Kent Hovind (or, to use his correct academic title, Mr. Kent Hovind) is a young Earth creationist and convicted felon from Pensacola, Florida. He promoted young Earth creationism and dominionist views in lectures and videos sold through his Creation Science Evangelism organization, and started Dinosaur Adventure Land, a small amusement park in his backyard.
In November 2006, he was convicted on a variety of tax-related charges, and received a 10-year sentence with a scheduled release for summer 2015. Following his imprisonment, his son Eric Hovind took control of the businesses and renamed them.
 Qualifications, or lack thereof
Hovind refers to himself as "Dr. Kent Hovind" or as "Dr. Dino" to provide a veneer of respectability to those who have not examined his education or background. He also claims to have "taught high school math and science" for fifteen years. These are less impressive than they sound: he obtained his doctorates by mail-order and never taught at a school requiring accredited credentials.
- is from Patriot Bible University, a degree mill. Patriot sells doctorates for approximately $2,000.
- is in "Christian education." Hovind ignores the "Christian" part, instead describing it merely as in "education."
- is not recognized by any legitimate university, professional association, or governmental agency. Patriot Bible University only offers "programs which are religious in nature" and their "degrees or diplomas have no state recognition."
- is officially unavailable to the public. Real doctoral dissertations are readily available through libraries or online. On December 9, 2009, Hovind's dissertation was uploaded to WikiLeaks and that copy mirrors the substandard quality - with spelling and grammar mistakes typical of a high school student - previously described by the few who had read it.
- was reviewed by only one person, Wayne Knight, the president of Patriot. In contrast, the standard practice for PhD dissertations is four or five doctoral committee members.
His 2013 Doctorate of Biblical Ministry (D.Min) is also from Patriot. His dissertation was made for sale as an e-book, entitled What on Earth is about to Happen... for Heaven's Sake?: A Dissertation on End Times According to the Bible, and claims Jesus will return in 2028.
Hovind neglects to mention which institutions awarded the theological doctorate and honorary divinity doctorate, probably because - like the Patriot doctorates - they are also the educational equivalent of an online ordination by the Universal Life Church.
Hovind listed himself as "Dr." in the Pensacola phone book, which is unusual even for someone with a real M.D or Ph.D. His blog, however, warns supporters that any mail addressed to "Dr. Kent Hovind" at the prison where he resides will be returned by the prison's mailroom staff.
When Hovind says he "taught high school math and science," he really means he taught children at three private Christian schools run out of churches (one of which he founded). At no point did Hovind earn any recognized credentials that would allow him to teach at public school or any school that requires accreditation.
 Scientific illiteracy
Despite having no scientific credentials or even an accredited degree, he presents himself as someone who understands the science of evolution better than people with advanced science degrees who research in labs and publish peer-reviewed papers. During his presentations, he sounds like an auctioneer or a used car salesman when he is attempting to make a point by getting his audience to buy a video or book from him. Many of his slideshows read like a top 10 list of commonly seen (and refuted) "evidences" for creationism that contain little to no actual data or proof. These arguments are interjected with unfunny "jokes" and anecdotes, which are topped off with a healthy serving of mined quotes. And like any good creationist, he is not above and in fact seems to enjoy spreading the false claim that Darwin caused the Holocaust.
Many of Hovind's claims can be easily refuted by merely reading Hovind's alleged references or doing basic math. For example, in Thunderf00t's Why Do People Laugh at Creationists? series, Hovind is quoted saying:
“”One drop of water will cover the world if you spread it real thin.
Hovind's error is off by a factor of one trillion. The surface area of the Earth is about 500,000,000 km2 (or 5x10 12 m2, which is 5x10^34 angstroms) and the size of a water molecule ("the smallest identifiable unit into which a pure substance can be divided") is about 10 angstroms. To find out how much water you would need to coat the world in a monolayer of water you divide the surface of the world by the water molecule; the result is you would need a minimum of 150,000 tons of water. Comparing the 150,000 tons of water you would need to Hovind's statement that one drop of water (about 0.00002 kg) could cover the world is off by 1,000,000,000,000.
Besides his poor math skills, Hovind doesn't fare much better in biology or being honest about what scientific papers say. Hovind seeks to "debunk" carbon dating by citing scientific literature, but what he actually does is mine quotes, take material out of context and invent alleged quotes out of whole cloth. In Seminar 7: Questions and Answers, he speaks about a scientific paper and displays this alleged quote on a slide:
“”One part of Dima [a baby frozen mammoth] was 40,000, another part was 26,000 and the ‘wood immediately around the carcass’ was 9-10,000.
|—Slide used and discussed by Kent Hovind|
In less than ten seconds, Hovind presents the quote and reference as evidence radiometric dating doesn't work and skips to his next slide. In checking the claim, the quote does not exist and article cited does not even refer to the correct species, date or even continent. Sadly many creationists take Hovind at his word and simply recycle his claims without checking the references.
Yet, there are some creationists who do investigate Hovind's claims and have concluded that Hovind's statements do not stand up to scrutiny. For example, an Creation Ministries International article by Carl Wieland, Ken Ham and Jonathan Sarfati reported: "Kent Hovind’s document repeatedly misrepresents or misunderstands not only our article, but the issues themselves."
 The $250,000 Challenge
Before his incarceration, Hovind made this challenge:
“”$250,000 to anyone who can give any empirical evidence (scientific proof) for evolution.
The challenge was designed to be unwinnable. Using Hovind's rules, you could offer $250,000 for empirical evidence of the sun rising in the East, and your money would be safe. Eric Hovind has since discontinued the offer and no longer mentions it on any Hovind-related website.
There are three main flaws to Hovind's challenge:
- The challenge was allegedly judged by an anonymous committee hand-picked by Hovind. Any challenges that involve being judged by the offeror are legally unenforceable. No matter what the evidence presented, all the offeror has to say is "not satisfied" and nobody can collect.
- Hovind offered no proof - other than his word - that the money existed. By comparison, James Randi's diametrically opposed Million Dollar Challenge, for example, will give details of the JREF's prize account at Goldman Sachs upon request.
