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School shooting

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I wouldn't say a single word to them. I would listen to what they have to say and that's what no one did.
Marilyn Manson in Bowling for Columbine, when asked what he would say to the shooters

A school shooting is an incident of mass violence involving a firearm at an educational institution, usually caused by heavy metal music, video games, and the absence of classroom prayer.[1] While a school shooting can, technically speaking, encompass any kind of criminal event involving a gun at a school (including gang violence, etc), the term is most widely used to refer to a specific type of massacre involving few participants shooting a large number of innocent/unarmed people before typically turning the gun on themselves. Although the number of school shootings in the United States is extraordinarily high,[2][3][4] they have happened in many countries around the world. Pundits will typically declare that school shootings are "on the rise," though it is questionable how accurate this statement is.

Incidents involving law enforcement on school campuses, even where innocents may be killed (such as the Kent State massacre), are not usually considered "school shootings." Incidents involving military or terrorist groups that happen to take place on or near a school campus are not usually considered "school shootings" either, although some are.

School shooter profiling[edit]

Although nearly every reputable organization has said there is no reliable way to profile a potential school shooter, this has not stopped hundreds of politicians, news organizations, and media shows from developing stereotypes about what a shooter supposedly looks like or enjoys doing in their spare time. A major study, performed by the US Secret Service in 2002, found that not only is there no particular profile that school shooters meet, but that it is actually dangerous and counterproductive to focus on certain stereotypes.[5]

The Secret Service report found five major questions that can be asked of educators and parents if they are worried about their teenager's mental health:

  1. What has this child said?
  2. Do they have grievances?
  3. What do their friends know?
  4. Do they have access to weapons?
  5. Are they depressed or despondent?

The only reliable profiling indicator of school shooters is that almost every single one is male. Only two major attempts at a spree shooting by female students have ever been documented.[6] The correlation between bullying and school shootings has also been widely discussed. The most well-known example of "bullying victims gone bad," the Columbine shooting, has helped cement the idea in the national consciousness of bullying victims bringing a gun to school. However, in the years since the massacre, numerous studies and former classmates of the shooters have challenged the idea that they were victims, with some even alleging the perpetrators were bullies themselves.[citation needed] In another case of a claim that the shooter was bullied, one student at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School prior to the shootings claimed that while peer counseling, the gunman would disrespect her and even sexually harass her.[7]

Things that cause school shootings (according to the media and politicians)[edit]

All of the above are purely speculative and are merely the opinion of the media and/or politicians that support these views. While there may be some correlation evidence, none of the above should be considered to be a direct cause of school shootings.

Notable school shootings[edit]

University of Texas (1966)[edit]

On August 1, 1966, Charles Whitman, an engineering student and former marine, killed his wife and mother and then proceeded to fire at students on the campus from a large tower. Including his wife and mother, 16 people were murdered and another 32 were injured. Whitman himself was shot and killed by a police officer.

University of Montreal (1989)[edit]

On December 6, 1989, Marc Lépine killed 14 women plus himself at the University of Montreal. Lépine's actions were motivated by his hatred of women in general and of feminists in particular.

Pearl High School (1997)[edit]

On October 1, 1997, 16-year-old Luke Woodham killed two students and injured seven others at Pearl High School, Mississippi. Before the shooting began, Woodham stabbed and bludgeoned his mother to death in his home.

This incident is often cited by lovers of teh gun as evidence that arming teachers is an effective deterrent to school violence.[10] An assistant principal, Joel Myrick, fetched a .45 caliber semi-automatic pistol from his truck and halted Woodham's rampage. This talking point would be more persuasive if easy access to the gun had not cost the lives of two young people.

Westside Middle School (1998)[edit]

On March 24, 1998, Mitchell Johnson and Andrew Golden killed four female students and a teacher at Westside Middle School in Jonesboro, Arkansas, injuring ten others in the massacre. The two boys were known as the stereotypical bully-type and wannabe gangsters, though Johnson attributed his behaviors to prior child sexual abuse. The two have since served time, only to get into further trouble with the law.

The shooting inspired writers at The Onion to write a piece about a similar shooting which satirized both the students' motivations as well as the inevitable media responses to it.[11]

Columbine High School (1999)[edit]

On April 20, 1999, two seniors named Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed 12 students and a teacher, injured 21 other students, and then shot themselves at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado. They also unsuccessfully attempted to set off homemade bombs in the school cafeteria, which, had they worked, may have killed hundreds of students. The incident attracted international attention and ignited a heated controversy about gun control and the role of video games in the shooters' lives. Columbine was the first major tragedy to occur after the beginning of the 24-hour cable news cycle; as a result, news organizations reported a number of inaccurate statements about the shooters and the massacre itself that endure to this day. It is also the most well-known school shooting to which most others are compared and from which most stereotypes about shooter profiling have emerged.

