|Frogs, clowns, and swastikas|
|Rebuilding the Reich, one meme at a time|
|Buzzwords and dogwhistles|
“”Race mixing is like destroying a unique species or piece of art. It’s shameful.
“”By his own reasoning Hoste should probably abstain from procreating. Since reason is evidently not his strong suit, we are not holding our breath.
|—Encyclopedia of American Loons on Richard Hanania/Hoste|
Richard Hanania also known as Richard Hoste (born August 28, 1985) is an American white supremacist, alt-right pseudointellectual, grifter,[note 1] transphobe, anti-feminist, ableist, eugenicist and fake contrarian who presents himself as both against "woke" and "anti-woke" (albeit conservative anti-wokeness). Hanania in recent years has written articles for right-wing and "Intellectual Dark Web" publications such as Quillette, The American Conservative and The Wall Street Journal.
Hanania as "Richard Hoste" used to post virulently racist and sexist comments on The Unz Review in 2009 and 2010. He was formerly a columnist for Richard Spencer's AlternativeRight.com magazine and has authored articles for neo-Nazi and white nationalist websites including Counter-Currents, Occidental Observer and VDARE.
In August 2023, Hanania in a blog post admitted to being Richard Hoste and apologised for writing racist and misogynist comments online, now claiming he finds them "repulsive". His apology does not come across as very sincere since in the same blog post he continued to defend some of his racist views such as HBD pseudoscience. Hanania has made racist tweets as recently as May-June 2023, including the tweet: "We need more policing, incarceration and surveillance of black people."
Hanania was born in 1985. He is of Palestinian Christian and Jordanian background and grew up in the suburbs of Chicago. He holds a degree in political science from the University of Colorado and a PhD in political science at UCLA. He was a former postdoctoral research fellow at the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University. He is currently the president of the Center for the Study of Partisanship and Ideology. He lives in the Los Angeles area and has a daughter.
Edward Hanania, dog killer
Richard Hanania's younger brother Edward, pleaded guilty in 2017 to animal cruelty charges. He threw two dogs off of a 5th floor parking garage, killing one and seriously injuring the other.
Similar to Richard, Edward is known to hold far-right extremist and racist views.
White supremacist activism and writing
Hanania was using the name Richard Hoste and wrote many racist, anti-Semitic, sexist and white supremacist articles and comments including the repatriation of non-white immigrants from US, opposition to "race mixing" and forced sterilization of “low IQ” people. Some people already suspected Richard Hanania was Richard Hoste in September 2022 based on a similar writing style, interests and similarity of the two names. The was later confirmed after Hanania's email addresses at the University of Colorado and Chicago were indisputably connected to Richard Hoste's account (and sockpuppets) on Disqus, additionally "HuffPost found biographical information shared by Hoste that aligned with Hanania’s own life."
Richard Hanania first began using the alias Richard Hoste at the end of 2008 and created a blog in May 2009. Hanania under Hoste wrote articles for Richard Spencer's AlternativeRight.com and the white nationalist website VDARE. He also wrote for the white nationalist webzine Occidental Observer,, neo-Nazi site Counter-Currents and paleoconservative Taki's Magazine as well as The Unz Review and the explicitly white nationalist website "White America". Hoste's last known article was published in October 2011, although Counter-Currents translated into German an earlier article he wrote in December 2011.
Richard Hanania, a visiting scholar at the University of Texas, used the pen name “Richard Hoste” in the early 2010s to write articles where he identified himself as a “race realist.” He expressed support for eugenics and the forced sterilization of “low IQ” people, who he argued were most often Black. He opposed “miscegenation” and “race-mixing.” And once, while arguing that Black people cannot govern themselves, he cited the neo-Nazi author of “The Turner Diaries,” the infamous novel that celebrates a future race war.
Richard Hanania's Disqus account ("@RichardHoste") has dozens of racist comments he posted on white nationalist sites, for example:
I can't tell you how depressed and angry this made me. Not too long ago I got lost in a black neighborhood and felt so unsafe that I turned around and took the longer way where I was going to avoid driving through the place. I saw blacks yelling at one another at the top of their lungs, walking out in front of cars, menacingly strutting with their pants hanging down. I felt a deep revulsion and found myself thankful that I could get out of there and leave the area behind. I can't imagine what White South Africans go through, in a country politically, socially and culturally dominated by blacks. Even whites who've lived under tyrannies in the past must've felt less fear because of the similarities they felt between themselves and the rulers. I can only shudder at the thought of what life under black rule must be like.