- Hovind demanded applicants prove that evolution is the only possible way life, the universe and everything could have come into existence. Specifically, in order to win his "evolution" challenge Hovind set these conditions:
“”NOTE: When I use the word evolution, I am not referring to the minor variations found in all of the various life forms (microevolution). I am referring to the general theory of evolution which believes these five major events took place without God:
Note that only #4 and #5 pertain to evolution. #1 is a matter of cosmology, #2 is astrophysics, and #3 is abiogenesis, a separate question in biology. Hovind claims that the theory of evolution posits that these five events took place without God. In fact, evolution makes no mention of God at all, let alone declaring that God does not exist. Indeed, many theists see evolution as compatible with their beliefs.
 Legal problems
 Criminal convictions
“”Call the IRS and tell them to arrest me if I am breaking a law!
In July 2006, Hovind was arrested and charged with 58 tax-related counts, including twelve counts of willful failure to withhold federal income taxes and FICA taxes from his employees, forty-five counts of structuring transactions to evade reporting requirements, and one count of corruptly endeavoring to obstruct and impede the administration of the internal revenue laws. At his first court appearance before U.S. Magistrate Judge Miles Davis, Hovind said "I still don’t understand what I’m being charged for and who is charging me" despite having access to both his indictment - listing all the charges and an attorney to explain them.
The government accused Hovind of breaking several laws, including intentionally and falsely misstating the conditions of employment for various employees to avoid paying withholding tax of employees for his own financial benefit. In addition, the Pensacola News Journal reported the prosecution charged him with impeding an IRS investigation by "filing a frivolous lawsuit against the agency demanding damages for criminal trespass," "filing an injunction against an IRS special agent," "filing false complaints against the IRS for false arrest, excessive use of force and theft," and "making threats against investigators and those cooperating with the investigation." The Pensacola News Journal also noted, "On the day the IRS searched the Hovind home, Kent Hovind withdrew $70,000 from the Creation Science Evangelism account. Half in a check; the other in cash." The WorldNetDaily, which is sympathetic to Hovind, reported that he "was accused of tax fraud because he called his employees missionaries and paid them in cash," and later was "convicted on those counts."
Hovind did not offer a defense at trial to these charges. Hovind's organization was not tax exempt and its revenue "appeared to constitute income to petitioner personally." Employees testified that they did not consider it a church and the prosecution explained that even if it were a church, churches are required to pay payroll taxes. Hovind was also found to have intentionally made multiple withdrawals of around $9,500 to avoid the scrutiny that comes with withdrawing at least $10,000 from the bank, which accounted for 45 of the charges.
Hovind was jailed as a flight risk while awaiting sentencing. In early 2007, he was sentenced to a 10-year jail term and ordered to pay restitution, which by May 2013 was "$3.3 million in taxes and penalties". His wife was sentenced to one year and one day. Both have since filed several unsuccessful appeals. The Eleventh Court of Appeals' ruling is quite a nice summary of all the evidence against him. In discussing the evidence, it noted:
“”The government proved that Kent knew the tax laws required the collection and payment of withholding taxes, but he refused to comply. Employees of Evangelism Enterprises, peers, and legal counsel testified that Kent disputed the authority of the Internal Revenue Service based on the separation of the church and state, debated the interpretation and application of the withholding requirements, and intentionally characterized Evangelism Enterprises as a "church" and his employees as "missionaries" to avoid tax obligations. Kent had opined to attorney David Gibbs that he was "smarter" than other church officials who had forfeited real property after they refused to collect or pay withholding taxes. . . . Evidence established that Kent and Jo Hovind structured cash transactions with knowledge of, and the intent to avoid, reporting of those transactions by AmSouth Bank. . . . Substantial evidence established that Kent obstructed investigation of his tax offenses.
|—Eleventh Court of Appeals|
In January 2010, his final appeal was denied with the Supreme Court rejecting his petition. Despite the overwhelming evidence against Hovind, some evangelical supporters claim that he is being persecuted as part of a government attack and want him set free, even creating various petitions. The Pensacola News Journal on the other hand wrote: "Earth to 'Dr. Dino': Please pay your taxes and start facing reality," telling Hovind that "You got caught, so quit whining and take your punishment like a man."
Hovind maintains his innocence "[l]ike dozens of Bible characters" and also like O.J. Simpson.
 Other tax and legal issues
“”I do not have a 501(c)3 corporation. I do not fill out income tax forms.
Kent Hovind earned millions with a judge noting that in 2003 alone his operation earned $1,657,329 in merchandise sales, and later income grew to about $2 million. Hovind and his wife have faced problems in United States Tax Court for not paying income tax. In July 2006, the Tax Court found that Hovind was deficient in paying his federal income taxes in tax years 1995–97 in the amount of $504,957.24. The judge ruled: "The organizational structure petitioner established for the above activities, including petitioner’s purported religious ministry and theme park, apparently was based on various questionable trust documents purchased from Glenn Stoll, a known promoter of tax avoidance schemes." Hovind appealed this ruling, but the court denied the appeal. In 2012 a Tax Court judge noted that Hovind's operation "sold books and videotapes promoting antigovernment and tax-protester arguments," including Joe Sweet's “Good News for 1040 Filers” video, and the catalog description says that it “[e]xplains how income tax is voluntary for most people”. The judge wrote that "Mr. Sweet has been permanently enjoined from '[o]rganizing, promoting, marketing, or selling the tax shelter, plan, or arrangement entitled ‘GOOD NEWS for FORM 1040 Filers'" and the Justice Department called the injunction a "victory for IRS in battle against tax fraud promoters". In a detailed 58-page ruling, a judge wrote about Hovind's wife:
Petitioner also contends that any fraudulent intent during the years at issue was attributable to Mr. Hovind. However, we find that it is more reasonable to infer from petitioner's course of conduct that her true intention was to conceal substantially all of her income and to take her chances that the fraud would not be discovered. Our finding is supported by the fact that she did not amend her returns until after respondent began a civil investigation in respect of her. Furthermore, the record shows that petitioner was an active participant in theoperation of CSE and, along with Mr. Hovind, engaged in a course of conduct designed to conceal and mislead.
|—United States Tax Court (emphasis added)|
Also in 2006 his Dinosaur Adventure Land, a theme park in his backyard was largely shut down due to his refusal to secure a building permit. During a hearing, Hovind was mocked by the local county commissioner with the infamous line "Scripture also says 'Render unto Caesar what Caesar demands.' And right now, Caesar demands a building permit." Following the criminal trial, Eric Hovind continued to operate the Dinosaur Adventure Land and Creation Science Evangelism, but renamed them the Creation Store and Creation Today, respectively.