Christian martyrs and "do you believe in God?"[edit]

Arguably the most well-known myth and controversy to emerge from the Columbine shooting is the idea that Harris and Klebold were specifically hunting devout Christian students. Even though all investigations and eyewitness testimonies confirm the fact that the shooters killed randomly and indiscriminately, conservative politicians and church advocacy groups wasted no time (or maybe wasted lots of time) in insisting that they had been the victims of an anti-Christian terror attack. Harris and Klebold were known to hate organized religion and wrote about the subject in their journals, but there is no evidence to suggest they specifically targeted devout Christians during the massacre.

One particularly controversial subject revolves around an alleged conversation the shooters had with two different students. The family of slain student Cassie Bernall has insisted for 13 years that their daughter had been asked "do you believe in God?" by the shooters; upon answering "yes," she was fatally shot. While bearing in mind that people can absolutely misremember events, especially traumatic events, all but two of the eyewitnesses to this event said this conversation actually happened with another student, Valeen Schnurr, who was not killed.[12][13] The two eyewitnesses who claim Bernall was the participant in this conversation were asked to point to where they heard the discussion; both pointed to where Schnurr, not Bernall, was located. Despite this, Bernall's family has cashed in on their daughter's "martyrdom," as has the family of Rachel Scott, a Christian student who was killed by random gunfire and was clearly not a specific target. Some in Scott's family have insisted the "do you believe in God?" conversation happened with her as well, once again despite all eyewitness evidence to the contrary.[14] Many Columbine students have expressed anger at the cashing-in by families of students who were killed and their desire to spread blatantly false myths about the day's events.[15]

Legacy[edit]

Columbine had a major effect on the American sociopolitical landscape. Many school systems and districts passed reactionary policies in an attempt to prevent future incidents. Many school districts were given stereotypical traits to "watch out" for, and would encourage students to report their peers for any remotely suspicious behavior that fit these stereotypes, similar to other "If you see something, say something" profiling campaigns. These zero-tolerance campaigns have been widely criticized.[16] Numerous attempted or successful school shooters, both in the US and abroad, have cited Harris and Klebold as being inspirations.[17] The Michael Moore documentary Bowling for Columbine was inspired by the idea that lax gun control was responsible for the massacre. Eminem's heavily sarcastic lyric, "middle America, now it's a tragedy" - from his 2000 song "The Way I Am" - accused the American mainstream media of giving Columbine too much coverage compared to their downplaying of shootings in urban areas with much larger African-American populations.

Red Lake Senior High School (2005)[edit]

On March 21, 2005, 16-year-old student Jeffrey Weise killed his grandfather and his grandfather's girlfriend, then drove to Red Lake Senior High School on the Red Lake reservation in Red Lake, Minnesota and killed five students, a teacher, and a security guard, and injured five other students before shooting himself. As with Columbine, most media attention focused on the role of video games and subcultures rather than mental illness or lax gun control as the culprit behind Weise's shooting.

Virginia Tech (2007)[edit]

On April 16, 2007, the Virginia Tech massacre involved Seung-Hui Cho, a student at the university who murdered 29 students and three professors, injured 23 others, and then killed himself. Much of the post-shooting controversy focused on the fact that Cho was severely mentally ill, but that privacy laws and gun ownership loopholes had prevented both the school and firearms background checks from detecting his instability. An additional controversy involved the school's poor communication with students, many of whom were unaware that a gunman was loose on the campus until the shootings had already concluded.

Sandy Hook Elementary School (2012)[edit]

See the main article on this topic: Sandy Hook massacre

On December 14, 2012 , 20-year-old gunman Adam Lanza killed 20 students, all of whom were young children, as well as killing six adult staff members before committing suicide at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. It is currently the second deadliest school shooting in U.S. history and the fifth deadliest mass shooting by a single person in U.S. history.

