check) (archived from 23 Nov 2016 07:19:46 UTC).
  52. AbcNews.com.co — Questionable Source (Media Bias/Fact Check) (archived from 15 Dec 2017 16:34:50 UTC).
  53. abcnews.com.co is SATIRE Real or Satire?
  54. abcnews.com.co is SATIRE Real or Satire?
  55. Contact ABCNews.com.co (archived from March 27, 2017).
  56. No, someone wasn't paid $3,500 to protest Donald Trump; it's fake news by Louis Jacobson (November 17th, 2016 at 1:59 p.m.) Politifact.
  57. Obama Signs Executive Order Declaring Investigation Into Election Results; Revote Planned For Dec. 19th by Jimmy Rustling, ABC News (December 12, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from February 3, 2017).
  58. Obama Signs Executive Order Declaring Investigation Into Election Results: Reports that President Obama has overruled Donald Trump's presidential victory and ordered a revote for December 15 are fake news. (10 November 2016) Snopes.
  59. The Amish In America Commit Their Vote To Donald Trump; Mathematically Guaranteeing Him A Presidential Victory by Jimmy Rustling (November 8, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from February 4, 2017).
  60. Amish in America Commit Vote to Donald Trump, Mathematically Guaranteeing Him a Presidential Victory: A hoax news article reported that "millions" of Amish people were throwing their support behind Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election. by Dan Evon (27 October 2016) Snopes.
  61. Fireman Suspended & Jailed By Atheist Mayor For Praying At Scene Of Fire (September 6, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from 6 Sep 2016 15:45:31 UTC).
  62. Fireman Suspended and Jailed by Atheist Mayor for Praying at Scene of Fire: There is not a grain of truth to a report about an atheist mayor in Louisiana's firing a praying firefighter. by Kim LaCapria (6 September 2016) Snopes.
  63. President Obama Signs Executive Order Banning The Sale Of Assault Weapons by Jimmy Rustling (July 28, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from February 3, 2017).
  64. President Obama Signs Executive Order Banning the Sale of Assault Weapons: Fake news reports that President Obama banned assault weapons and promised "large scale Homeland Security raids" to confiscate them. by Dan Evon (19 June 2016) Snopes.
  65. Gay Wedding Mobile Vans Cashing In On The Legalization Of Gay Marriage by Jimmy Rustling (November 3, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from October 2, 2017).
  66. BREAKING: Capitol Hill Shooter Identified as Right Wing Extremist by Kip LeSale (March 28, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from October 2, 2017).
  67. Scalable code without bloat: DCI, Use Cases, and You by Jimmy Rustling (January 19, 2016) ABCNews.com.co (archived from October 2, 2017).
  68. 68.0 68.1 Video Leaks Exposing Hillary’s Ties To The KKK… Her Campaign Is Finished (July 2016) American News (archived from 23 Nov 2016 07:21:08 UTC).
  69. Hillary Clinton Kissed by Former Klan Member: A photograph of Hillary Clinton being kissed by Senator Robert Byrd has been widely circulated as a political statement. by Dan Evon (2 March 2016) Snopes.
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.4 Fake News Watch, last updated 18 January 2016. Archived from the original at fakenewswatch.com.
  71. AmericanNews.com is a Satire or FAKE news website (September 6, 2014 2:07 pm) Lincoln Report (archived from June 30, 2016).
  72. americannews.com is SATIRE Real or Satire?.
  73. Obama Demanded This Admiral Not Give Out Bibles, But His Response Is Going VIRAL by Jeff (Feb 3, 2016) American News (archived from February 4, 2016).
  74. Obama Demanded This Admiral Stop Giving Out Bibles? President Obama didn't demand an admiral stop giving out Bibles; such claims are based on a 2013 controversy unrelated to the Commander-in-Chief. by Brooke Binkowski (Published: 3 February 2016; Updated: 3 February 2016) Snopes.
  75. Obama Takes Down American Flag For Press Conference (Dec 20, 2015) American News (archived from December 21, 2015).
  76. 'Muslim Prayer Curtain' in the White House? President Obama did not remove red, white, and blue decor from the Oval Office and install a "Muslim prayer curtain" in the White House. by David Mikkelson (Published: 8 June 2010; Updated: 12 January 2018) Snopes.
  77. BREAKING: Obama Admits To Forging Birth Certificate After This Old Photo Leaks To The Public (May 27, 2015) American News (archived from May 29, 2015).
  78. Forging Ahead (Last updated: 14 September 2015; Originally published: 27 May 2015) Snopes.
  79. Muslims Demand Army Change Its Dress Code To Include Turbans And Beards (September 1, 2014) American News (archived from September 3, 2014).
  80. Muslims Demand Army Change Its Dress Code to Include Turbans and Beards: The Department of Defense announced back in January 2014 that religious dress accommodations had been added to uniform guidelines on a case-by-case basis. by Kim LaCapria (Published: 14 October 2014; Updated: 6 October 2016) Snopes.
  81. This President Is Being Considered As Addition To Mount Rushmore (Nov 19, 2014) American News (archived from 21 Apr 2016 19:27:07 UTC).
  82. Plan Launches to Make Obama Addition to Mount Rushmore: After Harriet Tubman's addition to the $20 bill was announced, a spurious old rumor recirculated claiming that President Obama's likeness is being added to Mount Rushmore. by Kim LaCapria (21 April 2016).
  83. You'll Never Believe Why This Veteran Was Kicked Out Of His Daughter’s School (September 13, 2014) American News (archived from September 17, 2014).
  84. Uniformed Veteran Kicked Out of Child's School: A misleading social media page claimed a uniformed veteran was kicked out of his daughter's school because his attire was offensive. by Kim LaCapria (15 June 2016) Snopes.
  85. Top Marine General Now Risking His Career To Take Down Obama (July 27, 2014) American News (archived from July 29, 2014).
  86. Did Gen. Amos Really Try to 'Take Down' the President? (18 Aug 2014) SpouseBuzz.
  87. Texas Residents Forced to Pay Slavery Reparations? An unreliable web site falsely claimed that Texans were being forced to pay slavery reparations to black Americans. by Kim LaCapria (15 March 2016) Snopes.
  88. Obama pushes reparations for slavery on all non-black Americans. Slavery is over and has been over for hundreds of year. Do you think we should have to compensate blacks for slavery? (June 9, 2015 ) American News via FaceBook.