 Activity in prison
 Phone calls, blogging, books and Youtube interviews
Hovind was held in the local jail while awaiting sentencing. The Pensacola News Journal reported that "Although phones include warnings that conversations are recorded, he didn't mince words as he ran up eight hours of calls per week." The prosecution submitted some calls between Hovind, his wife Jo and son Eric, posted online by the Pensacola News Journal, to the court during sentencing where "Hovind accused the Internal Revenue Service, the judge, and the prosecutor of violating the law in prosecuting him, and referred to unspecified things he could do 'to make their lives miserable'."
In early 2007, Hovind was sentenced to ten years and was transferred to Federal Prison Camp, Pensacola, a minimum-security prison in his hometown. Hovind began blogging while in prison via communication with family and supporters, which were posted on a website edited by Paul Abramson, a fellow creationist. Within a few months, Hovind got in "trouble" and was moved into solitary confinement, as Abramson explained:
“”Brother Hovind got in trouble with the chaplain in the federal prison where he was previously held. The chaplain actually tried to get Dr. Hovind in trouble on more than one occasion. And the chaplain told him to stop holding Bible studies. The chaplain called them 'unauthorized meetings.' Dr. Hovind was following the rules that no more than 5 men could meet together. He kept holding the Bible studies (only with 3-4 others at a time) and witnessing to his fellow inmates whenever he could.
|— Paul Abramson, then editor of Kent Hovind's blog (emphasis added)|
Hovind has been since moved to prisons around the country, being held in Colorado and New Hampshire. Meanwhile Hovind continued to blog from prison, writing self-aggrandizing "knee-mail" dialogues between himself and God. Independent observers have noted that his writing had started to look rather unhinged as of December 2007. This tends to ignore the fact that he was already unhinged before he went to jail, believing as he does that the US government and the New World Order were behind such terrorist attacks as the Oklahoma City bombing and the demolition of the World Trade Center.
Sometime around 2012 the blog was retooled and Hovind's writings, including wacky conspiracy legal filings, appeared on a website named after chapter 2 Peter 3 in the New Testament, which describes how all those darned "scoffers" are going to get their comeuppance. The website is run by Paul Hansen, whom the WorldNetDaily described as "an attorney advising Hovind." In a letter to the US Attorney and Attorney General of Florida, Hansen described himself "as Kent Hovind counsel". According to the Nebraska Supreme Court, Hansen is not a lawyer and in 2013 it issued an injunction preventing Hansen from "engaging in the unauthorized practice of law in any manner, including but not limited to holding himself out to another as being entitled to practice law as defined by § 3-1001" after an investigation of Hansen's blogs and legal "kits". Hovind's blog tells his supporters to send donations to Hansen and calls him "a law-educated layman." Hansen previously made news for taking money from a disabled person and was sentenced to jail for refusing to address 14 housing code violations as well as "one count of giving false information, one count of resisting arrest and two counts of obstructing the administration of the law." Hansen doesn't pay taxes, and despite acknowledging being a "native-born of the Land of Nebraska" and living in Omaha, "believes that neither the city nor Douglas County holds sway over him" and "does not believe the laws of the United States of America apply to him."
Hansen sells "briefs" on his website to people not interested in getting a driver's license, license plate, obeying public health codes or being an honorable citizens by paying taxes for public roads, prisons or fire departments. But anyone interested in such advice should be aware that Hansen has a warrant for his arrest by the Omaha Police Department for failing to appear in court, tax liens for more than $30,000 and by his own count has been arrested about 15 times. A typical example of Hansen's work for Hovind is a 2011 letter to the Florida Attorney General that tells the government Hovind is a "free inhabitant" per the Articles of Confederation and the government "must accept the Articles of Confederation". Yes, you read that correctly: Hansen bases his argument for overturning Hovind's felon convictions on a system of governance that dissolved itself in 1789. Thus, Hovind's source for legal advice is on par with his sources about science.
Just how bad are Kent Hovind's recent legal ramblings? Eric Hovind gets them removed from creationist websites.
He has written several books while in federal prison under his own name and under the pseudonym Elijah Greene. Hovind blogs to his readers: "I wrote a book and published it in April, 2013 called What on Earth is About to Happen...for Heaven's Sake? It is available as an eBook on 2peter3.com and can be purchased in full color (240+ pages) from [email redacted by rationalwiki]."  His self-published books are sold through the same website. His 2013 dissertation is also sold through Amazon.com's self-publishing branch.
In addition to his blogging, nearly weekly "interviews" with Hovind from federal prison are conducted by Gea Ambrosia and posted on youtube recently in 2014. According to Club Creation, "Evangelist Gea" hosts Truth Serum Talk Radio which states: "Hovind is not able to take calls while on the show," but can "engage listeners through chat" as "Chatters can make comments, ask questions and Dr. Hovind will Answer them in REAL TIME.. LIVE!"[sic]. In late March, she announced she was "taking a leave of absence until further notice due to personal reasons" and explained: "I will post an update video with all the details but for now I can say the gloves r off and it's going to b one doozy of a fight!"
Hovind is scheduled for release from federal prison on August 11, 2015.
 Lawsuits, legal filings and criminal contempt
Hovind's life demonstrates the dangers of believing something that is baseless and seeking any opinion that justifies those beliefs. This has led him to believe in New World Order conspiracies to dismiss evolution and listen to cranks who cheat at taxes. Given the above history, it is not surprising that Hovind continues to defend his delusions and is still getting in trouble while locked in a prison cell.
In 2013, Hovind wrote that "God sent" Alex Matthews "from Washington, DC to live right in my room on the top bunk", and, in Hovind's words, then "helped" with his legal filings. According to a US Department of Justice press release, in 2011 Alexander Otis Matthews pleaded guilty "to fraud charges in connection with mortgage and investment schemes to obtain more than $12 million in fraudulent loans." At his sentencing, Matthews received 10 years in prison, was ordered to forfeit $7.9 million and must pay $5,055,250 in restitution to his victims.
Hovind has since filed numerous legal claims, including fraudulent liens on property the US government seized for his debt. A federal judge ruled Hovind had no merit to file claims on the property and is allowing the government to submit a proper motion to show cause. The US Attorney is seeking to hold Hovind in criminal contempt and announced: "The United States Attorney's Office is ready to immediately appoint a criminal prosecutor to the case for any further action that this Court deems necessary."