Umpqua Community College (2015)[edit]

On October 1, 2015, 26-year-old Christopher Harper-Mercer went to his writing class and murdered 9 people (8 students and one assistant professor), and injured 9 others at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg, Oregon. He then killed himself after engaging in a two-minute confrontation with the police. Harper-Mercer's intent was apparently fame through the exact same fame and "immortality" he believed was given other mass shooters through media attention. The media was quick to jump on rumors that he only targeted Christians (Harper-Mercer appears to be an anti-theist based on his writings), however, eyewitnesses state that he only asked this to taunt the person before shooting them.[18] He also left behind writings glorifying previous shooting massacres (specifically the 2014 Isla Vista killings), problems with his sex life (defining himself as an "involuntary virgin" and a "beta male"), his hatred towards black men, and hatred of having lived so isolated. He allegedly praised Vester Flanagan, a television newscaster who shot two of his former coworkers when they were broadcasting live in August. He belonged to a file sharing platform where he shared Nazi and Illuminati documentaries, as well as documentaries on the Sandy Hook, Columbine, and Virginia Tech shootings.[19] Posts on 4chan's /r9k/ board were allegedly made by Harper-Mercer and warned others of his planned shooting spree, and where he was encouraged to go through with it.[20]

Also the sheriff in charge of the investigation is a Sandy Hook truther.[21]

Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School (2018)[edit]

On February 14, 2018, 19-year-old Nikolas Cruz used an AR-15 assault rifle to kill 17 people at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Florida; 12 of the victims died inside the school.[22] After committing the crime, Cruz blended in with the fleeing students and then went to a Subway and a McDonald's before being taken into custody without incident. This school shooting was the deadliest school shooting since the Sandy Hook massacre. Prior to the shooting, students at the school described Cruz as an "outcast" and a "loner". He had an obsession with guns, knives, and hunting, and the students said that "everyone predicted" he would be a school shooter. Educators had long feared Cruz's capability for violence, and he had previously been expelled for disciplinary reasons. Five months prior to the shooting, the FBI was alerted to comment from a user named "nikolas cruz" on YouTube, who had said, "I’m going to be a professional school shooter." Investigators were unable to successfully identify the maker of that comment.

Unsurprisingly, a number of conspiracy theories were generated by the event. Some of the survivors of the massacre were accused of being crisis actors on behalf of a liberal agenda.[23] David Hogg, a 17-year-old-survivor, was a particular target since he had advocated gun control and is the son of a former FBI agent. Facebook has pledged to remove posts spreading this claim. Marco Rubio, in a stopped clock moment, came to the student's defense on Twitter, tweeting, "Claiming some of the students on tv after #Parkland are actors is the work of a disgusting group of idiots with no sense of decency."[24]

The children will lead them all[edit]

Following the shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, the issue of Cruz being able to legally access an AR-15 assault rifle became widely publicized. Specifically, he was able to purchase the weapon legally with no red flags being raised despite having a history of violence and mental issues,including being the subject of several 911 calls where he had put a gun to someone's head. He had also posted photos and videos of him dismembering small animals. Additionally there was a great deal made of how lenient Florida's gun laws were, as an eighteen-year old could purchase assault rifles legally but was not eligible to obtain alcohol.[25][26]

Numerous right-wing talking heads parroted talking points of how guns don't kill people, people kill people. Figures such as Tomi Lahren and Mark Dice chimed in; the former blamed the liberal left for using a national tragedy to push their gun control agenda before families had a chance to grieve[27]; the latter in a deleted tweet mocked survivors for using social media during the shooting.[28] President Trump go tweeted that authorities should have been on the lookout for warning signs before Cruz had the chance to commit the massacre[29]. Donald Trump Jr. "liked" a tweet revealing that one of the survivors who criticized the president was the son of an FBI agent, as if that somehow undermined the student's credibility.[30]

Not expected however was for the students to retaliate against such talk themselves, using social media platforms such as Twitter to protest the invective spat at them.[31] Survivors and their families held a town hall meeting with right-wing lawmakers and spokespeople. Fred Guttenberg, whose daughter Jaime was killed in the shooting, grilled Marco Rubio, wanting him to admit that semiautomatic weapons themselves were the problem as opposed to any gun laws. Cameron Kasky, a student at the school, also told Rubio that he should turn down NRA campaign donations. Rubio told Guttenberg that the problem runs deeper than anything related to guns and focused his remarks on raising the age at which one could purchase firearms; he also said he was open to reconsidering the size of gun magazines. He told Kasky that the influence of the NRA runs deeper than money, and refused to say that he would not accept NRA contributions, admitting that he and the organization shared a common agenda. Rubio made a cheap appeal to bothsiderism for both sides to come together and make a change as the only way to make effective change and proposed the wishy-washy idea of a gun restraining order (police could seize weapons from people whom the community had suspicions about), all the while refusing to pinpoint guns as the problem, which was booed by the audience. The only notion that everyone could agree on was news of President Trump's suggestion that arming teachers with guns as a remedy to school shootings being too grotesque for discussion.[32]