  89. Slave State by David Mikkelson (9 June 2015) Snopes.
  90. ATTENTION Sadie Robertson In Major Car Accident, Please Pray For Her And Her Family (Sep 18, 2015) American News (archived from September 19, 2015).
  91. Duck Lie-Nasty (18 September 2015) Snopes.
  92. RACISM: Black Panther Promises To Kill All White Babies (July 5, 2014) American News (archived from July 9, 2014).
  93. Bill O’Reilly Saves The Entire Election… Proves The Liberal Media Machine Has Been Lying This Entire Time (October 2016) American News (archived from 23 Nov 2016 07:20:08 UTC).
  94. Black Man Murders White Family And Burns Their Home… Where’s Al Sharpton Now? by Hank (May 23, 2015) American News (archived from May 25, 2015).
  95. Just When You Thought You’ve Heard The Worst The ISIS Is Doing, This Information Leaked (September 6, 2014) American News (archived from September 11, 2014).
  96. Thug Refuses To Pull Up His Pants, So Cops Immediately Teach Him A Swift Lesson (July 2014) American News (archived from 23 Nov 2016 07:19:51 UTC).
  97. Cnn.com.de — Questionable Source (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  98. cnn.com.de is SATIRE Real or Satire?
  99. Jimmy Rustling, CNN CNN.com.de (archived from September 17, 2016).
  100. cnn.com.de is SATIRE Real or Satire.
  101. Twitter Deletes Donald Trump’s Twitter Account: “We Will Not Tolerate Racism & Hate” by Jimmy Rustling (January 9, 2017) CNN.com.de (archived from January 10, 2017).
  102. Donald Trump Says The Earth Is Flat by Eric Plair (October 31, 2016) CNN.com.de (archived from 27 Nov 2016 18:38:53 UTC).
  103. Did Donald Trump Say the Earth Is Flat? Rumors that the President-elect believes the world is flat originated from a hoax and satire web site. by Dan Evon (13 December 2016) Snopes.
  104. Donald Trump Signs Executive Order Which Cancels Saturday Night Live by Jimmy Rustling (April 21, 2017) CNN.com.de (archived from April 24, 2017).
  105. Trump To Build World’s Largest Stadium Around Section Of Wall For “Mexican Gladiator Battles”: "If They Make It Over My Wall, They Can Stay" by Jimmy Rustling (February 6, 2017) CNN.com.de (archived from February 8, 2017).
  106. Obama Signs Executive Order Banning The National Anthem At All Sporting Events Nationwide by Jimmy Rustling (October 26, 2016) CNN.com.de (archived from October 28, 2016).
  107. Donald Trump Signs Executive Order Banning The Pledge Of Allegiance In Schools Nationwide: "Needs More God" by Jimmy Rustling (February 4, 2017) 'CNN.com.de (archived from February 4, 2017).
  108. Donald Trump To Build The Wall Out Of Homes For American War Veterans by Jimmy Rustling (February 11, 2017) CNN.com.de (archived from February 18, 2017).
  109. Christian Anti-Masturbation’s Mascot “Fappy” Arrested for Public Masturbation? Fappy the Anti-Masturbation Dolphin was not arrested for swimming naked at SeaWorld, because such a mascot does not exist. by Dan Evon (Published: 16 November 2015; Updated: 8 November 2017) Snopes.
  110. Natural News: A Truly Deadly Brand of Pseudoscience by Simon Oxenham (July 27, 2014, 12:34 PM ) big think.
  111. naturalnews.com is CLICKBAIT Real or Satire?
  112. Mike Adams Stunning Confession: "You Guys Didn't Know Natural News Was Satire?" (January 2, 2016) SciBabe.
  113. Microsoft buys eugenics technology from Merck, becomes drug development partner with top global vaccine manufacturer by Mike Adams (February 02, 2012) Natural News (archived from February 3, 2012).
  114. AIDS: The great medical con, explained by David Icke (January 12, 2010) Natural News (archived from January 15, 2010).
  115. Biotech genocide, Monsanto collaborators and the Nazi legacy of 'science' as justification for murder by Mike Adams] (July 21, 2014) Natural News (archived from July 23, 2015).
  116. Science for sale: The true history of silencing whistleblowers with corporate science by Mike Adams (July 21, 2014) Natural News (archived from February 12, 2015).
  117. People who grow their own food labeled 'extremist' by Dept. of Defense by J. D. Heyes (August 31, 2013) Natural News (archived from September 2, 2013).
  118. Principle of astrology proven to be scientific: planetary position imprints biological clocks of mammals by Mike Adams (December 11, 2010) Natural News (archived from December 12, 2010).
  119. Mike Adams fails again: astrology edition by Phil Plait (December 13, 2010 7:00 am ) Discover Magazine.
  120. Whole Foods Market (WFM) continues to knowingly sell poison to its customers: Natural News seeks class action law firm to pursue legal action by Mike Adams (July 14, 2014) Natural News (archived from July 16, 2014).
  121. Ten mind-blowing, historic events you will likely witness in the next 100 days by Mike Adams (November 18, 2016) Natural News (archived from November 20, 2016).
  122. What 'skeptics' really believe about vaccines, medicine, consciousness and the universe by Mike Adams (January 24, 2010) Natural News (archived from 7 Jul 2013 13:40:20 UTC).
  123. Global Research — Conspiracy/Pseudoscience (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  124. The Srebrenica Massacre was a Gigantic Political Fraud by Edward Herman and John Robles (February 01, 2013) GlobalResearch (archived from February 5, 2013).
  125. The FDA and Big Pharma’s Latest Killer Agenda: Destroy Homeopathic Medicine by Joachim Hagopian (June 11, 2015) GlobalResearch (archived from June 15, 2015).
  126. "Depopulation Vaccine" in Kenya and Beyond by Jon Rappoport (November 11, 2014) GlobalResearch (archived from November 15, 2014).
  127. 127.0 127.1 127.2 Is Tetanus Vaccine Spiked with Sterilization Chemicals? Catholic bishops in Kenya asserted that a tetanus vaccine campaign was really a secret effort to sterilize young women. by David Mikkelson (Published: 10 November 2014; Updated: 18 April 2018) Snopes.