In an article published on the website White America, Hanania opposes what he calls "racial egalitarianism" and supports a "pro-white movement":
Moreover, for those interested in promoting a race realist, pro-white movement, it may be that the negative, guilty racial identity promoted by whiteness studies holds more potential than the conservative doctrine of race-blindness. After all, writers like Trepagnier encourage whites to see themselves as a group. If they are successful in this task, perhaps whites will start to display other attributes typical of group identity, such as group pride and a desire for group rights.
Finally, whiteness studies may be beneficial to race realists because it makes the absurdities of racial egalitarianism so obvious. The field is so flagrantly unfair to whites that it cannot help but provoke some pushback. Let’s hope that our opponents become more absurd, not less so, and thereby aid us in awakening the sleeping giant that is white racial consciousness.
Among Hanania's stated political goals was opposing non-white immigration (particularly from Mexico) and repealing anti-discrimination laws:
For example, low-IQ Mexican immigration is the greatest threat to America. Anti-discrimination laws should be repealed not only because they're unconstitutional and infringe on the right to free association, but because whites have very good reasons for avoiding NAMs [Non-Asian Minorities]. Schools should stop wasting time trying to close achievement gaps. And not only do whites have nothing to feel guilty about, they are the best thing to ever happen to blacks. Even ignoring race, humanity will not move forward through equality or by raising up the really stupid to the level of just plain stupid.
In the same article, Hanania reveals he holds hardline white nationalist views including opposition to interracial relationships:
There's an important semantic purpose behind the name Alternative Right. When you live in a society in which you'd like to change the entire idea-making establishment, it makes little sense to call yourself a "conservative." On the other hand, we shouldn't do away with the term completely, as there is something inherently conservative about seeking a political and social culture that is a better fit with human nature than the one we currently have. We may lament the low European-American birth rate, but the fact that it's even near replacement level in such a feminist and anti-natalist society is a testament to natural sex differences. While there's more miscegenation than in the past, with the media as it is, we should be heartened that white teenage girls aren't passing themselves around in black neighborhoods. And though nobody will tell a pollster that they desire to live in a neighborhood free from NAMs, the real estate market doesn't lie. People to a large extent act as if they agree with us. And they'll be healthier socially and as individuals when they'll be able to say so openly. Consider this webzine a first step in that direction.
Hanania has been an outspoken supporter of white nationalism:
Immigration has already broken America. White nationalism is the only hope that part of what made the American nation great will survive somewhere. All movements and ideologies must be judged from the perspective of what they contribute to the odds of bringing it about.
Support for far-right political parties
In an article published in Occidental Observer, Hanania criticised the English Defence League for not being racist enough and instead praised the fascist British National Party, Nazi-sympathizer Jörg Haider's party Alliance for the Future of Austria and the Russian ultranationalist Rodina party:
I don’t mean to make the reader needlessly pessimistic. There are organizations in every White country that deserve our support: political parties like the BNP in England, the Alliance for the Future of Austria, and Rodina in Russia, along with of course magazines and journals like The Occidental Observer, American Renaissance, and The Occidental Quarterly.
Westboro Baptist Church
In the white supremacist The Occidental Quarterly journal Richard Hanania published a disturbing article defending Fred Phelps and the extreme homophobia of the Westboro Baptist Church:
Although I lost my faith long ago, I found myself taking a liking to Pastor Phelps and his church. There is something incredibly inspiring and, well, manly about a God filled with such hatred and wrath. Phelps came across as a real man, especially when contrasted with advocates of the hippie Jesus who were interviewed in opposition to him.
Hanania owned the blog HBD Books from 2009-2010 which was promoted on alternativeright.com.
In a blog post titled "Why are Black People so Loud" Hanania wrote: "They [black people] have lower IQs and less inhibitions because they evolved in a less demanding environment."