Emma Gonzalez, another survivor of the shooting, questioned NRA spokeswoman Dana Loesch, saying she would protect Loesch's children in ways that [Loesch] would not. Loesch made no secrets about her loyalty to the NRA, claiming that the laws should be on the lookout for mentally ill people and there had been a call to stop bump stocks from modifying weapons to become fully automatic. During the debate, Broward County Sheriff Scott Israel came to Gonzalez's defense, saying that Loesch stood up for the NRA and not for the best interests of the survivors because if she did any desire to prevent school shootings, she would have been advocating for fewer weapons period.[33]

The shooting inspired students to walk out of school to rally for gun control nationwide. Some schools threatened to punish their students if they went through with these marches[34], while other schools were supportive.[35] Students were able to persuade Education Secretary Betsy DeVos to call for Congressional hearings. Many companies including United, Delta, Hertz, and Metz announced that they will sever ties with the NRA after NRA's response to the tragedy (the NRA has only doubled down to this, deflecting to failing mental health; law enforcement, even going far to call it "cruel failure"; and school security; and they have accused the companies of scapegoating their membership in "a shameful display of political and civic cowardice").[36] After a school shooting where a good number of the survivors were close to voting age, politically aware, and able to connect nationwide through social media with other students, there is a sense of unity not seen following previous school shootings,[37] though survivors enduring an onslaught of vicious verbal attacks after becoming politically active is also unprecedented. The most action taken, however, is just "thoughts and prayers" taken to another level; let's just disregard our Constitution and slap "In God We Trust" on schools because surely that'll cause mass shootings to stop.[38]

Santa Fe High School (2018)[edit]

When it seems that 2018 can't get a week without a school shooting,[39] on May 18, 2018, Dimitrios Pagourtzis, 17, used a legally owned shotgun and a .38-caliber revolver to kill ten people, nine who are students and one teacher at Santa Fe High School in Texas, and injure another 10 people.[40] Additionally, officials found pipe bombs and pressure cookers installed around the school. Prior to the shooting, Pagourtzis was suicidal and he had posted "Dangerous Days" with a Pentagram prior to the shooting. His journal and notes on his cellphone were retrieved, both that detailed his plans for the shooting. Pagourtzis turned himself to law enforcement and was charged with capital murder.

One of the victims of the school shooting was an underpaid teacher who was in medical debt working in two jobs.[41] This is essentially how Americans live in a nutshell.

Conspiracy theories[edit]

Consider the recent attacks on one of the young Parkland shooting survivors. A teenager who had just witnessed classmates being gunned down at his own school quickly discovered that speaking up for common-sense gun regulation resulted in vicious trolling and the viral lie that he was a paid "crisis actor". This was similar to what befell the grieving families of the small children murdered at Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012. Imagine waking one morning in a state of searing grief over the death of your baby to discover that some odious prankster like Alex Jones is telling his gullible audience that the whole tragic incident was staged, that your child was actually a paid performer doused in artificial gore and posed in a gruesome tableaux of death.
Ron Reagan[42]

Many wingnutty conspiracy theorists believe that most, if not all, acts of mass murder committed with guns in the US are actually false flag operations committed by the US government to increase public support for stricter gun control and even confiscation. Conspiracy theorists typically focus their (f)ire on the fact that the shooters in these incidents have access to extremely deadly semi-automatic weapons which, they believe, could only have been obtained through the government. This ignores the more disturbing fact that these weapons actually can be obtained, often with ease, in many parts of the country — in large part because of precisely the sort of loose gun laws that they advocate for.

Since these theories date back at least to Columbine, the fact that there has been no confiscation and no appreciable restrictions on weaponry rather undermines the theorists.

Columbine theories[edit]

To this day, rumors of a third Columbine shooter persist. These rumors typically claim the third shooter was wearing elaborate paramilitary gear or was using more powerful weapons than Harris and Klebold. However, the autopsy reports and investigations have shown that all victims of the attacks were shot using the weapons wielded by Harris and Klebold.