  128. Is the WHO Using Vaccines to Secretly Sterilize Women All Over the Globe? by Michael Snyder (November 12, 2014) GlobalResearch (archived from November 14, 2014).
  129. "Mass Sterilization": Kenyan Doctors Find Anti-fertility Agent in UN Tetanus Vaccine by Brian Shilhavy (February 17, 2015) GlobalResearch (archived from February 19, 2015).
  130. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) – Planned Sterilization of Humanity? by Peter Koenig (March 01, 2016) GlobalResearch (archived from March 1, 2016).
  131. The Walls Are Crumbling Down Around the “Official 9/11 Story” – Why? by Jeffrey Berwick (August 06, 2014) GlobalResearch (archived from August 8, 2014).
  132. BREAKING: ‘US used Nukes on Iraq, Afghanistan’: Atomic bomb dropped on Tora Bora: Expert (December 01, 2011) GlobalResearch (archived from January 17, 2013).
  133. America Created Al-Qaeda and the ISIS Terror Group by Garikai Chengu (September 19, 2014) GlobalResearch (archived from September 20, 2014).
  134. Unlimited War! ISIS Psyop Theater Comes to Full Fruition by Bernie Suarez (February 16, 2015) GlobalResearch (archived from February 18, 2015).
  135. The State and Local Bases of Zionist Power in America by James Petras (September 03, 2010) GlobalResearch (archived from January 23, 2013).
  136. Earth Day, Geo-Engineering and Chemtrails by Michael Welch (April 25, 2015) GlobalResearch (archived from April 28, 2015).
  137. HAARP: Secret Weapon Used For Weather Modification, Electromagnetic Warfare by Fred Burks (August 02, 2010) GlobalResearch (archived from November 13, 2012).
  138. Fluoride: Killing Us Softly by Gary Null (December 05, 2013) GlobalResearch (archived from December 9, 2013).
  139. Infowars-Alex Jones Conspiracy/Pseudoscience (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  140. Prison Planet — Conspiracy/Pseudoscience (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  141. Why Feds Are Banning Fireplaces And Wood Stoves: Feds attempting to regulate human activity out of existence by Alex Jones (November 20, 2016) InfoWars (archived from August 29, 2016).
  142. Video: ‘Black Lives Matter’ Rioters Target Whites For Beat Downs: "They beating up all the white people" by Paul Joseph Watson (August 14, 2016) InfoWars (archived from August 14, 2016).
  143. Video: Black Protesters Targeted Whites in Milwaukee? The origins of an edited video claiming to show black protesters hunting down and beating whites in Milwaukee are murky. by Bethania Palma (Published: 15 August 2016; Updated: 16 August 2016) Snopes.
  144. Alex Jones Harassed & Threatened With a Gun For Supporting Trump: Alex Jones was threatened with a gun by a butt-hurt Hillary supporter in Austin (November 19, 2016) InfoWars (archived from November 29, 2016).
  145. Proof: Wholesome Americana Thrives Despite Increasingly Vicious Left: Smalltown America is alive and well by Alex Jones (November 20, 2016) Infowars (archived from November 29, 2016).
  146. Soros & Hillary Launch Purple Revolution Against Trump: Globalists try to usurp power from the people by (November 18, 2016) Infowars (archived from November 29, 2016).
  147. Dems Declare War On Free Press: Big Government Libs Trying To Control Access To Information by Alex Jones (November 18, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from December 15, 2016).
  148. Shock Video: Police Force 80-Year-Old Italian Hotel Owner To House African Migrants: Government Confiscates Private Property To Accommodate 'Refugees' by Paul Joseph Watson (November 18, 2016) Infowars.com (Archived from November 29, 2016).
  149. Clintons Begging Trump to Stop Investigation of Hillary Through Chelsea: Trump Must Drain the Clinton Crime Family with the Rest of The Swamp (November 17, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from November 29, 2016).
  150. Clinton Campaign Admits Making False Claims Against Trump Print: Campaign intentionally conspires to deceive public by Kit Daniels (Oct. 25, 2016) Prison Planet.com (archived from December 17, 2016).
  151. New York Times warns Hillary campaign in advance of stories they are about to publish. by Paul Joseph Watson (8:33 AM - 14 Oct 2016) Twitter (archived from January 31, 2017).
  152. New York Times ‘Warns’ Clinton Campaign About Stories in Advance? The New York Times was abiding by standard journalistic practice in contacting the Clinton campaign about a story they were publishing. by Bethania Palma (14 October 2016) Snopes.
  153. Drunk Driver Blames Crash on Trump: Driver slammed into two cars at red light, arrested with blood alcohol content four times over legal limit (November 15, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from November 16, 2016).
  154. Breaking: Internal Coup In Clinton Camp Will Ruin Her (November 02, 2016) Prison Planet (archived from November 5, 2016).
  155. Expert: Chemtrails Could Wipe Out Humanity. Chemicals in jet exhaust could cause Biblical-style flooding, expert warns by Fiona Miller (November 15, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from November 29, 2016).
  156. Obama Pushes 'Fake News' Talking Point; It's A 'Threat To Democracy': "It's packaged very well, and it looks the same." by Steve Watson (November 18, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from November 29, 2016).
  157. Alex Jones: The Media is a Joke, We Have Won: Masters of fake news attempt to smear real independent journalism by Alex Jones (November 17, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from November 29, 2016).
  158. The Mainstream Media's "Fake News" Narrative is Already Beginning to Collapse. Quantcast restores Infowars, blacklist of "fake news websites" removed by Paul Joseph Watson (November 18, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from November 29, 2016).
  159. Dems Pushing Pardons for Hillary & Illegals: Lawbreakers unite under Obama by David Knight (November 18, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from December 7, 2016).
  160. DISGRACEFUL. Michael Shannon To Trump Supporters: It’s Time To Die by Twitchy (November 18, 2016) Prison Planet (archived from August 18, 2018).
  161. Fake News Alert: Bloomberg Editor Creates Libelous Trump Tweet Out of Thin Air! Article cites bogus, non-existent tweet from Trump admitting he "cheated more than 6,000 students" by Adan Salazar (November 19, 2016) Infowars.com (archived from November 29, 2016).
  162. Most Terrifying alien abduction stories (December 11, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from 12 Dec 2016 05:36:26 UTC).
