Le Livre des Secrets Trahis

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Book cover of the French edition
Fiction over fact
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How it didn't happen

Le Livre des Secrets Trahis (English: The Book of Betrayed Secrets) is a French language book written by Robert Charroux and published in 1964.[1] It is the second of Charroux's pseudohistorical essays, after Histoire Inconnue des Hommes Depuis Cent Mil Ans (English: One Hundred Thousand Years of Man's Unknown History), published in 1963.[2] The book is divided into twenty-one chapters, each being an unhealthy broth of pseudohistory, willful ignorance, conspiracy theory, shoehorning and Biblical literalism, interspersed with barely understandable ramblings. The first thirteen chapters are covered here.

The book has been translated into English (Legacy of the Gods),[3] German (Verratene Geheimnisse),[4] Spanish (El Libro de los Secretos Descubiertos),[5] Polish (Nieznana Historia Ludzkości: Księga Purpurowa),[6] and Romanian (Cartea Secretelor Ttrădate).[7]

tl;dr: There aren't any actual secrets, just bullshit that he made up

N.B.: The ideas in each chapter are not presented in the same order that they appear in the book — the reasoning of each chapter is haphazard and interspersed with non sequiturs that make them difficult to understand and summarize. However, the order of chapters and the overall content of each chapter have been retained.


Chapter I: Submerged Cities and Destroyed Lands[edit]

Archeological findings proved the existence of highly evolved societies (highly evolved to the extent of knowing about television, radioactivity and space travel) during the prehistorical period.

Folklores of western Europe deal about a lost world located in the West, beyond the sea, so it is an utter error to say that civilisation originated in the Fertile Crescent, because folklore is more valuable than archeological findings.

The Giza pyramids remain mysterious, they are probably of extraterrestrial origins and they could have been used as shelters during The Flood; there are probably many ancient buildings buried under the sands.

The Australopithecus, Sinanthropus, Pithecanthropus fossils are fakes, humans probably never evolved from apes and "official science" is just a hindrance to the discovery of the truth.

Atlantis and Mu once existed, but they've been destroyed during world cataclysms, and they should stand as a warning for the cataclysms to come.

The Flood was real, since various ancient folklores say so, and Immanuel Velikovsky proved that it was caused by Venus. Some cities in the desert (Like Palmyra, and some others in the Gobi desert) could not have been inhabited as of today, since the they're surrounded by desert. So they must have been build at a time when the desert was a fertile land, and the surrounding country has then been turned into a desert during some disaster. Fortunately, some enlightened people have been able to preserve the ancient knowledge.

Jean-Sylvain Bailly, Pierre-Simon de Laplace, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Count of Buffon, and Alexander von Humboldt believed that a cataclysm had flooded a great deal of the ancient lands. So why couldn't you be convinced too?
Appeal to ancient wisdom is in full effect here. There is no proof that folklore is based on any real event, yet the book is written on the assumption that all reported events actually occurred.

Palmyra and other desert cities (like Turpan, on the edge of the Taklamakhan desert) have been able to thrive despite of arid climate because they were located near oases, and because they were important stopovers of the Silk Road between China and Europe.[8] In the case of Turpan, the city was supplied in water from the mountains by the means of underground water tunnels called "Karez Wells".[9] The Giza Pyramids have nothing mysterious in their use nor in their building time.

Jean-Sylvain Bailly died in 1793, Pierre-Simon de Laplace in 1827, Georges-Louis Leclerc in 1788 and Alexander von Humboldt in 1859. None of these scientists were archeologists or historians, and none were alive as of 1860. Even at the time that Charroux's book was written, those scientists had all been dead for more than a century — that's hardly modern science.

Chapter II: The World Began in the USA[edit]

Charroux thought it was unbelievable that the people who created the ancient civilisations (Sumer, Ancient Egypt, etc) could have voluntary moved to the Middle East, since the Middle East is a desert land, where there is "no water, no river, no arable lands". Furthermore, the Middle East is a seismic zone, and its inhabitants would have been shaken to death. So, they must have had a strong reason to stay there, and this reason was that they needed to stay connected with Mother Earth through the seismic faults.

However, although North America is almost the same latitude than the Middle East, there was no great civilisation there, not even any flint tools or cave paintings. So there must have been a great civilisation which has been destroyed in a world cataclysm that wiped out any remnant of human presence. This hypothesis is vindicated by the fact that the Earth's axis is tilted: since it wasn't tilted in the past, it must have been tilted by the cataclysm. Another 'proof' is given by the Aztec myths that say that the North is the "Land of the Dead" (although some people came from there in ancient times) and other various ancient myths about destruction. Moreover, there are some places in United States with scaryWikipedia names,Wikipedia so this land must be cursed because of a terrifying event that took place there in the past.

One apparently has to conclude that these men belonged to a powerful civilization which nuked itself, and that they fled south to escape death in the aftermath of a nuclear disaster.

Then it is asserted that Quetzalcoatl, Viracocha, Kukulcan, Ptah, Oannes, Prometheus, Amithabha and Lucifer were extraterrestrials who came from Venus (there is no real reason for this assertions, apart from the assumption that these highly-evolved civilizations must have learned their knowledge from somebody).