Some theorists have linked the Columbine shooting to the sixth anniversary of the attack on the Branch Davidians or the fourth anniversary of the Oklahoma City bombing, despite that these events happened on April 19th and not April 20th. This is one of those theories that turned out to be true; in home videos, Harris and Klebold mentioned that they wanted their actions to overshadow what had happened in 1993 and 1995. The shooting happened on the 20th because they were unable to get all of their ammunition and supplies ready on the 19th.

Other theorists try to make a connection to April 20 instead. Some have suggested that they struck on "4/20" because that was the day when many of the school's stoners, whom they had little issue with, would be cutting class, while others have pointed out that April 20 was Adolf Hitler's birthday and tried to connect that to a neo-Nazi motivation. While it is known that Eric Harris held a disturbingly high regard for the Nazis, it seems to have amounted mainly to an admiration of the efficiency of their killing machine and a fetishization of authoritarianism and violence for their own sake; while the latter is a classic hallmark of fascism, Harris didn't seem to particularly care about ideology.[43] Either way, given that the shooting was planned for April 19th but later delayed, both of these hypotheses can be written off.

A few idiots, such as Gene Ray, jumped on the fact that Harris and Klebold, being nerds and outcasts, had been described as fans of the collectible card game Magic: The Gathering, and for a short time the game received the same kind of unwarranted attention that role-playing games had received in the early 1980s. Still others blamed video games, as Harris and Klebold were fans of the first-person shooter games Doom and Wolfenstein 3D. Some of the victims' parents tried to sue the video game makers, but were (rightly) unsuccessful. When it came out that Harris had made a number of game mods for Doom II: Hell on Earth, speculation immediately erupted that they were maps of the school that he and Klebold used to practice and plan their massacre. The actual "Harris levels" turned out to be more mundane; only one of them, a multiplayer map set in a hockey arena, even remotely resembled a location that could exist in real life, and if he did create a Columbine map, it is likely lost to history.[44][45] Fittingly enough, somebody did go on to create a Columbine-themed level for Doom.[46]

Not even a day after the shooting occurred, some news programs tried to make a connection to the 1995 film Basketball Diaries[47], which features a dream sequence where Leonardo DiCaprio's character, clad in a trench coat and wielding a shotgun, kicks down the classroom door and shoots his classmates and his teacher.[48] Harris and Klebold were, however, definitely fans of the 1994 Oliver Stone film Natural Born Killers[49], having given their plan the codename "NBK" in videos and journals. Columbine was hardly the only high-profile crime that Natural Born Killers was attached to, the film being accused of inspiring a laundry list of copycat murders.[50] Given that the film, about a Bonnie & Clyde-esque outlaw couple who become celebrities and cult icons thanks to an unscrupulous, ratings-hungry tabloid hack, was made as a satire of how the news media treats real-life violence and glamorizes criminals, the fact that life seemingly imitated art so dramatically makes for a bitter irony.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Speaking is Difficult, a short film by the Intercept that documents America's mass shootings from the Tulsa (2011) shooting to San Bernadino (2015)

using 911 responder calls.

References[edit]