In August 2013, Hovind was referring to himself as a "POW" and though all of his appeals were dismissed, wrote he is moving forward with more legal "battles". He sued the Bureau of Prisons pro se in 2012("dismissed with prejudice for lack of prosecution" in 2013), filed a pro se 2013 suit against five prison employees "in their personal capacity", a pro se 2011 petition for "brady material", a pro se "2255 motion", a pro se 2011 "Motion for Reconsideration", a pro se 2011 Writ of Mandamus, a complaint against the judge in his criminal trial (after it was dismissed he complained in a letter about the dismissal), a complaint against the Assistant US Attorney (he also complained to the Bar Association and the DoJ's Professional Misconduct Review Unit), a $25 million tort against the United States of America in 2013, a pro se 2013 appeal against the Commissioner of IRS ("dismissed for failure to prosecute"), and a 2014 pro se Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus regarding the warden of FCI Berlin.
Prior to these lawsuits, Hovind had a history of making legal claims that were rejected by the court, including filing for bankruptcy which was dismissed as a "bad faith" filing. Then he sued IRS Agent Scott Schneider, which was also dismissed with the judge citing the Tax Anti-Injunction Act and in Hovind's criminal case he was found guilty of impeding an IRS investigation by filing a "frivolous lawsuit" and "threatening investigators," according to both the Pensacola News Journal and the WorldNetDaily. One IRS agent, M.C. Powe, testified at his criminal trial, after she tried to collect taxes from the Hovinds in 1996, "Dr. Hovind sued me three times, maybe more," and said, "It just seemed to be something he did often." During his early 2007 sentencing the prosecution played audio of Hovind making "veiled threats and threats of legal action," for instance, with him saying: "I don't know if because we filed so many lawsuits in the past against them that possibly Schneider and Heldmyer are afraid that if they don't keep pushing they'll be sued ... if I could talk to them I'd say 'look, let me out of here drop all this stuff and I'll hold you harmless. If you put me in jail for five years then yes I'll keep going after you'."
 Kent E. Hovind v. RationalMedia Foundation, et al
On February 24, 2014, Hovind filed a pro se lawsuit against the RationalMedia Foundation (although calling it by its previous name, the RationalWiki Foundation) based on claims he made about this article, referencing this revision. He has yet to have summons issued, and hence has not yet served the complaint. The complaint references the foundation by name along with a number of John Doe editors seeking a retraction of certain phrases in the article; specifically: "Hovind is a young Earth creationist and convicted tax fraudster" and "[H]ovind has filed numerous legal claims with Matthews' help, including fraudulent liens on property the US government seized for his debt".
Hovind disputes that the fraudulent liens were filed by him, claiming that they were "filed by supporters of the plaintiff, who is a Christian evangelist preacher with a worldwide following. The plaintiff did not file the liens referenced, and in fact could not file the liens based upon his present incarcerated status. The plaintiff did not send the liens to the court to be filed, and in fact could not have filed the liens given that such liens must be filed in person at the county Land Records office." This is contradicted in the actual liens: "Kent E Hovind asks that this Memorandum Of Lis Pendens be recorded as a lien against the above shown parcel(s) of real property, and that a stamped copy of each lien be mailed back to him at the address below." 
Hovind is seeking a sum of $2.5 million jointly from the RationalMedia Foundation and the "John Doe author" of this article, for damages to his reputation.
 Conspiracy theorist and "Sovereign American"
“”I do not have or use a SS# ... Actually, no real person has a social security number. Notice on your SS card that your name is spelled with all capital letters. This designates the STRAW MAN business, trust or corporation not a person ...
Hovind promotes numerous anti-government conspiracy theories, literally connecting "evolution, Communism, the new-world order, and the IRS", and has even sold books promoting anti-Semitism. Among those theories is the ridiculous notion that Kent Hovind and KENT HOVIND are not the same person. According to this twisted logic, the strawman KENT HOVIND was indicted and not the flesh-and-blood Kent Hovind. Accordingly, at his arraignment, Hovind attempted to enter a plea of "subornation of false muster." - apparently an obsolete military term meaning "being ordered to say you showed up at roll call when you weren't actually there" - generating a fair amount of confusion and giggling among observers.
In a 1998 document filed with his local Clerk of Court, Hovind claimed to be a "sovereign American," declared he was not a "U.S. citizen," not part of the "'bankrupt' corporate government," and previously signed documents do not give an entity the ability to "falsely assume jurisdiction" over him or his wife. This, in Hovind's eyes, severed all ties between Kent Hovind and KENT HOVIND. In 2001, nevertheless, he signed Kent E Hovind above a KENT E HOVIND signature line.
Hovind has also claimed: "Not many folks realize it, but Obamacare Law HR3200, that NOBODY read before they voted for it, requires that everyone get an implanted micro-chip by March 23, 2013."
- Creation Seminar Series
- The Age of The Earth
- The Garden of Eden
- Dinosaurs and the Bible
- Lies in the Textbooks
- The Dangers of Evolution
- The Hovind Theory
- Questions and Answers
- Topical Series
- Children's Video About Dinosaurs
- How To Make Money And Spend It God's Way
- Leviathan The Fire Breathing Dragon of Job 41
- Magic Tricks And How To Do Them
- Public School Presentation
- Redeeming The Straw Man
- The Bible And Health
- Why Evolution Is Stupid
- More Reasons Why Evolution Is Stupid
Before his son took over the business, Hovind stated in his presentations that his material is not copyrighted and may be freely used. However, when several YouTubers, particularly user Thunderf00t, began using the videos for critiques, Creation Science Evangelism responded with filing several DMCA takedown requests and claimed copyright ownership. In his seminars, Hovind told his audience they are free to edit the tapes to remove things they don't like, such as his jokes that offended people. Many videos, such as Why do People Laugh at Creationists, Part 4, brutally exposed just how inept Hovind's claims are by showing him off by a measure of a trillion. Yes, you read that correctly; trillion with a T. In the end, Eric Hovind lost and the video rebuttals stayed online, but he modified the Creation Science Evangelism's policy to only allow reproduction of "unedited, unaltered" video in an effort to prevent editing for criticism.
 See also
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Federal Bureau of Prisons - Kent E. Hovind
- ↑ Prior to his current incarceration, his official website was DrDino.com, which featured articles by and videos with "Dr. Kent Hovind".