Finally, the smoking gun argument is that there were no horses in America at the time of the Spanish Conquest, although there were horses thousands of years ago. So they must have been all killed by the nuclear cataclysm.
The chapter is a startling display of willful ignorance, unless Charroux really believed that there were no rivers in EgyptWikipedia norWikipedia inWikipedia Mesopotamia.Wikipedia The fact that the regions is dubbed the "Fertile Crescent" has probably nothing to be with, uh, being fertile.

Archeology has shown the existence of large Pre-Columbian buildings in North America;[10][11][12] flint tools[13]:17 and cave paintings have also been found.[14] It is true that the Aztec mythology refers to Mictlān,Wikipedia a place in the North where dead people were believed to go; but it's a mythical place. The Ancient Egyptians also believed that the western banks of the Nile were the land of the dead, but it doesn't mean that Libya was a nuclear battlefield. People can migrate from their native land from several natural reasons, including drought or climate change - Death Valley bears this name because it is one of the hottest and driest places on Earth, not because it is radioactive or "poisoned".

Regarding indigenous North American horses, they vanished sometime around 12,000 BCE; the causes probably include a mix of climate change[15] and human overkill.[16] Furthermore, one can wonder how a nuclear disaster could have wiped out the horse populations while letting others animals (like bisons) be unaffected.

Chapter III: The Gobi Desert Mystery[edit]

The Gobi Desert is a mysterious place, and some legends say that the ruler of this desert is the Master of the World. Somebody said that Vyacheslav MolotovWikipedia escaped Nikita's Khruschchev's wrath in the throes of destalinization, as if he was somehow "immune", although Molotov was Stalin's right-hand man. So Molotov must have been protected by the magic powers of the 9th Jebstundamba Khutughtu, the former theocratic leader of Mongolia, who also helped czar Alexander I of Russia to defeat Napoleon Bonaparte.[note 1] The Khutughtu now lives in a nomadic fashion, because he has been kicked out of his palace by the communists. Charroux claims the powers are real, because there are anecdotes, and because, without magic, dunce shepherds like Gengis Khan would not have been able to defeat empires much more evolved than him.[note 2]

The chapter carries on on the idea of prehistoric nuclear incident, emphasizing the fact that both California and Mongolia are used for nuclear weapons storage, and that both have experienced nuclear incidents:

Since all conceivable precautions had been taken to prevent these explosions and the improbability of such events refutes any naturalistic explanation, the explosions must have been caused by some nefarious force that detonated the bombs tens of thousands of years ago, in the 1960s, and will detonate them again in the future, destroying the world civilization.
Molotov was so immune that he got kicked out of the Politburo (1957) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1962). Very immune, indeed. Conversely, the 9th Jebtsundamba KhutughtuWikipedia had so much magical power that he hid his identity and lived in exile in India between 1959 and 1999, for fear that the Chinese communists would capture and kill him.

The section about the nuclear bomb is very muddled, as it mixes up California with Nevada (there must be a link because Nevada is home of Las Vegas, today's Sodom, and otherwise the fancy Biblical comparisons would fall apart), Mongolia with Gobi Desert and Soviet Union (never mind that Mongolia never had nuclear weapons) and Charroux didn't seem to know the difference between A-Bombs and H-Bombs.

Charroux also got his reasoning completely backwards: nuclear weapons are stored in remote and barren areas because it is preferable not to irradiate one's arable lands. Saying that the Gobi Desert is devoid of population because of nuclear stockpiling is like saying that the inside of your fridge is cold because there are beers stored in it. Moreover, it is highly dubious that all the deserts in the world have been created by nuclear disasters.

There have indeed been some incidents involving nuclear weapons in the U.S., like this one in May 24, 1962, but they were neither restricted to California nor of unexplained causes. These documents sum up the incidents involving U.S. nuclear weapons, including "Broken Arrow Incidents" where an atomic weapon is accidentally lauched, fired or detonated (there have been 32 of these incidents between 1950 and 1980, or one each year) and tens of more mundane incidents. More often than not, the cause is a human error or a technical malfunction.

The only nuclear detonation during February, 1960 has not been covered up, and was neither in the Gobi Desert nor in the USSR, but in Algeria,Wikipedia and it was nowhere as powerful as 200 bombs.

Chapter IV: The Stone Age: An Invention[edit]

Humanity is probably not native from Earth, as it is "too evolved" compared to other animals, and there is no proof of Homo sapiens being present on Earth before 30,000 BCE.

Also, the Earth is perfectly adapted to sustain life but, as the planets are slowly spiraling away from the Sun, the Earth was once too hot to bear life; so humanity must have come from another planet, and settled on Earth as it was cooling down and entering the habitable zone, while their original planet was wandering away from their star and becoming uninhabitable. This hypothesis is bolstered by the discovery of CTA-102,Wikipedia a powerful variable radio source that emits on a steady rythm[17] and could have been tampered with by an extraterrestrial civilization to work as a beacon, all the more that the emission is transmitted towards us on a frequency that can travel unaltered on thousands of light years.

Charroux then rants about the "Six Errors about Prehistory":

  1. Humans descended from apes
    This cannot be true because blood transfusion between humans and chimpanzees is impossible. Moreover, there are no intermediate fossils and the Australopithecus, Sinanthropus, Pithecanthropus fossils are all fakes.