Reinventing himself as a conservative
By 2012, Hanania stopped using the name Richard Hoste and began writing articles for mainstream publications under his real name. He kept his white supremacist activism and affliation a secret. He came out in support for Donald Trump in 2015, asserting Trump should never apologize for his controversial and inflammatory comments. Hanania by the late 2010s, up to 2021, had reinvented himself as an outspoken conservative and wrote multiple articles for American Conservative.
In 2022, Hanania began rebranding himself as politically unorthodox and having delusions he is idiosyncratic:
My political views are unorthodox, combining parts of positions traditionally associated with the right and left. I tend to think the truth is rarely in “the middle”; it’s much more common that one side is completely right and the other side is completely wrong, or both sides are wrong and missing something important. But neither side is right or wrong on everything, and each has major blindspots.
I criticize the cultural left, what is often referred to as “wokeness” or “identity politics.” There’s certainly stupidity and evil on the political right, though it’s usually a lot less powerful.
This is despite the fact most his views (documented below) are far-right and racist and he is obviously still a white supremacist.
“”Richard Hanania is a conservative historian/blogger for substack. He hates trans people, leftists, seems to be pretty flirty with race science, thinks the west is too feminized, etc.
|—A Richard Hanania critic on Reddit.|
Blacks are vastly overrepresented in crime not only in America, but Canada, Britain, Japan and Brazil... And that's to say nothing about Africa. You talk about a "karma bank." Liberal apologists for black crime like yourself have blood on their hands. Just look at the crime rate in the 60s and today. This "we're all equal, criminals need understanding" attitude has been responsible for the death and rape of millions.
We need more policing, incarceration, and surveillance of black people. Blacks won't appreciate it, whites don't have the stomach for it.
Hanania is a mutual follower on Twitter of the white nationalist Anatoly Karlin who is on record as describing black people as "pathologically criminalized" and BLM a "negrolatry religion". When this was pointed out in a comments section of his Substack in an article where he praises Karlin, he deleted all these comments.
Black crime was the reason they originally got rid of comments in newspapers of major cities. It’s basically all people wanted to talk about. With free speech it’s happened on Twitter too. People don’t like cities being wastelands. Maybe we should solve that problem.
Is black-on-white crime a big issue in the grand scheme of things? Well, compared to cancer or heart attacks, no. But compared to the lies liberals tell us about police shootings or white supremacist violence being major problems, then yes, it's at least much bigger than that.
Hanania has made a tweet promoting veganism which confused some of his anti-vegan followers:
However, he is in fact a massive meat and dairy eater:
Like half my meals are salami and cheese followed by ice cream and it’s pretty great.
I often eat meat with potato chips on the side instead of sandwiches.
In June 2023, Hanania authored an article claiming that vegans have won the ethical argument but he is not a vegan because he "like[s] the way animals taste" and wants to be "in a good physical condition" as a meat diet is the only diet that gives him an acceptable calorie-to-protein ratio.
Hanania's article has been criticized by vegans for containing contradictions and inaccuracies:
Richard doesn’t seem honest in the article. He admits taste is a poor excuse, but then tries to justify his actions by appealing to the need for lean protein, which he falsely claims can’t be obtained from nonanimal sources. I detect willful ignorance there, if not a blatant lie.
Opposition to lockdowns
His think tank CSPI in March 2021, published "The Case Against Lockdowns".
Criticism of BLM
I know we’re all trying to be tolerant, modern folks over here but it seems like this trans thing is really a front for a lot of behavior that we usually all denounce pretty forcefully.
Views on women
“”Men didn't evolve to turn down free sex. Women and society are meant to be the limiting factors.
Hanania opposes women being older than men in marriages (but not vice-versa).
“”The ultimate goal should be to get all the post-1965 non-White migrants from Latin America to leave.
|—Richard Hanania, writing on the neo-Nazi website Counter-Currents in 2010|
He now however, claims to hold more moderate and ambivalent views on immigration:Do You Believe That?
Yeah. Well I’m not for open borders. I’m more pragmatic and I sort of take every country on its own terms. As far as whether diversity is good or bad, I don’t like that framing because it really depends on the context. So Ron Unz has written about, there were some cities in the San Francisco Bay area where they became more diverse because the Hispanics displaced African Americans, and the crime rate plummeted. So in certain situations, the places became diverse and they became better. If it’s a swing state and I want the Republicans to win, an influx of Asians might be bad, an influx of Asians might be good in another situation. I mean, I think the group matters, and I think the context matters. I think to break it down into diversity is good or diversity is bad, I think it’s too simplistic in either direction. There’s going to be some continuum of diversity we’re going to have, depending on what immigration is going to be in 20, 30 years.