- ↑ http://www.creationtoday.org/about/dr-kent-hovind/
- ↑ What on Earth is about to happen... for Heaven's Sake?: A Dissertation on End Times According to the Bible, p. 4. 
- ↑ Brett Vickers, "Some Questionable Creationist Credentials, 1998. Vickers wrote: "Name It and Frame It lists Patriot University as a degree mill." Name It and Frame It is a book by Steve Levicoff.
- ↑ The York Dispatch interviewed Glenn Branch, of the National Center for Science Education, who said Hovind "attended a degree mill ... that was apparently at one point being run out of a split level (house)." Creationist speaker 'loose about the facts', York Dispatch, Mar 13, 2006
- ↑ Barbara Forrest. September 1999. Unmasking the False Prophet of Creationism, National Center for Science Education. Forrest wrote: "Hovind's credentials from Patriot University are even less substantial. PU was formerly in Colorado Springs CO, but is now in Alamos CO, in a house near the College Heights Baptist Church The street address . . . is the residential address of PU's Executive Director of External Studies, Dr Lonnie Skinner . . . The Bulletin indicates how a university could simply relocate to another town: There is no faculty, and credit is offered for 'life experience and ministry evaluation'. The courses, workbooks, audiotapes, and videotapes can be completed in 2–4 weeks."
- ↑ Hovind's Patriot University education was mentioned on national television. See: Paul R. Brewer, “Science: What’s It Up To?: The Daily Show and the Social Construction of Science," International Journal of Communication 7 (2013).
- ↑ Richard T. Lumadue discusses "degree/diploma mills" and mentions Patriot in his article. Richard T. Lumadue, "When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild," Christian Higher Education, Volume 5, Issue 3, 2006.
- ↑ http://www.patriotuniversity.org/students/finance-payments/complete-listing-of-fees/
- ↑ Patriot Bible University's response to criticism is on an archive of their website.
- ↑ Private Accredited Colleges, Colorado Department of Higher Education
- ↑ Young-earth creationist Kent Hovind's doctoral dissertation, WikiLeaks
- ↑ Karen Bartelt. The Dissertation Kent Hovind Doesn't Want You to Read, Tufts University Department of Chemistry
- ↑ http://www.noanswersingenesis.org.au/bartelt_dissertation_on_hovind_thesis.htm
- ↑ http://web.archive.org/web/20110716031922/http://www.patriotuniversity.org/index.php?mod=Articles&menuid=40
- ↑ Knight has been on probation following his 2012 guilty plea related to the child abuse case. http://gazette.com/former-baptist-school-teacher-sentenced-in-sex-assault/article/153999
- ↑ Kent Hovind, What on Earth is about to happen... for Heaven's Sake?: A Dissertation on End Times According to the Bible, p. 239. Hovind wrote: "When is The Lord Coming Back?", and replied: "During the feast of Trumpets in 2028".
- ↑ Online ordination by the Universal Life Church is free, but you can also buy a doctorate for $32.99 Universal Life Church Monastery Doctorate of Divinity, "This impressive degree allows you to become a legally ordained minister and present yourself in a professional manner in a position of public leadership".
- ↑ Contact page on Hovind's blog (managed by his son)
- ↑ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Kent_Hovind_2005_Affidavit
- ↑ Why Do People Laugh at Creationists? (part 4)
- ↑ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/388236/molecule
- ↑ A handy diagram
- ↑ Watch the video at 50:22 or download the slide #226 (Eric Hovind sells this nonsense here for $20)
- ↑ The source Hovind gives for this claim is: Troy L. Pewe, "Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska," Geological Survey Professional Paper 862 (U.S. Gov. printing office, 1975) p. 30. The article is available online for download. If readers go to page 30 they will notice several things: 1) the alleged quote doesn't exist, 2) the article makes no claims that disprove radiometric dating and 3) the graph of dates do not support Hovind claims. Moreover, if you read the article one will notice it was published in 1975 and discusses dating in Alaska. Hovind, on the other hand, mentioned "Dima," a baby mammoth. Dima was discovered in 1977 two years after the paper was published and it was found in Siberia which is on a different continent.
- ↑ For example, the Dima claim is uncritically repeated here at chick.com
- ↑ http://creation.com/maintaining-creationist-integrity-response-to-kent-hovind
- ↑ archived website.
- ↑ TalkOrigins
- ↑ http://www.holysmoke.org/hovind5.htm
- ↑ http://chem.tufts.edu/science/Stear-NoAiG/no-AiG/kent_hovind%27s_phony_challenge.htm
- ↑ Hovind's belief that he doesn't owe income tax and a whole range of sovereign citizen claims are on his archived website. A currently active version has scrubbed Hovind's name from the letter, but many internal clues to the author remain, including many references to CSE.
- ↑ United States of America v. Kent E. Hovind and Jo D. Hovind, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida, Pensacola Division, case no. 3:06CR83/MCR (dated July 11, 2006; filed at 12:55 pm, July 11, 2006)  and Evangelist arrested on federal charges, Pensacola News Journal, 14 July 2006 The Pensacola News Journal, Hovind's local paper, reported that "A federal jury has convicted Kent Hovind and his wife, Jo, of tax fraud."  Before his conviction, it also wrote: "Kent Hovind pleaded not guilty Monday to a 58-count federal indictment after saying he did not recognize the government's right to try him on tax-fraud charges." 
- ↑ Kent Hovind, evangelist, arrested on federal charges
- ↑ Evangelist arrested on federal charges, Pensacola News Journal, 14 July 2006
- ↑ Dr. Dino,' wife guilty, Pensacola News Journal, November 2, 2006
- ↑ DINO' CONVICTED IN FLORIDA TAX FRAUD TRIAL WorldNetDaily 11/16/2006
- ↑ This is even according to Kent Hovind's website's "real story" that says: "The trial concluded on November 1st with the defense deciding not to present a case." Read eye-witness media report here: Couple could get more than 200 years" 'Dr. Dino' guilty on all counts, Pensacola News Journal, Nov. 3, 2006
- ↑ "... substantial revenue from the various activities with which petitioner was involved appeared to constitute income to petitioner personally." Hovind v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo 2006-143, CCH December 56,562(M) (2006).