  2. Prehistoric people lived in caves
    This is false because prehistoric remains have been unearthed in regions devoid of caves. Therefore, no prehistoric human ever dwelt in a cave.

  3. Prehistoric people were naked or wrapped in beasts' hides
    Prehistoric men were dressed like "civilized Western men", with "hats, jackets, trousers and shoes". This is shown by the engraved stone slabs found in the caves of Lussac-les-Châteaux, but the Musée de l'Homme of Paris is sequestering them to hide the truth.
  4. Prehistoric people did not knew about writing[note 3]

    Samples of prehistoric writing have been unearthed in Glozel,Wikipedia despite of the efforts to discredit its discoverer.

  5. Prehistoric people had it rough to find food.
    They were very well fed, having lots of delicious, nutritive, easy-to-gather foods
  6. Prehistoric people were stupid and clumsy.

    Prehistoric people were likely civilised, because the beautiful cave paintings of LascauxWikipedia and AltamiraWikipedia could not have been painted by primitive cavemen. Therefore, they probably knew about glass, coal and metalworking.

Furthermore, prehistoric people probably knew about steel, because no flint tools have been found in Lorraine. Lorraine has a steel industry.[note 4] Therefore, prehistoric inhabitants of Lorraine used steel tools instead of flint tools, but none has been unearthed because they all rusted away and disappeared. But wait, there's more: Charroux has a mathematical proof that prehistoric people could not have used flint tools. The reasoning unfolds as follows:

So there were (600,000 / (2000 × 100)) = 3 individuals per generation in the whole France. Ha !

Charroux then boasts that classic archeologists shrugged at his demonstration, while non-classical archeologists found it perfectly credible. So one has to admit that prehistoric humans knew about steelmaking, as it is also proved that the fact that the Haddad peopleWikipedia knew about iron 8000 years ago, and that some engineers calculated that the iron mines of Elba have been working for 30,000 years.
This chapter is an awe-inspiring display of Dunning-Kruger effect and bad faith because, as Charroux writes it: "Once we got rid of those false theories, we can imagine ourselves a fantastic past".

The solar fission modelWikipedia put forward by Louis Jacot[note 5] is rejected by modern science; the now favored hypothesis[18] is that the the Solar System originated from a rotating disk of material. Some questions remain unresolved, but it is very unlikely that the planets are spiraling away from the Sun.

CTA-102 is a quasar,[19] namely an active galactic core,[20] powered by a supermassive black hole. How a supermassive black hole could be tampered with to alter its frequency is left to the imagination. Moreover, given that the nearest known quasar, Markarian 231, is 581 million light years away from the Earth,[21] one might wonder why the hypothetical inhabitants of the CTA-102 galaxy would bother to use their quasar to send us signals, as they must have been dead for more than 600 million years by now. The reasoning is also rife with Texas sharpshooter fallacy: the radio waves emitted by the quasar are neither directed specifically towards Earth (electromagnetic waves propagate in every direction) nor of a carefully-tuned, special frequency tailored for us to detect; the quasar also emits both gamma[22] and visible frequencies.[23]

Regarding the "Six Classical Errors":

  1. Humans descended from apes

    This is just evolution denial, because common descent is too hard for Charroux to understand, and so he prefers to dream about space men.

  2. Prehistoric people lived in caves

    This is a strange twisting of correlation vs. causation here. What is important is that dwelling remains have been found in caves. Charroux's reasoning is saying something similar to 'ships don't float because some happen to sink'. Prehistoric humans dwelt in caves where there were caves, and they did otherwise where there weren't.

  3. Prehistoric people were naked or wrapped in beasts' hides

    Reproduction of those engravings can be seen in an article that has been published in 1941 and is now available online.[24][note 6] There is a kind of bad faith wordplay by Charroux here, because, although the depicted characters were wearing "hats, jackets, pants and shoes", those clothes are nothing like the outfits of, say, Victorian dandies. It looks more like the kind of garments which could have been worn by Ötzi who lived c. 3400-3100 BCE.[25][note 7]

  4. Prehistoric people did not know about writing

    Glozel, Charroux's smoking gun, was initially considered hoax starting in the 1930s; dating methods have shown that the archeological site has been heavily tampered with and includes a mix of items from the classical and medieval time periods (probably scavenged in the surroundings) along with modern fakes.[26] An official report published in 1995 concluded that the hypothesis of a prehistoric civilization could be excluded .[26]

  5. Prehistoric people had it rough to find food.

    It is true that, contrary to what is commonly thought, hunter-gatherer societies are not permanently starving — on the contrary, they're quite well fed, although they live in much less densely populated areas than agricultural societies. Besides, the fact that Charroux insists on prehistoric society being a hunter-gatherer one is quite odd, as he also implies that it was mastering nuclear power and space travel.

  6. Prehistoric people were stupid and clumsy.

    This point is a full-bore non sequitur, as the fact that the capacity to make fancy paintings is in no way related to the mastering of modern technology.