  163. Lady Gaga: Prince Charles 'is not human' (December 10, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from December 31, 2016).
  164. Will Large Hadron Collider destroy Earth? CERN admits experiments could create black holes (August 1, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from August 4, 2016).
  165. Indian Government: Secret US weapons "real cause of global warming" (July 20, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from July 22, 2016).
  166. Most terrifying experiences of glitches in matrix reported by people (December 11, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from 12 Dec 2016 05:35:21 UTC).
  167. OMG! They’re Going to 9/11 us Again! (December 11, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from March 21, 2017).
  168. Alien megastructure may have been found 1500 light years away from earth! (December 10, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from 12 Dec 2016 05:33:38 UTC).
  169. Former FBI Chief exposes "Illuminati, satanism, pedophile rings" (December 11, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from December 12, 2016).
  170. Rothschilds caught orchestrating US Election outcome (December 10, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from March 14, 2017).
  171. U.S. Government pass bill outlawing independent media (December 11, 2016) Mirror Spectrum (archived from December 12, 2016).
  172. International Arrest Warrant issued against Pope Francis I, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, for Crimes against Humanity and Child Trafficking (March 15, 2013) itccs (archived from March 18, 2013).
  173. To: The Common Law Peace Officers and other Agents of this Court, and to All Citizens of Italy, Argentina and other Countries ICLCJ Warrant 0002 - 31513 (archived from 7 Jul 2013 13:20:25 UTC).
  174. The United Church of Canada is Insane, and other Spiritual Reflections by Kevin D. Annett by kevin (November 19, 2014) KevinAnnett.com (archived from February 11, 2018).
  175. Reverend Kevin Annett is nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize (May 8, 2013) American National Militia (archived from November 9, 2013).
  176. Canada Is Dissolved by Republic of Kanata (March 7, 2013) Republic of Kanata (archived from 11 Jan 2015 21:13:35 UTC).
  177. This Odd Thing called Canada by Kevin D. Annett (21 October, 2013) ''itccs (archived from October 30, 2013).
  178. International Media and Community Advisory from The International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State (ITCCS) and Kevin Annett (August 3, 2011) KevinAnnett.com (archived from April 8, 2014).
  179. Albert Einstein, Free Energy and The Strange Deaths of Morris K. Jessup and Stefan Marinov by Laura Knight-Jadczyk (2010) The Cassiopaean Experiment (archived from October 20, 2010).
  180. MOSSAD and Moving Companies: Masterminds of Global Terrorism? (2010) The Cassiopaean Experiment (archived from from October 20, 2010).
  181. Mahmoud Ahmad and The Secret Cult of 9-11 (2010) The Cassiopaean Experiment (archived from from October 20, 2010).
  182. The Denver Airport Material Image Catalog (2010) The Cassiopaean Experiment (archived from from October 20, 2010).
  183. The attempted Clinton-CIA coup against Donald Trump by Alexander Mercouris (10 Dec 2016 18:33 UTC) Signs of the Times (archived from December 11, 2016).
  184. Wakey Wakey! Deep State USA and the US Presidential Election Farce by Joe Quinn (08 Nov 2016 14:53 UTC) Signs of the Times (archived from from November 9, 2016).
  185. HAARP, Roswell Rods, 4th Density Bleedthrough and 7th Density (2010) The Cassiopaean Experiment (archived from from October 20, 2010).
  186. Death squads, pedophiles and psychopaths: Inside the British establishment by Laura Knight-Jadczyk (August 18, 2015) Laura Knight-Jadczyk (archived from August 19, 2015).
  187. Dallas police shootings: Social Engineering and the American Police State by Joe Quinn & Beau Christensen (12 Jul 2016 22:05 UTC) Signs of the Times (archived from July 14, 2016).
  188. Harmony: The neuroscience of singing by Cassandra Sheppard (11 Dec 2016 21:34 UTC) Signs of the Times (archived from December 13, 2016).
  189. Activist Post — Conspiracy-Pseudoscience (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  190. 200 Evidence-Based Reasons NOT To Vaccinate - FREE Research PDF Download! by Sayer Ji (February 22, 2015) Activist Post (archived from February 26, 2015).
  191. HUD Wants to Make Living in a Tiny House or RV Illegal by Daisy Luther (March 31, 2016) Activist Post (archived from 1 Apr 2016 15:46:01 UTC).
  192. HUD Tiny Homes Ban: A lot of anxious bloggers incorrectly surmised HUD was moving to make "tiny homes" illegal. by Kim LaCapria (4 April 2016) Snopes.
  193. Sheriff’s Dept to Fine People $1K for Bringing in Food and Supplies to Standing Rock by Claire Bernish (November 29, 2016) Activist Post (archived from November 30, 2016).
  194. Fines for Bringing Supplies to Standing Rock DAPL Protests: Rumors that bringing supplies to protesters at the Standing Rock Reservation could carry a $1,000 fine are accurate, at least according to the Morton County Sheriff's Department. by Kim LaCapria (Published: 30 November 2016; Updated: 1 December 2016).
  195. Obama Calls Alternative Media "Domestic Propagandists" by Kurt Nimmo (December 16, 2016) Activist Post (archived from December 17, 2016).
  196. The Establishment’s Plan to Divide: Donald Trump, Fake News, and Russia by Derrick Broze (December 15, 2016) Activist Post (archived from December 16, 2016).
  197. Establishment Media Declares War On Their Competition as "Fake News" (November 15, 2016) Activist Post (archived from November 17, 2016).
  198. Sacrificing Children To The State Of California: SB18 by Jon Rappoport (December 16, 2016) Activist Post (archived from December 17, 2016).
  199. The Truth About Mandatory Vaccines by Vin Armani (December 11, 2016) Activist Post (archived from December 12, 2016).
  200. How the Government Is Turning Legal Marijuana into a Massive Surveillance State by Jake Anderson (December 10, 2016) Activist Post (archived from December 11, 2016).
  201. Properties The Epoch Media Group
  202. Dissident media linked to Falun Gong / Chinese-language print, broadcast outlets in U.S. are making waves by Vanessa Hua (4:00 am, Sunday, December 18, 2005) San Francisco Chronicle.