- ↑ "Two people who worked for a Pensacola evangelist testified Wednesday in federal court that they didn't consider where they worked to be a church." Amy Sowder, "Workers testify in 'Dr. Dino' trial," Pensacola News Journal, October, 19, 2006
- ↑ The article says: "Heldmeyer said from 1999 to March 2004, the Hovinds took in more than $5 million. Their income came from amusement-park profits and merchandise -- books, audiotapes and videotapes -- they sold on site and through phone and online orders, she said. About half the money went to employees. Those employees either were salaried or were paid hourly wages. They worked set hours. They signed up for vacations and sick leave. ... 'It's not a church,' she said. 'But that doesn't matter, because a church still has to pay payroll tax'." from Angela Fail, Evangelist's trial begins, Pensacola News Journal, October, 18, 2006. Also seeLawyer: Hovind detailed actions, Pensacola News Journal, Oct. 21, 2006.
- ↑ 'Dr. Dino' ordered to pay taxes, penalties, Pensacola News Journal, May 23, 2013
- ↑ 'Mrs. Dino' gets prison, Pensacola News Journal, Jun. 29, 2007
- ↑ Tax-evasion sentences upheld for 'Dr. Dino' and wife Pensacola News Journal, Jan 6, 2009
- ↑ http://www.ca11.uscourts.gov/unpub/ops/200710090.pdf
- ↑ According to his blog's July 22, 2010 update.
- ↑ Petition 1 for Kent Hovind's freedom
- ↑ Petition 2 for Kent Hovind's freedom
- ↑ Mark O'Brien. "Earth to 'Dr. Dino': Please pay your taxes and start facing reality", Pensacola News Journal, January 21, 2007
- ↑ http://www.2peter3.com/forum/forums/thread-view.asp?tid=294&posts=10&start=1
- ↑ See Kent Hovind's statements at 1:04:46 on Redeeming the Strawman". Here Hovind writes: "The income tax system is one of the main ways to destroy a country and bring it under communism". He says "For me to fill out and sign the 1040 form 'under penalty of perjury' would be a lie and therefore a sin against God" and later explains "We have not become a 501-c3 corporation".
- ↑ Judge Finding of Fact and Opinion Kent and Jo Hovind's Tax Court Docket No. 1362-10 United States Tax Court, 2012
- ↑ O'Brien, Mark (November 3, 2006). "Hard to believe a man with a Ph.D didn't know of a basic tax law". Pensacola News Journal.
- ↑ As one judge wrote: "Furthermore, the IRS has no record of the debtor ever having filed a federal income tax return." Decision at talk origins.
- ↑ court ruling US Tax Court
- ↑ http://www.ca11.uscourts.gov/unpub/ops/200615229.pdf
- ↑ T.C. Memo. 2012-281 Tax Court, 2012
- ↑ T.C. Memo. 2012-281 Tax Court, 2012
- ↑ The Justice Department called the injunction a "victory for IRS in battle against tax fraud promoters".Justice Department Obtains Permanent Injunction Prohibiting the Sale of Illegal Tax Plans, Justice Department February 21, 2002
- ↑ United States Tax Court, page 50
- ↑ Hovind admits that he doesn't file income tax in the tax protestor video "Redeeming the Strawman". As one judge wrote: "Furthermore, the IRS has no record of the debtor ever having filed a federal income tax return." Decision at talk origins.
- ↑ http://www.csicop.org/si/show/stupid_dino_tricks_a_visit_to_kent_hovindrsquos_dinosaur_adventure_land/
- ↑ Park could face extinction Pensacola News Journal, Apr. 7, 2006
- ↑ The paper reported: "He talked tough in telephone conversations from Escambia County Jail, where he was held while waiting to be sentenced Friday on 58 charges. Although phones include warnings that conversations are recorded, he didn't mince words as he ran up eight hours of calls per week. He vowed to "make life miserable" for the IRS, keep suing the government and promote his cockamamie theory that he's tax-exempt."Earth to 'Dr. Dino': Please pay your taxes and start facing reality, Pensacola News Journal, January 20, 2007; Also here.
- ↑ Originally posted by Video: Kent Hovind jail calls, Pensacola News Journal, Jan. 19, 2007; Now available from Kent Hovind - County Jail Telephone Calls
- ↑ Kent Hovind sentenced to ten years, NCSE, January 24th, 2007
- ↑ Paul Abramson operates creationism.org and appears as moderator during this Hovind performance. Abramson was editor of the blog for about 18 months
- ↑ "Suddenly last week Dr. Hovind was shipped out of that institution and sent to another, where he is now in a bare cell, isolated in solitary confinement, as was learned and reported yesterday." From pabramson's post half way down the page, May 8, 2007 4:59 pm Update from FPC.
- ↑ See pabramson's post half way down the page, May 8, 2007 4:59 pm Update from FPC.
- ↑ Then again, we're talking about WorldNetDaily here.
- ↑ 2011 Notice
- ↑ State of Nebraska ex rel. Comm. on Unauth. Prac. of Law v. Hansen, June 14, 2013. 
- ↑ His blog says: "we are no longer handing his legal defense fund. Rather a law-educated, layman who is assisting Dr. Hovind as he continues to fight his legal case pro se is handling this fund. His name is Paul Hansen."
- ↑ The Omaha World-Herald reported: "Last month, he lost a fair housing case in federal court. He has been ordered to pay nearly $84,000 in damages and attorney fees to one of his former tenants, a man with schizophrenia who lived in Hansen's apartments for five years. Hansen got himself listed as payee for the tenant's monthly Social Security disability check of $607 to $637. Hansen 'occasionally returned $40 to (the tenant) upon which to subsist,' the suit said." It continued, "Then he sentenced Hansen to nearly a year in jail: 180 days for 14 different housing code violations, the sentences on each to be served concurrently; then another 180 days apiece for one count of giving false information, one count of resisting arrest and two counts of obstructing the administration of the law, the sentences also to be served concurrently." Landlord can't talk way out of jail, Omaha World-Herald, September 18, 2009.
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 Nebraska Delinquent Taxpayers Sorted by Amount, Nebraska Department of Revenue
- ↑ Hansen wrote: "I file no Federal Income Taxes (1040 Form) since the year 2000. (No filings in any form.)(Always demand a 6203 Assessment when confronted.) I do not pay STATE income tax, or sales tax on major purchases. I pay no COUNTY property taxes. ( I believe I have discovered a “filing for record” process that takes my Land off the tax roles.)"