The argument for the knowledge of steelmaking during prehistoric times is pitifully lame — especially the mathematical argument. Its refutation is twofold :

  • If we do not accept the idea of a prehistoric civilization
    • The fact that each individual used 100 flint tools in a lifetime is just made up for the sake of the argument. What about sharing?
    • Prehistoric humans did not use flint only, but also organic materials like bones, antlers, animal teeth and wood, that do decay and disappear. Fortunately, some could have been preserved because they were stored in caves.
    • Prehistoric sites could have been destroyed through soil erosion or tilling. It is likely that many have been preserved because they were located in caves, because there is no weathering.
    • How do we know that all prehistoric items have already been unearthed? There may have been 600,000 flint items in 1965, but 130,000 have been found in 2011[27] and 200,000 more in 2018.[28]
  • If we do accept the idea of a prehistoric civilization
    • Why is it that only flint tools were preserved? Modern civilizations use many wearing-and-corrosion resistant materials. What about:
      • Noble metals, like gold or platinum?
      • Stainless alloys, like stainless steel or Hastelloy C?
      • Ceramics like stoneware or porcelain?
      • Glass, including borosilicate glass?
      • Technical ceramics, like tungsten carbide, silicon carbide or boron carbide?
      • Quartz items?
      • Diamonds?[note 8]
    • How about ancient pollution? Lead pollution from the Roman era can be traced back in ice samples from Greenland[29] and the Mont Blanc,[30] although Roman civilization was far from achieving nuclear power. Greenland ice cores up to 150,000 years old[31] have not shown the existence of a highly technological prehistoric society. Antarctic coring produced ice cores up to 900,000 years old,[32] yet still no traces of prehistoric space travelers.
    • How about ancient mining? An industrial civilization would probably need metals and minerals, and would likely resort to mining. Yet no prehistoric iron mines have been discovered, while neolithic flint mines, like those of KrzemionkiWikipedia or Spiennes,Wikipedia which are around 6000 years old, have been discovered and studied.

Chapter V: The Universe and the Space Ark[edit]

Louis Jacot, a Swiss astronomer, postulated that the planets of the Solar System have been torn off the Sun by the centrifugal force. To bolster his hypothesis, he admitted or "refuted" other science hypotheses based on whether they fit his pet theory or not.

So the absolute zero doesn't exist, there was no Big Bang, but Hubble's Law is nonetheless true; neither gravity nor relativity exists, as gravity is caused by ether pressure. Also, the Moon was created when Mu was torn off the Earth by the centrifugal force when the Earth's rotation speed suddenly grew, therefore causing the Flood,[note 9] and the Earth is no more than 150,000 years old.

Charroux then rambles on and on about how clever plants are, because the stems of the wild teaselWikipedia form small pockets that retain rainwater, and because bindweedWikipedia seedlings grow towards a support prop 40% of the time. He also wonders: if an oak was starting to talk, should we classify it as an animal?[note 10]

Then, it is asserted that, as some species have not evolved, mankind should have come from another planet, since all living beings should have evolved at the same rate.

Furthermore, there are legends that say that humanity's ancestors came from the sky, so it must be true.

The Books of Enoch, Biblical apocrypha that are said to be the oldest books in the world, also reports that beings from the sky had sex with terrestrial women and taught them modern technology, but the Bible's authors would have been ashamed to mention that they are the offspring of horny space travelers, so they censored the Book of Genesis. This is why the Bible does not mention extraterrestrials.

To top it all, Immanuel Velikovsky wrote that Venus came in the Solar System 3500 years ago, so it is very likely that Venus was used as an Ark by the extraterrestrials who settled the Earth.
Unfortunately for Jacot, there are strong proofs of the existence of both gravity and relativity, while Steady State theory and ether were disproved decades before the book was written. And the Earth is very much older than 150,000 years.

Regarding the plant intelligence, Charroux doesn't seem to grasp that teasel plants with water pockets are more likely to thrive than those without pockets. Conversely, the fact that bindweed seedlings grow towards support props is more likely to be explained by naturalistical mechanisms, like the fact that props cast a shadow, rather than mysterious plant powers.

The Books of Enoch are not the oldest book of the world. They are the oldest parts of the Bible, dating date back to 300 BCE, while the Iliad is five centuries older.[33]

The creation myths are a clear-cut cases of cherry picking. One might wonder why Charroux never quotes the Auðumbla where the first man is born from a salt rock licked by a cow,[34] or the Nauruan creation myth where humans are created from stones by the spider god Areop-Enap?[35] Maybe they're a little less convincing when bolstering his alien stories?

Chapter VI: Angels and the Books of Enoch[edit]

The Book of Genesis is strange because of the gap between Genesis 6:2 and Genesis 6:7, as there is no explanation of the reason why God repents and decides to destroy humanity. This should have been thoroughly explained, because the Flood was the most important event in human history.[note 11] But first, who were those "Sons of God"? They can't have been actual angels, since angels are bodiless spiritual beings. Therefore they were corporeal, human-like beings, and, as the Bible says that they came from the sky,[note 12]{[note 13] they must have been astronauts. Moreover, as Adam and Eve had only a few children, they must have come from space, because otherwise they would have been recognized as Adam's offspring, not as the "Sons of God".

Cue the Books of Enoch, which boasts 80 chapters about the Sons of God, while the Bible has only 7 verses; therefore, the Books of Enoch are a trustworthy source and the proof that the Bible has been censored. An attempt is made to link Enoch to King KeyumarsWikipedia or Kaiomers. Incidentally, it is asserted that "some erudites" assure that very ancient, now lost manuscripts have been used to write not only the Bible, but also the Vedas, the Laws of Manu,[36] etc. This assertion is vindicated by Biblical verses like Numbers 21:14, Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18.