  203. Wie Geflüchtete die "Epoch Times" gerettet haben – Teil 1 by Rosemarie Frühauf (14. Juni 2017) Bell Tower (archived from September 2, 2018).
  204. Wie Geflüchtete die "Epoch Times" gerettet haben – Teil 2 by Rosemarie Frühauf (15. Juni 2017) Bell Tower (archived from September 2, 2018).
  205. Space Aliens Live Quietly Among Us, Say Some Scientists and Officials by Tara MacIsaac (January 30, 2014 AT 3:10 PM Last Updated: April 25, 2014 5:07 pm) Epoch Times (archived from May 6, 2014).
  206. Expert in Chinese Petroglyphs Supports Theory Ancient Chinese Made It to America by Tara MacIsaac (June 30, 2016 AT 5:39 PM) Epoch Times (archived from July 2, 2016).
  207. Woman Has Near-Death Experience, Sees 'Hell,' and Comes Back a Better Person by Tara MacIsaac (April 10, 2016 AT 11:58 AM Last Updated: April 13, 2016 2:22 pm) Epoch Times (archived from April 14, 2016).
  208. Supernormal Abilities Developed Through Meditation: Dr. Dean Radin Discusses by Tara MacIsaac (September 29, 2016 AT 10:16 AM) Epoch Times (archived from October 2, 2016).
  209. 5 Best UFO Sightings This Week: March 7-14 (+Photos +Videos) by Tara MacIsaac (March 14, 2014 AT 5:29 PM Last Updated: April 25, 2014 5:11 pm) Epoch Times (archived from September 2, 2018).
  210. Nervous-System Damage From the Sky: 'Chemtrails' rain aluminum nanoparticles on man, beast, and land. by Louise McCoy (October 18, 2012 AT 4:07 PM Last Updated: October 1, 2015 12:04 pm) Epoch Times (archived from February 7, 2016).
  211. 3-Year-Old Remembers Past Life as Snake? Gives Verified Details of Encounter With Hunter by Tara MacIsaac (August 3, 2015 AT 3:54 PM Last Updated: March 28, 2016 11:25 am) Epoch Times (archived from March 31, 2016).
  212. The Cybersecurity 202: There is more phony political news on social media now than in 2016, report says by Cat Zakrzewski (November 1, 2018 at 8:01 AM) The Washington Post.
  213. Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media, edited by Samuel C. Woolley & Philip N. Howard (2018) Oxford University Press. ISBN 0190931418.
  214. breitbart.com is BIASED (08-03-2016) Real or Satire?
  215. Breitbart — Questionable Source (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  216. Hillary Clinton: Wanted to 'Curl Up' and 'Never Leave The House Again' by Katie McHugh (17 Nov 2016) Breitbart (archived from November 17, 2016).
  217. Obama: Muslims Built 'The Very Fabric of Our Nation' by Robert Wilde (28 Jul 2014) Breitbart (archived from July 29, 2014).
  218. Obama: 'Muslims Built the Fabric of Our Nation'. Breitbart, not President Obama, said that 'Muslims built the very fabric of our nation' by David Mikkelson (Published: 6 March 2015; Updated: 9 July 2016) Snopes.
  219. 4 Illegal Immigrants Caught on Camera ‘'Rolling' Over Border by John Binder (17 Nov 2016) Breitbart (archived from November 17, 2016).
  220. Lawmaker Wants to Pull Funding from Colleges That Spend Money on 'Coddling' Students over Trump by Tom Ciccotta (16 Nov 2016) Breitbart 9archived from November 16, 2016).
  221. Take Down the Fascist, Anti-Christian Gay-Pride Flag by John Nolte (23 Jun 2015) Breitbart (archived from June 24, 2015).
  222. Arabic Translator: Muslim Migrants Secretly Hate Christians, Seek to Outbreed Them by Virginia Hale (16 Nov 2016) Breitbart (archived from November 16, 2016).
  223. War on Christmas: Saudis Ban International Schools from Observing Non-Islamic Holidays by Edwin Mora (16 Nov 2016) Breitbart (archived from November 18, 2016).
  224. Congressman Slams Discredited Media on House Floor by Warner Todd Huston (16 Nov 2016) Breitbart (archived from November 16, 2016).
  225. Donald Trump Won 7.5 Million Popular Vote Landslide in Heartland by Michael Patrick Leahy (15 Nov 2016) Breitbart (archived from November 16, 2016).
  226. Thanks to a bad map and bizarre math, Breitbart can report that Trump won the REAL popular vote by Philip Bump (November 15, 2016) The Washington Post. "The only appropriate way to describe this map, gracing an article at Breitbart.com, is 'hilariously idiotic.' "
  227. That misleading Breitbart map explained: How Trump's dominance across geography is a misrepresentation of the US election by Ashley Kirk & Patrick Scott (16 November 2016 • 2:38pm) The Telegraph.
  228. rawstory.com is BIASED Real or Satire?
  229. Raw Story — Left Bias (Media Bias/Fact Check).
  230. 'This is our moment': Trump's win emboldens activist behind effort to 'make rape legal' by David Edwards (16 Nov 2016 at 12:59 ET) Raw Story (archived from November 16, 2016).
  231. 'I voted for Trump!': White customer demands special privileges in Starbucks meltdown by Travis Gettys (17 Nov 2016 at 09:02 ET) Raw Story (archived from November 18, 2016).
  232. Baltimore teacher loses her cool and tells 'punk-ass n****r' students they’re 'gonna get shot' by David Ferguson (17 Nov 2016 at 11:20 ET) Raw Story (archived from November 18, 2016).
  233. Trump fans try to 'punish' Starbucks by writing his name on cups — and the internet is cracking up by Brad Reed (18 Nov 2016 at 14:43 ET) Raw Story (archived from November 19, 2016).
  234. Van Jones: I love Jeffrey Lord — he's like a 'Fraggle' who believes 'terrible revisionist history' by David Ferguson (18 Nov 2016 at 15:49 ET) Raw Story (archived from November 19, 2016).
  235. The Rebel — Right Bias (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  236. Backlash over Trump's leaked tape is really an attack on masculinity by Gavin McInnes (October 11, 2016) The Rebel (archived from October 12, 2016).
  237. Note telling offended left-wingers to 'suck it up' over Trump's win being investigated as a hate crime (November 23, 2016) The Rebel (archived from November 24, 2016).