In 2011, Richard Hanania distastefully defended coercive eugenics such as sterilizing individuals with IQs under 90 in "Answering Objections to Eugenics":
Whenever I tell people I favor eugenics they tell me that the state shouldn’t have such power. One thing that’s overlooked is that it already does. As Hernstein and Murray wrote in The Bell Curve
…we are as apprehensive as most other people about what might happen when a government decides to social-engineer who has babies and who doesn’t. We can imagine no recommendation for using the government to manipulate fertility that does not have dangers. But this highlights the problem: The United States already has policies that inadvertently social-engineer who has babies, and it is encouraging the wrong women. If the United States did as much to encourage high-IQ women to have babies as it now does to encourage low-IQ women, it would rightly be describes as engaging in aggressive manipulation of fertility. The technically precise description of America’s fertility policy is that it subsidizes births among poor women, who are also disproportionately at the low end of the intelligence distribution.
I don’t like government, but one thing it’s proven that it can do for certain is administer objective standardized tests that heavily correlate with g. It would be hard to abuse a law that forcibly sterilized everybody with an IQ under 90 provided that the person scored that low on an objective test blindly graded. Somebody who wants to argue that he had a bad day would have the right to an appeal, which would consist of another IQ test.
If a libertarian wants to propose that even somebody with an IQ of 90 has rights, they would have to oppose government having the power to lock people up in mental institutions. We already let the state decide that some people aren’t fit to participate in society even if they’ve yet to do anything wrong. This is a system open to abuse, but still a necessary evil. Letting unintelligent breed is as surly damaging to society as letting schizophrenics run loose is. My plan is less likely than the mental health profession to catch someone unfairly as an IQ test is a more certain measure of intelligence than a psychiatrist’s diagnosis is of a mental disorder worthy of institutionalization. Some doctors have been known to disagree over whether someone needs to be locked up, but no two IQ test ever differ much about how intelligent someone is.
The libertarian belief that whenever government acts it violates people’s rights and so it should be kept as small and powerless as possible is for the most part correct. We should abide by this maxim, except in cases where doing nothing means a libertarian society can’t continue to exist: for example, allowing low IQ groups to settle in the country or the unintelligent to keep breeding.
There is another modification I’d like to make of the classical theory. Some groups such as children and the insane aren’t considered capable of entering into contracts or being responsible for their actions and are thus not fully entitled to the rights government grants to competent adults. IQ realism forces us to expand the circle of those that need protection (and from whom we need to protect ourselves). It makes no sense to say that someone with an IQ of 65 is ill and one with an IQ of 75 is a responsible, rational actor. Wherever you draw the line between the free citizen and the unfree is going to be to a certain extent arbitrary, as the definition of retarded at 70 and below is. I’m simply convinced that it should be higher. Whatever we classify as the new retarded, and I think it should be at least IQ 80 and probably 90 and below, we need to make sure that there are less of these people so that a free society can continue to exist.
Ideally it wouldn’t be government that ran the eugenics program but private organizations. But that’s a different post.
Orban victory is a major win for the effective altruism movement. His government puts a lot of money into raising fertility. Limited results so far, but a small increase in the future plus a chance at a much larger increase makes him the rationalist choice.
Hanania wrote a blog post titled "You Should Have Kids".
Hanania has disturbing views on incest:
The arguments against incest seem problematic given current discourse
1) the disgust argument could also be used against homosexuality, etc 2) the genetic argument is eugenics
How does someone who believes consent overrides disgust and opposes eugenics support banning incest?
Consensual incestual sex between adults is extremely rare.
Hanania has expressed views veering eerily close to straight-up Holocaust denial on the Neo-Nazi webshite and towel rag Counter-Currents:
Even worse, Jewish organizations have turned the Holocaust religion into a criminal Industry. In fact, they may have pulled off the biggest robberies in human history.
It's hard to see how the Holocaust, a historical event, is a "religion" when a religion is a bundle package of ethical norms, spiritual beliefs and rituals, and explanations for why the world is the way it is. How does the Holocaust compare?