Some chapters of the Book of Enoch describe how the Sons of God taught swordsmithing and astronomy to men; as angels in Heaven are unlikely to know about swordsmithing, the Sons of God have to be astronauts.

The remainder of the chapter is some heavy quote mining of the Book of Enoch, with verses mangled and chapters mixed to make it look like an accurate report of past events. Notably, since Heaven in Enoch is located on the North, then he must be writing about Hyperborea. When it is written that Enoch is "lifted" and "moved", that must be because he rode some flying machine. When it is written that Enoch is "brought back to his home", this is proof that he actually traveled (otherwise there would be no need to come back). And so on.
Chapter VI is the turning point where the books sheds its veneer of science to plunge into plain stupidity. While doubting science is always acceptable (although spitting conspiracy theories is barely "doubting"), using Biblical exegesis to make his point is just silly.

Charroux goes on some kind of weird biblical fan fiction to fill in for the parts he feels are lacking.

Numbers 21:14, Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18 do deal about some "books", but there is not any mention of these being specially old. It seems that Charroux has a tendency to overinterpret whatever he's reading.

The Books of Enoch were almost lost due to being non-canonical in Judaism and Christianity. The first book (1 Enoch) is however part of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Bibles, and has been translated into English.[37] Aside from the quote-mined parts, there are also chapters about Sheol[38][note 14] and how the sun is hot in the summer.[39] Some chapters are also suspiciously close to Genesis 6:1, such as Chapters 6[40] and 7.[41]

Chapter VII: The World's Biggest Secret and the Dangerous Word to Utter[edit]

Atheists are guilty of sectarianism when dismissing the Bible as legends, because the Bible is our heritage, and it is indisputably an account of actual events, although somewhat distorted.

Then Charroux goes deeper in Biblical shoehorning. In the chapter 106 of the Books of Enoch, Lamech says that is newborn son Noah looks like "an angel of the sky", so Noah is the offspring of an extraterrestrial who banged Lamech's wife while he wasn't looking.

Another interesting character is Melchizedek. There must be something wrong about him, since he's only referred to in three verses,[note 15] so the Bible must have been censored to hide the truth.[note 16] Fortunately, there is apocrypha to satisfy our thirst for knowledge. Some say that he was removed from the Earth and housed in Eden to be protected from the Flood, and that he was Noah's son. The Melkizedekian sect said he topped Jesus himself.[42] Some even say that Melkizedek is Enoch himself.

To conclude, we can say that Enoch, Noah, Melchizedek, Moses, Elijah and Jesus were all extraterrestrials, because they all were born from an unknown father (=angels/extraterrestrials), and because they all were taken to the sky (=flying machines).

Also, the Celts and Scandinavians are the descendants of Enoch, Noah and Melchizedek.
This chapter is an utter cornucopia of weird religious legends dredged from almost everywhere, from very dubious sources,[note 17] which are almost systematically misinterpreted and quote-mined to bolster the idea of Biblical astronauts. As an example, in chapter 106] from the Books of Enoch,[44] Noah is indeed described like the son of an angel, but it is quite obvious that Lamech refers to real angels (not the Venusian astronauts), as he does things that are very unlikely to be done by a newborn, like blessing the midwife. Furthermore, what Charroux doesn't seem to grasp is that dismissing the Bible as legends is not "sectarianism", but only basic scientific prudence.

Chapter VIII: Venus, Planet of Our Ancestors[edit]

The French title of this chapter is Vénus, Planète de nos Ancêtres ("Venus, planet of our ancestors"). If you were expecting sane reasoning, you've been warned.

The Earth has a 100% chance of being disastrously perturbated each five or ten thousands years. Immanuel Velikovsky, in an extraordinarly well-documented book, and with an exceptional perspicacity, remodeled the Earth's ancient history by relying on traditions and best scientific bases.

10,000 years ago, Earth's axis was not tilted and the North Pole was in the Bay of Baffin. The days were between 30 and 40 hours long.

Then Venus brushed against Earth, causing a world disaster that almost exterminated humanity, and got stuck in the Solar system "like a Sputnik".

As usual, ancient writings are lavishly quote mined; as an example, the Ipuwer and Harris papyri say "the world was upside down"; Herodotus wrote that, according to Egyptian priests, the Sun once rose were it usually sets, and set where it used to rise. The tomb of Senmut, who lived under Hatchepshut's reign, has two celestial maps of its ceiling, one of them being upside down; so North and South must have been inverted during Senmut's lifetime.

Then it is asserted that Venus wasn't visible four thousands years ago. However, the Tirvalur Tables, brought from India by French Astronomer Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gentil, mentions an astronomical conjunction of "all the planets" which took place in February 16, 3102 BCE, and reports that Saturn, Mars, Jupiter and Mercury got out from behind the Sun. Venus isn't mentioned, so it wasn't there, because the Indian astronomers were so careful, it's unthinkable they could have made an error.