- ↑ "Whenever he can get away with it, Hansen does not pay federal income or local property taxes. Sales taxes are trickier, since they are added to the cost of a purchase, but Hansen says he has convinced some retailers he qualifies as being exempt for paying them on some big ticket items." Anti-government groups raise flags for law enforcement, KVNO News, Oct 26, 2011
- ↑ The paper reported: "Hansen refuses to pay his property taxes because he says no one has yet shown him where exactly the law requires him to do so." Omaha landlord is a pain to city hall, Omaha World-Herald, February 7, 2008.
- ↑ The paper reported: "As a Citizen, capital C, of Nebraska, Omaha landlord Paul Hansen believes that neither the city nor Douglas County holds sway over him." Omaha landlord is a pain to city hall, Omaha World-Herald, February 7, 2008.
- ↑ Anti-government groups raise flags for law enforcement, KVNO News, Oct 26, 2011.
- ↑ Here and here
- ↑ Criminal Warrants, Omaha Police Department, 2014. The name and address listed by the police match the information on this website by Hansen asking for all of Hovind's charges dismissed.
- ↑ Hansen claims "I have been in court over 300 times. . . . I have been arrested an estimated 15 times."
- ↑ George Washington laughs at you.
- ↑ "At the request of Mr. Eric Hovind, son of Kent Hovind, the Creation Science Hall of Fame removed the open letter from Kent Hovind on his tax battles. Mr. Hovind asks everyone to respect the privacy of the family and not ask for a specific reason. CSHF apologizes for any inconvenience that might have happened to the Hovind family or to anyone else. We wish only to do what is right by the Hovind family." Kent Hovind, Creation Science Hall of Fame
- ↑ Kent Hovind admits he wrote it as Elijah Green and it is advertised as "The Kennel - By Elijah Green (A.K.A Kent Hovind)" here.
- ↑ End of the year report from Kent Hovind. In another blog Kent Hovind writes, "Let Hal know if you want one of the limited edition hard copies of my book." Hovind previously got in trouble for being accused of "running an illegal business" in prison.
- ↑ http://2peter3.com/Recommended_Reading.html
- ↑ http://www.amazon.com/What-Earth-about-happen-Heavens/dp/1491073438
- ↑ Facebook by post by Gea Ambrosia: From: Gea Ambrosia, Date: Friday, March 14, 2014, Time: About 2:00 AM MT, INTERVIEW WITH DR. HOVIND 2NIGHT!; The ClubCreation youtube channel and ursweetkisses posts roughly weekly interviews. A description of one of the interviews is: "Club Creation's Evangelist Gea interviews Dr. Kent E. Hovind." See these exchanges about the interviewing. This post, in particular, discusses the interviews and using the word "parrot".
- ↑ The website tells readers: "Got Questions for the Science & Bible Man, Dr. Kent E. Hovind? ... Dr. Hovind is not able to take calls while on the show, however, He will be able to engage listeners through chat... Chatters can make comments, ask questions and Dr. Hovind will Answer them in REAL TIME.. LIVE!" Hovind wrote about the website: "While you are 'surfing' check www.clubcreation.org and tell Geena thanks for helping me while I'm stuck in this pit. She's another "Ebed-Melech" for me. Plus, she has some cool (and rare-unique!) interviews ya might want to tell others about."
- ↑ Club Creation Ministry Update, March 19, 2014
- ↑ Evangelist Gea Personal Update, March 19, 2014
- ↑ "How are evolution, Communism, the new-world order, and the IRS connected?"
- ↑ Hovind writes: "... we filed a 'Bivins' lawsuit in the court in S. Carolina. ... Alex helped me file a 'lis pendens' which stops all action on the property until the S.C. lawsuit is resolved." From "They want to 'burn it down' and let the Phoenix rise from the ashes. They don't know that Satan will destroy them too!". Hovind wrote: "I sent out a blog on Feb 1 asking folks to write the Supreme Court on behalf of my 'celli' and friend and legal helper Alexander Matthews."
- ↑ Virginia Real Estate Businessman Pleads Guilty to Mortgage and Investment Fraud Schemes US Department of Justice, 2011. This is the same person as Hovind explains: "Alex is writing a book about the incredible injustice in his case which he is fighting as well. It is called My America and will be on www.my-america.org when finished." A view of the site shows it is the same person and Alex mentions Hovind being his bunkmate here.
- ↑ Virginia Real Estate Businessman Sentenced to 10 Years in Prison for Mortgage and Investment Fraud Schemes, US Department of Justice, 2011
- ↑ In May 2013, Hovind signed four different documents that stated: "Kent E. Hovind asks that this Memorandum of Lis Pendens be recorded as a lien" which are located with the County Clerk of Escambia County, Florida. Hovind wrote: "my new legal helper had a brilliant idea and on May 29, 2013 I filed a lis pendens in the county office to stop the sale of any other properties." Later Hovind explicitly explained: "Alex helped me file a 'lis pendens' which stops all action on the property." In February 2014, Hovind claims: "The plaintiff did not file the liens referenced, and in fact could not file the liens based upon his present incarcerated status."
- ↑ United States v. Kent Hovind. The judge ruled: "Hovind’s explanation has no merit because he has no ownership interest, legal or equitable, in the forfeited properties. Without question, his lis pendens were wrongfully filed," and allowed the government to file a show of cause.
- ↑ United States v. Kent Hovind, November 12, 2013. 
- ↑ http://www.2peter3.com/Blogs/August2013UPDATE.pdf
- ↑ Hovind writes: "I have now filed a lawsuit (case #0:12-cv-1594-SB-PJG) against the BOP for damages"
- ↑ Hovind v. USA 0:12-cv-1594-SB, Dismissal Order, February 2013
- ↑ Hovind writes: "On April 22 I filed a "Bivins" lawsuit against 5 employees at the prison in South Carolina..." A few months later he described: "... helped me file a "Bivins" lawsuit against all of them in their personal capacity (suit # c/a 0:13-cv-1177-MGL-PJG) in the federal court in South Carolina." Here he wants the court to hold one in "contempt".
- ↑ Hovind letter here related to case 3:06-cr-00083
- ↑ Part 1 and Part 2, identified as Case # 3:06 cr 83/mcr, Case # 3:10 cv 487/mcr/emt
- ↑ Motion for Reconsideration
- ↑ Petition for Writ of Mandamus from the Northern District of Florida, Case no. 3:06 CR 83/MCR
- ↑ This complaint was dismissed.