Continuing his ties to the far-right and holocaust deniers
Aside from writing articles for white nationalist sites as "Richard Hoste" (2008-2011) and his extensive racist internet history — Hanania as of today is a mutual follower of several far-right Twitter accounts including Emil Kirkegaard, Anatoly Karlin, Steve Sailer and Laura Loomer. He has further defended Karlin and Kirkegaard as people he enjoys reading in the article "Who Are the Enlightened Centrists?".
CPSI's tax reports
The journalist Jonathan Katz has investigated the tax reports of Hanania's The Center for the Study of Partisanship and Ideology. He discovered in 2021, the CSPI received a $200,000 donation by Andrew Conru who is the creator of the website AdultFriendFinder which has been described as a "borderline porn hookup site". The CPSI also received a $600,000 donation from an unidentified benefactor.
Alleged recantation of racist and white nationalist views
On August 6 2023, in response to mainstream media exposing him as a white supremacist who wrote articles under the name "Richard Hoste" on white nationalist and neo-Nazi sites (2008-2011), Hanania wrote a blog post admitting to being Hoste but suddenly claimed he was renouncing his racist past and is now "repulsed" by what he wrote on the internet:
Every story of how an individual came to their political and social views has both a psychological and intellectual component. Recently, it’s been revealed that over a decade ago I held many beliefs that, as my current writing makes clear, I now find repulsive.
My posts and blog comments in my early twenties encouraged racism, misogyny, misanthropy, trolling, and overall bad faith. Phrases like “racism” and “misogyny” get thrown around too easily, but I don’t believe there’s any doubt many of my previous comments crossed the line, regardless of where one thinks that line should be. Below, I’ll offer an explanation for why I wrote such things, and why I no longer hold such views. But first it’s important to discuss the nature of the recent journalistic attack and what it is trying to accomplish, and why I think it’s likely to fail.
The problem with taking Richard Hanania's apology seriously, is his Twitter account is chock full of racism as of this year. It has been pointed out for example, he made racist tweets as recent as May-June 2023. In his dubious blog post apology, Hanania also continued to support HBD pseudoscience — so the leopard hasn't changed his spots.
Hanania's claim his most extreme and offensive comments were written "in my early twenties" is misleading since he continued writing racist articles for white nationalist sites up to 2011. This means he would have been 26 when he stopping using the pseudonym Richard Hoste, not "early twenties". It seems Hanania's lying about his age has to do with him trying to excuse his neo-Nazi past as a youthful indiscretion. In his blog post, Hanania does not admit to being a white supremacist or neo-Nazi, instead he uses the euphemism "quasi-fascist". This is despite the fact some involved with the alt-right labeled him as a hardcore anti-Semite or neo-Nazi and his racism was too extreme for even them.
Hanania's recent (as of 2023) racist, ableist and transphobic comments were compiled by the blogger Parker Molloy:
Hanania claimed just last month that college African American Studies departments had been run by "street hustlers and illiterates.” In May, he tweeted that “we need more policing, incarceration, and surveillance of black people,” lamenting that “Blacks won’t appreciate it, whites don’t have the stomach for it,” in defense of a wildly misleading and racist chart about “interracial crime.” Also in May, he referred to Black people as “animals, whether they’re harassing people in subways or walking around in suits.” Also in May, Hanania published a blog post titled, “Why Do I Hate Pronouns More Than Genocide?” about why he treats the mere existence of trans people as worse than genocide (something others on the right have more-than-hinted they would be happy to carry out against trans people if given the opportunity), because he is “an individual concerned with truth.”
In February, he wrote, “Maybe old people shouldn’t all commit seppuku,” referencing a form of ritualistic suicide, “but we need to think creatively about how they can have dignity in a world where many are only burdens. With technological change becoming more rapid, they no longer even have wisdom to offer young generations. Need new solutions.”
“”After the reveal of his pseudonymous career as an even more cretinous racist, Hanania drafted an apology filled with so much race science it could’ve been mistaken for ham-fisted anti-racist satire in any other context.