  238. 'It’s like sex!' 10 things I love about going to church by Gavin McInnes (November 23, 2016) The Rebel (archived from November 24, 2016)
  239. Millennials argue: 'Trump has to die!' by David Menzies (November 22, 2016) The Rebel (archived from November 24, 2016).
  240. WATCH: White CNN guest drops n-word ON AIR while trying to claim Trump, Bannon are racists (November 23, 2016) The Rebel (archived from November 25, 2016)
  241. PoliticusUSA — Left Bias (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  242. Liberal House Democrats Blast Trump For Filling His Cabinet With Misfits And Stooges by Jason Easley (Dec 8th, 2016 at 2:08 pm) Politicus USA (archived from December 9, 2016).
  243. Shocking New Poll Shows That A Vast Majority Of Trump Voters Live In Another Reality by Sean Colarossi (Dec 8th, 2016 at 9:58 pm) Politicus USA (archived from February 1, 2017).
  244. Yes, We're All Pretty Much Horrified That Putin, Not America, Elected Trump by Hrafnkell Haraldsson (Dec 10th, 2016 at 2:43 pm) Politicus USA (archived from December 11, 2016).
  245. Trump Surrogate Calls on FBI's Comey to 'Crackdown' on Peaceful Protests by Rmuse (Dec 11th, 2016 at 9:44 pm) Politicus USA (archived from December 13, 2016).
  246. Trump Said CIA Lies But Then Winks as He Makes Putin's BFF New Fave as SecState by Hrafnkell Haraldsson (Dec 10th, 2016 at 7:56 am) Politicus USA (archived from December 11, 2016).
  247. No American Is Safe from Trump's Wrecking Crew Cabinet by Rmuse on (Dec 9th, 2016 at 9:55 am) Politicus USA (archived from December 10, 2016).
  248. Trump's Labor Secretary Pick Is Declaration Of War On America's Workers by Jason Easley (Dec 8th, 2016 at 4:53 pm) Politicus USA (archived from December 10, 2016).
  249. 249.0 249.1 The Washington Times Has History of Hyped Stories, Shoddy Reporting and Failing to Correct Errors by Heidi Beirich and Bob Moser (2015) Southern Poverty Law Center'.
  250. Washington Times — Right-Center Bias (Media Bias/Fact Check).
  251. Obama's golf weekend with Tiger Woods cost taxpayers more than $3.6 million by Dave Boyer (October 26, 2016) The Washington Times (archived from October 29, 2016).
  252. Obama Golf Outing with Tiger Woods Cost Nearly $4 Million? President Obama didn't spend $3.6 million in taxpayer funds just to play golf with Tiger Woods. by Kim LaCapria (28 October 2016) Snopes.
  253. Speaker pursues military flights (February 1, 2007) The Washington Times (archived from October 27, 2010).
  254. Fact Check: Washington Times Publishes False Report On Pelosi's Use Of Military Aircraft (Feb 5, 2007, 11:59 pm) Think Progress.
  255. Clinton calls terror a U.S. debt to past (November 8, 2001) The Washington Times (archived from 13 Dec 2016 20:33:30 UTC).
  256. Clinton Speaks, Pundits Spin: The Washington Times and the Spread of a Media Myth by Bryan Keefer (November 19, 2001) Spin Sanity.
  257. Editorial: Taxpayers to pay for tranny grannies. Medicare to pick up the tab for sex changes for the elderly (June 4, 2014) The Washington Times (archived from June 5, 2014).
  258. Wash. Times Editorial Spreads Slurs, Lies, on Medicare's Trans Coverage by Rebecca Juro (June 06 2014 4:07 PM EDT) The Advocate.
  259. Our current howler (part II): Sammon says (30 July 1999) The Daily Howler.
  260. Is RT state-run? (Published time: 16 Jun, 2011 19:34; Edited time: 17 Jun, 2011 20:12) RT (archived from November 7, 2013).
  261. Анатомия несопротивления (2 июля 2012 20:18) Лениздат.Ру (archived from December 5, 2013). Anatomy of the Resistance — translation into English of the live page.
  262. Russia's disinformation on Ukraine and the EU's response (November 2015) European Parliament.
  263. CrossTalk on 9/11: Whodunit? (Mar 10, 2010) RT via YouTube.
  264. Conspiracy of the century? Hackers 'expose' climate change (Nov 23, 2009) RT via YouTube.
  265. Alex Jones: Al-Qaeda created by CIA (Mar 29, 2011) RT via YouTube.
  266. RT Interviews Alex Jones at Bilderberg 2012 (June 1, 2012) Infowars (archived from July 2, 2013).
  267. RT Alex Jones oil spill Conspiracy In The Gulf .flv (May 2, 2010) YouTube.
  268. Army manual for re-education camps applies to US citizens (04 May, 2012, 20:25) RT (archived from May 7, 2012).
  269. How The Truth Is Made At Russia Today: "It was my first job and I feel embarrassed and ashamed." An inside look at what it's like to work at the Kremlin-funded media outlet. by Rosie Gray (March 13, 2014, at 10:44 p.m. ET) BuzzFeed News.
  270. 'America lives in a fascist state' - Gerald Celente (Apr 18, 2009) RT via YouTube.
  271. Chossudovsky: US will start WW3 by attacking Iran (Feb 19, 2010) RTvia YouTube.
  272. Jacque Fresco: US has never been a democracy (Feb 20, 2010) RT via YouTube.
  273. US Anger With RT Will Start World War Three – Emir Kusturica (19:10 15.05.2015; updated 20:29 15.05.2015) Sputnik News (archived from January 25, 2017).
  274. Video: Is this a 'demon' racing in front of Obama? Bizarre mystery caught on camera has some guessing by Joe Kovacs (August 5, 2015) WND (archived from August 5, 2015).
  275. U.S. on list of Christian-persecuting nations (January 6, 2017) WND (archived from January 9, 2017).
  276. Clinton's black son' demands DNA sample by Jerome R. Corsi (10/19/2016 at 6:27 PM) WND (archived from October 20, 2016).
  277. Obama hid 'gay life' to become president: Chicago homosexual community shocked he could keep it secret by Jerome R. Corsi (September 12, 2012) WND (archived from September 18, 2012).