Babylonian astronomy does not mention Venus either; and, according to Augustine of Hippo, Marcus Terentius Varro said that Castor the Rhodian saw Venus having a strange colour and behaviour — this taking place at the time of the Ogygian Flood.[note 18]

These events are a certainty. They're easily explained by the fact that the Solar System is like an atom with its electrons orbiting around the core, yet the electrons are able to "jump" from one orbit to another when they are given a kick of energy. According to Hermes Trismegistus, "All what is up is like what is down", therefore the planets are able to jump from an orbit to another.

Unfortunately, there is a "conspiracy of conformists" who prefer to defend the "system" and the "false history of Man" instead of relying on folklore and traditions. But the hypothesis unfolded in the book (that Venusians settled on Earth before the Flood, founding the civilizations of Mu and Atlantis who then nuked each other) is not more fantastic than those of historians who always omit to take the Bible and the legends in account.
This chapter is the one where the stinky part begins — that is to say, bald-faced lies can now be spotted in the text. I will not draw out on Velikovsky's work, but I'll take a look on some of the "evidence".

There is no proof that the Earth's rotation axis was perpendicular to the ecliptic during historical times, nor that the days lasted more than 30 hours. On the contrary, days were shorter 600 million years ago, lasting around 22 hours instead of 24.[45][46]

The HarrisWikipedia and IpuwerWikipedia papyri indeed say that "the world is upside down", but in a metaphorical sense, like "the poor is now rich, the rich is now poor, and the slave now commands his master". This doesn't mean that the Earth was physically upside down.

Herodotus' accounts about Egyptian astronomy is in the second Book of Persian Wars, section 142. It is written :

Four times in this period (so they told me) the sun rose contrary to his wont; twice he rose where he now sets, and twice he set where now he rises; yet Egypt at these times underwent no change, neither in the produce of the river and the land, nor in the matter of sickness and death.

It is plainly written that nothing happened. No world cataclysm. Whether Charroux found this quote by himself or took it from Velikovsky, he's just dishonest.

Senmut's tombWikipedia has a ceiling with two astronomical maps, one of the Northern sky and one of the Southern Sky. There is a simple and sensible explanation for this: when you look North, the North is ahead and the South is behind; now when you turn round, the South is ahead and the North is behind: "North and South have been inverted!!".[note 19]Remember that cartographic conventions like "North is up" are just conventions, and the ancient Egyptian ones were probably different from ours.

Regarding the Tirvalur Tables, the original publication of Jean Sylvain Bailly (1787) can be seen here. It is plainly written that the conjuction has not been directly observed, because the planets were hidden by the Sun. The conjuction was deduced from observations taken fifteen days later; the Indians saw Saturn, Mars, Jupiter and Mercury going out from behind the Sun, and calculations show that Venus was only on the opposite side of the Sun: it was visible, although not technically part of the conjunction. As Bailly writes "This was enough for the Indians to say that there was a conjunction of all the planets". Yet again, Robert Charroux is either dishonestly quote-mining or unable to read more than two pages in a row.

The assertion about Babylonian astronomy not mentioning Venus is flatly wrongWikipedia.

The explanation of planet movement is just a hilarious example of Dunning-Kruger effect. Mr Charroux boldly mistakes the map for the territory and shows us how poorly educated he is. The Solar system/atom analogy is quite appealing, but it is a superficial analogy, as the two systems are not driven by the same forces, nor are they subject to the same effects. Moreover, basic physics class calculations show that the atom is held together by electromagnetic forces, while gravitational forces are negligible; on the contrary, electromagnetic forces are negligible in the Solar system, which is held together by gravitational forces.

Chapter IX : Cosmonauts from Hyperborea[edit]

Venus was once bigger than Earth, so its inhabitants were taller than humans (between 2 and 2.3 meters). Those Venusians landed in five places, Hyperborea (headquarters), Atlantis, Gobi Desert,[note 20] Egypt and Armenia (Armenia being beaconed by flaming oil wells). They were the vanguard of the exodus of the Venusian people, as Venus was becoming hostile to life. Those who had landed in Armenia had sex with local women, giving birth to heroes and demigods. There is no reason for Venusian-Earthling hybrids to be sterile, as Venusians had probably scientific tricks to allow them to procreate, and, as women have been able to have children with animals, they could just as well have some with extraterrestrials.

Furthermore, Pawnee legends say that Venus is the "Mother of all Life", so life must have come from Venus. Otherwise, how can we explain Venus being ubiquitous in mythology?

Venusians had an advanced grasp of technology, but they were unable to teach it to poorly-evolved Earthlings and have almost been wiped out by the Flood, but some have been able to shelter themselves in the Giza Pyramids or in the Agartha.

The Hebrews suffered heavily, too. Long genealogies given in the Bible are too long to be true, so they're probably false. Some of the Hebrews were probably of part Venusian descent, but, as Hebrew society is a patrilinear one, children born from Venusian fathers were not seen as Hebrews. So the Bible writers altered the text to make Venusian-born characters (Enoch, Noah, Moses, Melchizedek) look like true Hebrews. That's also why the Bible does not talk about planets.

The Jews rejected Jesus because he was of Venusian descent, so they did not see him as a true Jew.

There is an ages-long struggle between Hyperboreans and Jews to determine which race will be the superior one.
There's not much to comment on in this chapter, as the bulk is just fantastic ramblings.