  1. For your sake, we hope you noticed the sarcasm.
  2. http://qz.com/37015/how-school-killings-in-the-us-stack-up-against-36-other-countries-put-together/
  3. http://o.canada.com/news/politics-and-the-nation/crime-and-justice/interactive-mass-shootings-around-the-world-since-1996
  4. http://www.stoptheshootings.org/
  5. US Department of Education. "The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative."
  6. CNN. "Police: Female student kills 2 others, self at Louisiana college."
  7. Robinson, Isabelle. (March 27, 2018) I Tried to Befriend Nikolas Cruz. He Still Killed My Friends. The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  8. http://politix.topix.com/homepage/9433-you-wont-believe-what-rush-limbaugh-said-about-school-shootings
  9. Yes, really.
  10. See, for example, this essay by Ann Coulter
  11. "School Shooting solves all of Troubled Youth's Problems", The Onion, 20 May 1998
  12. Thomas Larson. "Review: The Martyrs of Columbine by Justin Watson."
  13. TruthOrFiction.com. "Columbine Student Cassie Bernall Said "Yes" When Asked By One of the Shooters if She Believed In God-Disputed!"
  14. Greg Toppo. "10 years later, the real story behind Columbine." USA Today
  15. Dave Cullen. "Who said 'Yes'?" Salon
  16. ZeroIntelligence.com. "Five years after Columbine--is zero tolerance working?"
  17. CNN. "Shooter: 'You have blood on your hands'."
  18. Brad Schmidt, "Gunman in Oregon college shooting executed classmates, saying 'I'll see you soon'", Oregon Live
  19. T. Rees Shapiro, Caitlin Dewey, and Lenny Bernstein, "Probe in college slayings peers into Web rants and possible religious rage", The Washington Post
  20. Nick Statt, "4chan thread under federal investigation after Oregon college shooting", The Verge
  21. Catherine Thompson, "Sheriff In Charge Of Oregon Massacre Probe Posted Sandy Hook Truther Video", TPM Livewire
  22. Segarra, Lisa Marie; Reilly, Katie; Meixler, Eli; and Calfas, Jennifer. (February 14, 2018). What To Know About the Active Shooter Situation at Florida High School. Time. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  23. (February 21, 2018) 'Abhorraent' Hoax Facebook Posts Are Claiming the Florida School Shooting Survivors Are 'Crisis Actors'. Time. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  24. Chavez, Nicole (February 21, 2018) School shooting survivor knocks down 'crisis actor' claim. CNN. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  25. "Nikolas Cruz, Who Was Too Disturbed to Carry a Backpack, Legally Bought AR-15" Miami New Times, Time Elfrink, February 15, 2018 8:35 AM
  26. "‘Not the first time he’s put a gun on someone’s head’: Chilling Nikolas Cruz 911 call"USA Today, Mary Bowerman, February 23, 2018, 9:23 AM
  27. [1] @TomiLahren Feburary 14, 2018 7:29 PM
  28. Tait, Amelia. How student survivors of the Florida school shooting are using social media to demand change. New Statesman. February 21, 2018.
  29. "Why Are Some Conservatives Blaming Survivors for the Florid a Shooting?" Elle, Sady Doyle, February 15, 2018
  30. https://www.thecut.com/2018/02/parkland-survivor-melania-trump-donald-jr-cyberbullying.html "Parkland Shooting Survivor Asks Melania Trump to Stop Donald Jr. From Cyberbullying Her"] The Cut, Lisa Ryan, February 23 2018, 3:42 PM
  31. "Parkland Survivors Use Twitter to Shut Down Conspiracy Theories That They're Paid "Crisis Actors"" Teen Vogue, Araceli Cruz, February 23, 2018 9:18 AM
  32. https://www.cnn.com/2018/02/21/politics/cnn-town-hall-florida-shooting/index.html "Students at town hall to Washington, NRA: Guns are the problem, do something"] CNN, Emanuella Grinberg and Steve Almasy, February 22, 2018 5:19 AM
  33. "Transcript Of Emma Gonzalez & Dana Loesch Talking About The NRA Is A Must-Read" Bustle Jessicah Lahitou, February 22, 2018
  34. "Schools threaten to punish students who join walkouts over gun control" CNN, David Williams, February 21 2018, 4:10 PM
  35. "Texas school district threatens to suspend students who take part in gun control walkouts" USA Today William Cummings, February 21, 2018, 7:55 PM
  36. Caplan, D.; Rand, B. (February 24, 2018). More companies sever ties with NRA, now include United, Delta, Hertz and MetLife. ABC News. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  37. "The Parkland survivors started a movement when they took on gun violence. Here's how it happened."Alan Gomez, USA Today, February 22 2018, 4:33 PM
  38. Held, A. (February 22, 2018). "Florida Lawmakers Advance Bill Requiring Schools To Display 'In God We Trust'" NPR. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  39. Ahmed, Saeed and Walker, Christina. (May 18, 2018) There has been, on average, 1 school shooting every week this year. CNN. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  40. (May 18, 2018) Texas gov.: 10 dead in high school shooting - live updates. CBS. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  41. Rodriguez, Michael. (May 21, 2018). Family mourns news that Pharr churchgoer among school shooting victims. The Monitor. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  42. https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-problem-isnt-just-trump-its-our-ignorant-electorate
  43. "The Nazi Culture", a ten-page essay Eric Harris wrote for class in which he goes into obsessive detail about all the ways in which the Nazis oppressed people, with a fairly unconvincing "and that's terrible!" tacked onto the final two paragraphs.
  44. Snopes: Columbine Doom Levels
  45. A Columbine Site: REB's Doom & Quake
  46. Doom 2 - Columbine.wad (REB and VoDKa gameplay)
  47. Basketball Diaries on IMDb.com
  48. The Basketball Diaries — School Shooting Scene
  49. Natural Born Killers on IMDb.com
  50. Wikipedia: List of alleged Natural Born Killers copycat crimes