| The colorful pseudoscience|
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Edward Dutton (1980–) is a crank associated with HBD who has published pseudoscience on penis-size, racialism and bizarrely argues for a genetic origin of atheism, the so-called "Atheist Mutational Load Theory" that says "modern-day atheism is caused by mutant genes." Dutton has no scientific qualifications whatsoever (his PhD is in the Anthropology of Religion), yet he publishes books and papers on intelligence, psychology and biology from a right-wing hereditarianism perspective, claiming, "I finally plucked up the courage to move into evolutionary psychology, human biological differences and intelligence in 2012 and have never looked back". He has controversially co-authored books and papers with white supremacist Richard Lynn through the pseudo-scholarly Ulster Institute for Social Research, including Race and Sport: Evolution and Racial Differences in Sporting Ability (2015).
He has been criticized for having links to the far-right, sitting on the Advisory Board of the Mankind Quarterly and has himself made statements that are unambiguously sexist and islamophobic, for example writing on his personal website: "the nature of Islamic societies – and the religion itself – retards IQ in Muslim countries" and "sexual selection extends to nationality, with women being sexually attracted to males from higher status nations." His 2009 book The Finnuit: Finnish Culture and the Religion of Uniqueness is notably criticized on a blog, that mentions Dutton's xenophobia and odd theories.
In 2018, Dutton with Michael A. Woodley of Menie published At Our Wits' End: Why We're Becoming Less Intelligent and What it Means for the Future that argues human intelligence has gone into rapid decline since the Industrial Revolution. This sort of pseudoscientific work on dysgenics is popular among the alt-right's HBD community, for example the book is promoted on The Unz Review. Dutton and Woodley partly blame the alleged lowering of IQ onto third world immigrants and women's rights, e.g. smarter females having no or fewer children to pursue careers when they should stay at home.
Dutton attended the London Conference on Intelligence in 2015 and delivered a controversial talk on John Philippe Rushton's Differential-K Theory and hereditarianism hypothesis. Despite having been discredited, Dutton defends Rushton's theories, including the pseudoscientific theory Sub-Saharan Africans have significantly longer penis lengths than Caucasians and East Asians (using Rushton's outdated tripartite racial classification):
J. Philippe Rushton's Differential-K Theory (Rushton, 1995) applies this model to differences races, in other words human sub-species evolved to different environments. Rushton's theory predicts that levels of male hormones, i.e., androgen, differ across three large ethnic groups with Sub-Saharan Africans having the highest levels, East Asians the lowest, and Caucasians (Europeans, North Africans and South Asians) being intermediate. Rushton examined a number of hormone indicators in this regard, most notably average penis length. This provoked a great deal of controversy, with accusations that the sources of his penis data was unreliable and similar allegations were levelled when Lynn (2013) published further data on race differences in penis length. Clearly, Rushton's argument can be tested be examining race differences in more androgen measures. If these are in the expected direction and correlate then Rushton's argument is strengthened and, specifically, the reliability of the penis data is validated. In this study, therefore, we examined 6 national level indicators of androgen: (1) CAG repeats on the AR gene. (2) Androgenic hair (3) Prostate cancer incidence. (4) Sex frequency. (5) Number of sex partners and (6) Penile length. We drew upon data sets allowing us to compare national differences on these measures. We divided the nations up into the three main racial groups, based on the dominant ethnic group in any given nation. We found that the measures correlated in the expected direction, thus evidencing the reliability of the penis datasets presented by Rushton and later by Lynn. In addition, tests of the three ethnic groups showed that, compared to Caucasians, East Asians consistently showed signs of lower androgen level in each indicator. Comparisons involving Sub-Saharan Africans were mixed as this group displayed signs of having the highest androgen levels on some indicators (CAG repeats of the AR gene, penile length), but not on others (androgenic hair, prostate cancer incidence,). We argued that the findings in the unexpected direction can likely be explained by differences in diet and cold adaptation. A diet higher in fat is associated with prostate cancer while a hot environment may select against excessive hairiness. Overall, the present findings partially validate Differential-K Theory.
Actual peer-reviewed studies on ethnicity and penis-size have shown: "there is no convincing scientific background to support the ascription of bigger penile dimensions to people of the black race", for example in a study 115 Nigerian males, the average stretched penis length is 5.26 inches long, near identical to the worldwide average. Rushton (followed by Richard Lynn, whom Dutton cites) used many dubious and erroneous sources on penis-size, including (unverifiable) self-reported data and an anonymous 19th century surgeon:
Lynn's claims about differences in penis length between races build on earlier claims by Rushton and Bogaert (1987). The Rushton and Boagert paper is striking for its use of non-scholarly sources (Weizmann, Wiener, Wiesenthal, & Ziegler, 1991). These include a book of semi-pornographic "tall tales" by an anonymous nineteenth century French surgeon that makes wildly inconsistent claims about genital sizes in people of different races. Lynn also refers to this book without mentioning any problems with this as a source of information. Another odd data source cited by Rushton and Bogaert is an article authored by a certain "P. Nobile" published in Forum: International Journal of Human Relations. This publication is better known to the public as "The Penthouse Forum", a popular men's magazine. The data sources that Lynn uses in his recent paper are hardly much better. One of them is a book by Donald Templer (another self-professed race realist) called Is Size Important? Templer is not a urologist but a psychologist so why he would claim to be an authority on this subject is unclear. Lynn's other source is the world penis size website. These are both self-published sources that have not been independently verified. A blogger named Ethnic Muse has carefully examined this site's references and found that a number of articles listed on the site either do not exist under the name given or do not discuss penis size at all. There are also numerous discrepancies between the values provided by the website and the actual values given by the references. Therefore, the information on this website cannot be trusted and no conclusions should be drawn from it.
Atheist Mutational Load Theory
In 2017, Dutton cowrote a paper (that somehow managed to get published) in Evolutionary Psychological Science "The Mutant Says in His Heart, “There Is No God”: the Rejection of Collective Religiosity Centred Around the Worship of Moral Gods Is Associated with High Mutational Load" which is as crazy as the title:
'The Mutant Says in His Heart, “There Is No God”: the Rejection of Collective Religiosity Centred Around the Worship of Moral Gods Is Associated with High Mutational Load' (Dutton, Madison, & Dunkel, 2017) set out to show that religious views outside the mainstream – disbelief in a god as well as belief in paranormal phenomena – result from genetic mutations that have allegedly occurred due to relaxation of natural selection for belief in a moral god that has occurred in these degenerate times we live in. The authors claim that atheism and paranormal belief are “deviations” associated with indicators of mutation load, including poor health, autism, fluctuating asymmetry, and left-handedness. However, this theorising is poorly thought out and largely unsupported by evidence.
- Graves, J. L. (2002). "What a tangled web he weaves Race, reproductive strategies and Rushton's life history theory". Anthropological Theory. 2(2): 131–154.
- "Population differences in androgen levels: A test of the Differential K theory". London Conference on Intelligence, 2015.
- "Oversized Penile Length In The Black People; Myth Or Reality". (2007). JC, Orakwe., GU, Ebuh. Tropical Journal of Medical Research. 11(1): 16-18.
- Orakwe, J. C; Ogbuagu, B. O; Ebuh, G. U (2006). "Can physique and gluteal size predict penile length in adult Nigerian men?". West African Journal of Medicine. 25(3): 223–5.