- ↑ Judicial Council 11th Circuit Court of Appeals
- ↑ http://www.2peter3.com/Blogs/complaintHeldmyer.pdf
- ↑ http://www.2peter3.com/Blogs/legalbattle.pdf
- ↑ http://2peter3.com/Court_Docs/Professional%20Misconduct%20Review%20Unit.pdf
- ↑ Just try reading this and remember that Hovind didn't even "present[...] defense evidence or call[...] witnesses" at his trial. 'Dr. Dino,' wife guilty, Pensacola News Journal, Nov. 2, 2006
- ↑ Kent Hovind v. Commissioner of IRS
- ↑ Appeal No 13-12520-FF, Hovind v. Commissioner Of Internal Revenue 2014
- ↑ http://dockets.justia.com/docket/new-hampshire/nhdce/1:2014fp00062/40190
- ↑ http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/hovind-decision.html
- ↑ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Kent_Hovind_v_Scott_Schneider
- ↑ See article: David A. Brennen, "Federal Taxation," Mercer Law Review (2003): 1579. Brennen wrote: "Finally, in Hovind, a federal district court held that the IRS may enter a third person’s property in order to investigate a taxpayer’s tax liability. In Hovind an IRS agent conducting an investigation into federal income tax liabilities went onto a third person’s property to serve several summons. Despite a posted 'No Trespassing' notice, the IRS agent entered the property without obtaining prior consent and served the summons. The third party sought to enjoin the IRS from trespassing on his property. The federal district court held that the injunction was barred by the Tax Anti-Injunction Act, which provides that '"no suit for the purpose of restraining the assessment or collection of any tax shall be maintained in any court by any person."' Because the actions the third party sought to enjoin would impair IRS attempts to assess and collect taxes owed by the taxpayer, the court concluded that the Anti-Injunction Act was applicable."
- ↑ Employees testify in 'Dr. Dino' tax trial, Pensacola News Journal, Oct 19, 2006
- ↑ "Hovind was convicted of failing to collect and pay $470,000 in withholding taxes, obstructing tax laws, structuring transactions totaling $430,500 to avoid financial reporting laws, filing a frivolous lawsuit against the IRS, filing an injunction against an IRS agent and threatening investigators and others who cooperated with the investigation." Creationist hopes bill will free him from prison WorldNetDaily, 12/17/2013 and repeated in 'Government persecuting' jailed creation evangelist WorldNetDaily 05/31/2009
- ↑ Amy Sowder,Workers testify in 'Dr. Dino' trial, Pensacola News Journal, October, 19, 2006. This article is reprinted by Myers here. Also discussed here: Evangelist Kent Hovind's tax trial begins, WikiNews, October 21, 2006
- ↑ The text "veiled threats and threats of legal action," and Hovind's quote starts at 4:54 Kent Hovind - County Jail Telephone Calls
- ↑ The complaint.
- ↑ Kent Hovind, Kent E. Hovind v. Rational Media Foundation, February 2014 http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/File:Hovind_Complaint_RationalWiki.pdf
- ↑ Kent Hovind, Memorandun Of Lis Pendens, May 2013 Four separate "Memorandun Of Lis Pendens" are signed by Hovind and filed with the Escambia County Florida Clerk. Read them by searching Kent Hovind at Escambia County Florida Clerk or read the document here.
- ↑ File:Matthews Libel Suit.pdf
- ↑ Justia.com: Matthews v. RationalWiki Foundation, Case Number: 1:2014cv00257, Filed: February 25, 2014
- ↑ How are evolution, Communism, the new-world order, and the IRS connected?, DrDino.com
- ↑ How are evolution, Communism, the new-world order, and the IRS connected?, DrDino.com
- ↑ Creationism Gets a Dash of Anti-Semitism, SPLC
- ↑ Kent Hovind wrote: "When the united States Government went bankrupt in the 1930's the "rich men" of the world agreed to create a UNITED STATES corporation and the real united States became a thing of the past... A trust account was created for each PERSON as part of a grand scheme of deception. This 'straw man' has the same letters as your name but in all capital letters (ie. KENT HOVIND the STRAW MAN instead of Kent Hovind a real person created by God)." How are evolution, Communism, the new-world order, and the IRS connected?, DrDino.com
- ↑ "Hovind’s attorney, Assistant Public Defender Kafahni Nkrumah, told U.S. Magistrate Judge Miles Davis at a hearing Monday that his client did not want to enter a plea because he does not believe the United States, the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Attorney’s Office “have jurisdiction in this matter.” Park owner pleads not guilty to tax fraud, Pensacola News-Journal, Jul. 18, 2006
- ↑ See the "Power of Attorney and Revocation of Signature" document filed with the Escambia County Clerk of Courts, April 15, 1998, search here. Hovind wrote (caps in original): "I/WE Kent E Hovind and Jo Hovind AM A SOVEREIGN AMERICAN LOCATED IN ESCAMBIA COUNTY AND REPUBLIC STATE OF FLORIDA, BUT NOT THE CORPORATE "BANKRUPT" BODY POLITIC OF EITHER, AND AM A NATURAL AMERICAN . . . I/WE ARE NOT A U.S. CITIZEN, NOT RESIDING ON ANY FEDERAL TERRITORY. . . . THIS INSTRUMENT REPLACES, CANCELS, AND REPUDIATES THE PRIOR INSTRUMENT THAT I FILED WITH ANY OFFICE AND ANY ENTITY WHICH MAY FALSELY ASSUME JURISDICTION OVER ME."
- ↑ See Kent Hovind's mortgage deed, No. 2001849400, 2001 filed with the Clerk of Court, search here.
- ↑ Nine Months until the Mark of the Beast?, June 27, 2012
- ↑ Hard to believe a man with a Ph.D didn't know of a basic tax law, Pensacola News Journal, November 3, 2006.
- ↑ Earth to 'Dr. Dino': Please pay your taxes and start facing reality, Pensacola News Journal, January 21, 2007.
- ↑ Wired reported: the previous policy said: "none of the materials ... are copyrighted, so feel free to copy these and distribute them freely." A copy of the original image is here. Now Creation Today's policy is: "Materials are to be copied, unedited, unaltered and distributed absolutely free of charge."