Venus having once been bigger than Earth is just asserted, and not backed by any evidence. The idea that the inhabitants of a bigger planet would be taller is, to say the least, highly dubious. Charroux probably got this idea from Micromegas, or any science fiction magazine. In real life, the bigger the planet, the stronger the gravity, and it would be better for its inhabitants to be smaller, so they wouldn't be crushed by their own weight.

The reason why Pawnee legends are invoked is never explained,[note 21] apart the fact that some juicy quote-mining is always welcome. And Venus being omnipresent in legends has nothing to do with Venus being one of the brightest objects in the sky,Wikipedia duh.

Nevertheless, the idea of a struggle between the Jews and the Hyperboreans is somewhat disturbing, as Charroux asserted that Celts and Scandinavians were of Hyperborean descent.

Chapter X: The Jealous God and the Chosen People[edit]

Man probably appeared because of mutations in the aftermath of the nuclear war between Atlantis and Mu. As it is unlikely that several humans appeared in the same time, the first man (or woman) had to have sex with animals to perpetuate his species.

Mainstream science says that mating between different animals is almost always sterile, but some people doubt this theory, all the more that it doesn't comply with scientific criteria.[note 22] This is vindicated by the fact that scientists like Henry Harris and J.F.Watkins have been able to obtain heterokaryons (cell with hybrid nuclei)[47].

The fact that women could have children with animals is in no case ruled out, as it is proved by the case of Thérèse X. at Vichy (France), who gave birth to a live and perfectly viable half-human half-ape baby. When interrogated, she confessed that she had sex with a male chimpanzee she was living with in a caravan, and the baby was euthanized by deadly injections. A report has been done by Dr. T.

We can also speculate that the Venusians knew biology tricks which allowed them to have children with humans and animals.

Furthermore, andean myths say that mankind descends from a woman and a tapir. So it must be true !

People of Antiquity thougt that sex between humans and animals was feasible, as shown by the legend of the Minotaur. Also, the human drawings of Lussac-les-Châteaux show people with dog-like faces.

Other proofs are the myth of the Babylonian fish-god Oannes and other monsters like Cyclopes, Titans, Gorgones, Fauns, Angels, Hydras and so on.

Giants were the offspring of Hyperboreans and women. All myths report the existence of giants, and the sumotori could be the posterity of Hyperboreans, as they are very popular, tall, heavy and brawny.[note 23]

The Hyperboreans could even have gone so far to have sex with animals, because they were deprived of sex for a long time and were very horny. So their posterity not only included giants, but also centaurs, minotaurs, gorgones, fauns, sphinx, mermaids - because centaurs, minotaures, gorgones, fauns, sphinx and mermaids once existed, as there are myths about them.

The giants and demigods then fought the monsters, hence monster-fighting myths.

Then Robert draws out about Leviticus 18:24, where God rants about homosexuality and bestiality, and says

Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things: for in all these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you

From where Robert concludes that all people of Antiquity were doing homosexuality and bestiality, while the Hebrews were the chosen people because they were no banging goats.[note 24]

Moses was an Egyptian and borrowed monotheism from Akhenaton, and the Hebrews are the successors of Ancient Egyptians, because they both practice circumcision.
The current scientific consensus is that mankind evolved from ape-like ancestors, so each generation included many individuals, and thus there was no need to have sex with animals to perpetuate the species. But let's admit, for the sake of argument, that a woman could have sex with, say, a bull, to give birth to a minotaur. Her offspring would not be a human, but a fucking minotaur, so the human species would not have been perpetuated. That's like saying that you can make 2 volumes of water by mixing 1 volume of water and 1 volume of acetone. Several generations down the way, you would have nothing left but a bunch of completely fucked-up hybrids (try to imagine what you obtain when you cross a minotaur with a mermaid, and then cross the resulting offspring with a sphinx).

Besides the obvious stupidity of the reasoning, it even contradicts the myths that are supposed to support it, as those myths typically describe lots of normal humans running around with the hybrid creatures being mere antagonists for the hero.

Heterokaryons are indeed "hybrid" cells, yet there is a long way from a cell to a full-fledged, living and fertile individual [note 25].

The drawings of Lussac-les-Châteaux do indeed include some badly drawn human faces who might look dog-like. Or just badly-drawn-human-faces-like.

Whatever some cranks like to claim, human-animal hybridization has never been shown to be fertile or even viable.[note 26] The so-called "proofs of hybrids" are just pitiful collections of badly deformed fetuses — almost all of them being stillborn or dead within minutes of birth.[note 27]

But Thérèse's child case is probably the most ham-fisted lie in this book. Robert Charroux took care not to reveal much information, just in case people would feel like investigating. Unfortunately for him, this case is somewhat known, at least in French-speaking circles, as the case of "L'Anencéphale de Vichy" (The Vichy Anencephale).

The birth took place on February 6, 1897, in Vichy. Far from being "perfectly viable", the child died within minutes because it didn't have any fucking brains.[48][49][note 28] Even Eugene M McCarthy agrees with this.[50][note 29]

The report from Dr A.Therre (a.k.a the mysterious Dr. T.) includes some interesting statements:

The monster died within moments of birth.
The skull is widely open on superior and posterior sides. The head is utterly hollow, being, so to say, nothing but the face.
Spinal canal devoid of spinal chord, totally open and turned into a wide gutter.