  278. Soy is making kids 'gay' by Jim Rutz (12/12/2006 at 1:00 AM) WND (archived from January 28, 2012).
  279. Black Mobs Plague Nightclubs Coast to Coast (November 18, 2013) WND (archived from November 21, 2013).
  280. Family picnic turns to horror thanks to black mob by Colin Flaherty (June 30, 2013) WND (archived from July 2, 2013).
  281. Combat soldiers no match for black mob… by Colin Flaherty (October 6, 2013) WND (archived from October 6, 2013).
  282. About WND WND (archived from April 14, 2016).
  283. 283.0 283.1 Don't Be Fooled! A Guide to Fake News Websites by David Emery (January 18, 2018) ThoughtCo.
  284. Nation Fills Up On Bread (November 1, 2000) The Onion (archived from November 28, 2015).
  285. Ambassador Stages Coup At UN, Issues Long List of Non-Binding Resolutions (4/29/09 5:30pm) The Onion.
  286. When You're Feeling Low, Just Remember I'll Be Dead In About 15 Or 20 Years (January 23, 2013) The Onion (archived from May 1, 2015).
  287. Trump Vomits Immediately After Seeing Everyday Americans Up Close (October 9, 2016) The Onion (archived from October 11, 2016).
  288. Breitbart Traffic Down As Readers Now Getting Bulk Of News Analysis From Graffiti Scrawled Across Neighborhood (November 17, 2016) The Onion (archived from November 20, 2016).
  289. Finding Common Ground: This White Man And This Muslim Woman Both Have ‘Trump’ Painted On Their Garages Clickhole (archived from November 18, 20160.
  290. The Borowitz Report — 'The New Yorker.
  291. Cruz Delivers Early Concession Speech for Trump by Andy Borowitz (November 8, 2016) The New Yorker.
  292. Poll: Unconscious Clinton More Fit to Be President Than Conscious Trump by Andy Borowitz (September 11, 2016) The New Yorker.
  293. Comey Says F.B.I. Investigating Hillary’s Ties to Bill Clinton by Andy Borowitz (November 2, 2016) The New Yorker.
  294. Pence Recaptured After Fleeing Trump Campaign Bus by Andy Borowitz (August 26, 2016) The New Yorker.
  295. Trump Confirms That He Just Googled Obamacare by Andy Borowitz (November 12, 2016) The New Yorker.
  296. In Final Appeal To Voters, Clinton Changes Slogan To 'Won't Blow Up Planet' by Andy Borowitz (November 7, 2016) The New Yorker.
  297. Study: Average American Can Stand Four Seconds of Ted Cruz by Andy Borowitz (November 11, 2015) The New Yorker.
  298. See the Wikipedia article on The Daily Currant.
  299. Sarah Palin Calls for Invasion of Czech Republic (Apr. 22, 2013) The Daily Currant (archived from April 24, 2013).
  300. Santorum Claims He Thought Grindr Was a Coffee App (July 3rd, 2012) The Daily Currant (archived from July 5, 2012).
  301. George Bush Accidentally Votes For Obama (Nov. 06, 2012) The Daily Currant (archived from November 9, 2012).
  302. Paul Krugman Declares Personal Bankruptcy (Mar. 06, 2013) The Daily Currant (archived from March 102, 2013).
  303. Sarah Palin: 'Native Americans should go back to Nativia' (Sep 07, 2015) The Daily Currant (archived from September 9, 2015).
  304. Sarah Palin: Native Americans Should Go Back to Nativia-Fiction! (Sep 10, 2015) Truth or Fiction.
  305. Sarah Palin Arrives in South Korea for Mandela Memorial (Dec 10, 2013) The Daily Currant (archived from December 13, 2013).
  306. Donald Trump: 'I Have The Greatest Toenails In The History of Mankind' (Mar 12, 2016) The Daily Currant (archived from March 16, 2016).
  307. Donald Trump Drops Out, Claims 'Joke Has Gone Too Far' (Jun 29, 2016) The Daily Currant (archived from July 2, 2016).
  308. theshovel.com.au is Satire Real or Satire.
  309. The Shovel — Satire (Media Bias/Fact Check)
  310. Mark Zuckerburg – Dead At 32 – Denies Facebook Has Problem With Fake News (November 17, 2016) The Shovel (archived from November 17, 2016).
  311. Refugee Swap: Australia To Send Manus Island Detainees To US In Return For 50 Million Democrat Voters (November 14, 2016) The Shovel (archived from November 14, 2016).
  312. USA Loses Presidential Election (November 9, 2016) The Shovel (archived from November 10, 2016).
  313. Leaked Emails From Clinton Server Reveal There Are Hundreds Of Singles Available In Her Area (November 4, 2016) The Shovel (archived from November 6, 2016).
  314. Trump Rushed Off Stage After Man Asks Him To Logically Explain Economic Policy (November 6, 2016) The Shovel (archived from November 7, 2016).
  315. New Microsoft App Correctly Guesses What Year You Think It Is (May 1, 2016) The Shovel (archived from November 6, 2016).
  316. Oh Fuck (November 9, 2016) The Shovel (archived from November 10, 2016).
  317. The Shovel
  318. About GodThe Good Lord Above
  319. The Good Lord Above
  320. Noah's Ark Theme Park Destroyed In A Flood (August 29, 2016) The Good Lord Above (archived from August 29, 2016).
  321. Was a Noah's Ark Theme Park Destroyed in a Flood? Reports that a Christian theme park featuring a Noah's Ark exhibit was destroyed by a flood which meteorologists termed "an act of God" are fake news. by Dan Evon (Published: 21 April 2016; Updated: 25 November 2017) Snopes.
  322. Vice Presidential Debate Quickly Descends Into Curse-Filled Brawl (November 18, 2016) The Good Lord Above (archived from 28 Nov 2016 20:59:39 UTC).
  323. Americans Finally Learn About World's Biggest Humanitarian Crisis Because A Politician Was Dumb (November 18, 2016) The Good Lord Above (archived from 28 Nov 2016 20:59:37 UTC).
  324. One Week After Saying 'God Picked Trump,' Michele Bachmann Stricken With Lockjaw (November 18, 2016) The Good Lord Above (archived from 28 Nov 2016 20:59:08 UTC).