An editorial in San Antonio Express News published on August 9, 2023 asked the Salem Center for Policy at UT Austin’s McCombs School of Business — to cut its ties with Hanania for his white supremacist views. The article points out that Hanania is not a reformed racist but still holds racist beliefs. They quote a tweet he made as recently as May 2023 describing black people as "animals, whether they’re harassing people in subways or walking around in suits." The Salam Center for Policy has since removed Hanania's "visiting scholar" page from its website.
The neo-Nazi site Counter-Currents (where Hanania as Hoste used to write) have published an article disputing some of Hanania's alleged recantation. They note "Hanania has not repudiated his race-realist beliefs" and "His fundamental premises have remained the same over the years; only his conclusions have changed" (quoting some of his recent tweets) and question what his real motives actually are. Greg Johnson of Counter-Currents has criticised Hanania's alleged recantation as well. Nevertheless, some involved with the far-right have been more charitable to Richard Hanania. Steve Sailer wrote an article defending him and encouraged others to buy his forthcoming book. The white nationalist troll Anatoly Karlin has also supported Hanania and said he has pre-ordered a copy of his book.
Blogger Jack Crosbie and journalist Jonathan Katz both doubt whether Hanania has abandoned his racist and white supremacist views. They instead convincingly argue (with evidence) that Hanania is still a racist despite reinventing himself as a "classical liberal." As Crosbie points out: "The only difference is that he now has mainstream appeal — and a new audience that is clearly receptive to his views."
Jeet Heer published an article "Why Does This Racist Keep Getting Silicon Valley Money?" in The Nation. Heer mentions "The bigotry Hanania voiced earlier hasn’t disappeared; indeed, it is still explicit (although more politely expressed) in his writing" and "There is a direct continuity between the racism Hanania articulated in his mid-20s and the views he holds now." Heer ultimately concludes "There’s zero evidence that Hanania has given up his core past beliefs." Despite this, a few have apparently been duped by Hanania's lies he is a reformed racist and former extremist including Bryan Caplan.
Hanania joins an increasing number of far-right grifters who pretend to now be anti-racists and/or "counter-extremists" despite still being blatant racists. Notable examples include ex-BNP party official Jack Buckby, white nationalist Matthew Heimbach and neo-Nazi Jeff Schoep.
- Monitoring Bias — similar fake contrarian.
- Anatoly Karlin — white nationalist troll who claims to now be an anti-racist.Do You Believe That?
- Hanania currently charges $150 for "30 minutes meetings" to talk to him about "anything you want, including previous writing or personal issues and life advice."
- Richard Hanania, Rising Right-Wing Star, Wrote For White Supremacist Sites Under Pseudonym. huffingtonpost.co.uk. Archived 5 August 2023.
- Richard Hoste at The Unz Review.
- CTRL-ALT-DELETE: The Origins and Ideology of the Alternative Right. politicalresearch.org. Archived 19 May 2023.
- Richard Hoste. vdare.com. Archived 5 August 2023.
- https://disqus.com/by/RichardHoste/ archived webpage
- Search "site:isteve.blogspot.com Richard Hoste" on Google.
- Destiny should try to get Richard Hanania on the stream
- Richard Hanania, Interracial Crime and Perspective. Archived from richardhanania.com, May 2023.
- Asher Price, Amid legislative pressure, conservative centers gain traction at UT. Axios Austin, 17 May 2023.
- Political "Writer" with Ties to Respectable Universities and Bylines at NBC, NYT, WaPo Calls for Essentially a Police State Against Black Americans. Discussion forums at resetera.com, 15 May 2023.
- Bring Our Neighbors Home on Twitter, 15 May 2023.
- Richard Hoste Comments. unz.com. Archived on 5 August 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 14 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania's Twitter followers, undated screenshot archive.
- Comments to Towards an Enlightened Centrism. Archived from richardhanania.com, 22 April 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 18 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 6 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 13 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 10 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 6 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 6 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 13 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 4 May 2023.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 16 April 2020.
- Richard Hanania on Twitter, 9 July 2022.
- Richard Hanania, Eating Animals and the Virtues of Honesty. Archived from richardhanania.com, 19 July 2023.
- Unlearn Speciesism on Twitter, 20 June 2023.
- Wolf, Arthur P.; William H. Durham (2004). Inbreeding, Incest, and the Incest Taboo: The State of Knowledge at the Turn of the Century. Stanford University Press. pp. 170-172.
- archived webpage prior to deletion.