  325. Italy Earthquake Damage Removed By Massive Wave Of Thoughts And Prayers (November 18, 2016) The Good Lord Above (archived from 28 Nov 2016 20:57:46 UTC).
  326. Clinton Agrees To Debate Sanders In Exchange For $225,000 (November 18, 2016) The Good Lord Above (archived from 28 Nov 2016 20:57:55 UTC).
  327. The American Tribune (archived from December 7, 2016)
  328. Obama Controls our Thots by Bud Dicker (Dec 12, 201607:55) The American Tribune (archived from 8 Jan 2017 13:22:35 UTC).
  329. Buzzfeed Article Nominated for Pulitzer Prize by Mark Whitney (Dec 15, 201608:48) The American Tribune (archived from 8 Jan 2017 13:21:15 UTC).
  330. Putin is Out of the Closet! by Bud Dicker (Dec 16, 201609:27) The American Tribune (archived from 8 Jan 2017 13:21:16 UTC).
  331. Russian Spies Behind 2016 Holiday Season Celebrity Deaths (Dec 29, 2016 10:40) The American Tribune (archived from 8 Jan 2017 13:21:15 UTC).
  332. Mariah Carey Claims Stage Was 'Hacked' by Russians After New Year's Eve Debacle (Jan 4, 201706:52) The American Tribune (archived from 8 Jan 2017 13:21:32 UTC).
  333. The Underground Report via The Internet Archive
  334. Breaking: Satire Makes Fools of Gullible Trump Supporters (March 3, 2017) The Underground Report (archived from March 11, 2017).
  335. Breaking: Fake news website created to test Donald Trump supporters' gullibility - Reveals they will believe anything by Adam Lusher (March 10, 2017) The Independent.
  336. Headline: Bombshell: Obama Plans To Use 'Mind Control' Drug On Trump (February 23, 2017) The Underground Report (archived from March 15, 2017).
  337. Obama Mobilizing Refugee Army For Mexico (February 28, 2017) The Underground Report (archived from March 14, 2017).
  338. New Evidence: Milo Yiannopolous Assisted Clinton Goons In Pedo Ring (February 21, 2017) The Underground Report (archived from February 25, 2017) The Underground Report (archived from February 25, 2017).
  339. Breaking: CNN Connection To ISIS Exposed (February 21, 2017) The Underground Report.
  340. Report: Michelle Obama Underwent Sex Change Surgery In 2016 (February 21, 2017) The Underground Report (archived from February 25, 2017).
  341. thelapine.ca is Satire Real or Satire.
  342. That Annoying Friend Who Loves Winter Doomed to 6 Months of Decent Weather (May 30, 2017) The Lapine (archived from June 28, 2017).
  343. Trump Rushes Emergency Planeload of Hats to Flood-Ravaged Louisiana (August 19, 2016) The Lapine (archived from August 20, 2016).
  344. Fox to Launch News Channel for Kiddies The Lapine (archived from June 25, 2014).
  345. Ben Carson 'Stranded' in Middle of Escalator After Stairs Stop Moving (Published April 12, 2017 · Updated April 13, 2017) The Lapine (archived from June 28 2017).
  346. realnewsrightnow.com is Satire Real or Satire?
  347. During U.S. Visit Netanyahu Garners Congressional Support to Relocate Palestine to Wyoming by R. Hobbus (March 4, 2015) Real News Right Now (archived from 24 Nov 2016 05:17:21 UTC).
  348. Pope Francis Orders Vatican Archives to Reveal God’s Name Ending Centuries of Secrecy by R. Hobbus (February 24, 2017) Real News Right Now (archived from 9 Sep 2018 04:38:33 UTC).
  349. Sophia the Robot Says She Has Taken Control of World's Strategic Nuclear Arsenal by R. Hobbus (November 27, 2017) Real News Right Now (archived from 9 Sep 2018 04:41:40 UTC).
  350. Scientists Warn Pink Cows on the Verge of Extinction by R. Hobbus (June 25, 2017) Real News Right Now (archived from 9 Sep 2018 04:49:25 UTC).
  351. Bigoted Boy Scouts Welcome Girls But Still Exclude All 49,247 Other Genders (May 2, 2018) The Babylon Bee (archived from August 11, 2018).
  352. Kamala Harris Reiterates Strong Support For Separating Families At Border Of Birth Canal (July 3, 2018) The Babylon Bee (archived from July 4, 2018).
  353. Libertarian Just Gonna Kick Back And Enjoy Watching Faith In Government Institutions Crumble (August 24, 2018) The Babylon Bee (archived from August 31, 2018).
  354. Young Earth Creationist Parents Force Child To Play With Human Action Figures, Dinosaurs At Same Time (June 14, 2018) The Babylon Bee (archived from September 9, 2018).
  355. House Democrats Draft Legislation That Would Make It A Hate Crime To Eat At Chick-Fil-A (June 12, 2018) The Babylon Bee (archived from 13 Jun 2018 14:48:44 UTC).
  356. 356.0 356.1 I’ve Been Making Viral Fake News for the Last Six Months. It’s Way Too Easy to Dupe the Right on the Internet. Here’s what I learned trapping trending algorithms and the people of Facebook, even when I wasn’t really trying to. by Marco Chacon (11.21.16 1:13 AM ET) The Daily Beast.
  357. RealTrueNews (archived from 5 Apr 2017 21:19:54 UTC).
  358. About RealTrueNews.
  359. Fact Check RealTrueNews
  360. Mansplainer: Why Didn't They Repeal Obamacare? by Lex Icon (July 18, 2017) RealTrueNews.
  361. Man Terrified of Learning Anything New About 'Q' by Lex Icon (August 15, 2018) RealTrueNews.
  362. RNC 2018 Message 'OK To Say N-Word Again' by Max Inisder[sic] (August 2, 2018) RealTrueNews.
  363. Let's Learn All About The #SethRich Conspiracy! by The Exoteric Truth (May 30, 2017) RealTrueNews.
  364. Only Trump & Putin Can Stand Up To Hillary!! by #NeverEVERHillary (July 24, 2016) RealTrueNews.
  365. RationalWiki — Left-Center Bias (Media Bias/Fact Check).
  366. India’s millions of new Internet users are falling for fake news — sometimes with deadly consequences by Vidhi Doshi (October 1, 2017 at 9:48 PM) The Washington Post.