By the way, nowhere is it said that the girl confessed having sex with the chimp. That's an outright lie.

Also, keep in mind that this event occured in 1897 - there was no genetic testing back then. The main argument for hybridization consists of "Ooh, it looks like an ape", so this is a very weak proof for human-animal hybridization.

The part about sumotori is just silly. Yet again, Robert gets his reasoning totally backwards. Sumotori aren't brawny because they are sumotori, but because you need to be brawny to became a sumotori.

The part about hybrids in mythology is more puzzling, as this is either a Poe or Mr Charroux is utterly unable to tell fact from fiction. We can just hope that his mother told him the truth about Santa Claus and the Tooth Fairy.

Chapter XI:Apocrypha and Fantasy Stories[edit]

The apocryphal book "The conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan" tells us that Adam has been buried in a cave, then put on the Ark during the flood. Thus, Adam is the most important being that ever came on Earth, even topping messiahs and prophetes.

We don't know much about some historical figures, like the Merovingian kings, or Joan of Arc. Therefore, we can assume that Adam came from another planet.

The letter send by Jesus to King Abgar has been found on the 4th century CE, more than three centuries after Jesus' death. The Churchs considers it as an apocrypha and Saint Jerome did not believe in its authenticity. But this letter is the only historical proof of the existence of Jesus.

The Dead Sea scrolls have no better proofs of authenticity than this letter.

The Copper Scroll (one of the Dead Sea Scrolls - more formally, 3Q15) mentions buried treasures of gold and silver. Scholars said that these claims were not to be taken seriously, but, Robert writes :" We later learned that the scroll revealed the location of 60 treasures, amounting to 200 tons of precious metals, worth of 100 millions dollars". So either the Essenian writers are lying, or the scholars are lying, as Robert assumes that the treasure has actually been unearthed thanks to the locations given in the scrolls (otherwise, how could we know its weight?).
This chapter shows how tedious this book can become, as it is more or less a rehash of previous chapters.

First of all, the Conflict of Adam and Eve with SatanWikipedia is a book from the 6th century - it's way later than the Bible. So why all this fuss about using "files predating the Bible", if later files are OK too? It seems that the dates are unimportant as long as the texts can be made to fit the narrative Robert tries to set.

The digression about King Abgar seems of no use, as Robert does not make any point about it, and will never write about it later in the book. It just reads as a pitiful example of double standard : sooner in the book, Robert did not hesitate to denounce parts of the Old Testament that he felt had been tampered with, yet he doesn't express any doubt regarding a "proof" that popped out of nowhere three centuries after the events.

The English text of the Copper Scroll can be read here. That is, the places and the weight of precious metals are clearly stated, so the the number of places and the total weight of the treasure can be known by just reading the text and using a pocket calculator - no need to assume a conspiracy. Such lapses of logic prompt the reader into thinking that Robert makes up in quotemining and shoehorning what he lacks in basic reading and reasoning skills. And this part about the Dead Sea Scroll is of no use, too; no point is made, and the topic will never be treated again.

Chapter XII: The Other World and the Grail[edit]

See the main article on this topic: Holy Grail
After the Flood, human beings were very few; but Celtic and Nordic people were been less affected than the others, and they are the keepers of Hyperborean traditions.

From 1 to 150 CE, the Christians reformed the society that had been wrecked by the Jews; so the link to the ancestors has been lost, as the Jews kept it for themselves. But the Celts and the Scandinavians had also kept a little part of the truth, which powered the rise of Christianity during the Middle Ages.

The chivalry orders had been created to discover America, as the horse is the symbol of Poseidon, who was the protector of Atlantis. The most important of those orders was the Knights of the Round Table, whose mission was the search of the Grail. But this quest has been distorted by religious communities to control it.

Florida is the "Other World" of the legends, like Tir Nan Og, the Fortunate Isles or the Garden of the Hesperides. Florida was once on the North Pole, but, as the axis of the Earth changed, it drifted to the West.[note 30] Florida is like the earthly paradise, because it is always warm and fruits that grow there taste better than the others. Otherwise, if Florida was not the Earthly paradise, we cannot explain why so many people sailed West throughout history.

To access the Grail, the knights had to pass some trials; the real purpose of those trials was to make the elites ready to fulfill a political goal set since the 11th century: the conquest of the world by the white races, the descent of Hyperboreans.
This chapter is a very muddled one, as it is full of incoherent ramblings and barely understandable. But the few understandable things are, so to say, stupid.

As an example, and despite his attempts of Biblical literalism, Charroux doesn't seem to grasp that the main tenet of Christianity is the resurrection of Jesus Christ, so talking about Christianity in 1 CE is somewhat odd (especially when you take into account the fact that Jesus would actually be around 6 years old at that time).

"Chivalry" came from old French "chevalerie", as its members, the "chevaliers" (knights) were fighting on horseback (cheval = horse). This is obvious in French — the language that Charroux spoke; yet he failed to acknowledge this. To give it a parallel in English, it's like saying that the foot is the emblem of the foot soldiers for whatever esoteric reason. Besides, the horse is also the emblem of Stuttgart,[51] Turkmenistan,[52] the French town of Chevalblanc[53][note 31] and the German state of Lower Saxony.[54] So what?

The arguments for Florida to be an earthly paradise are very weak. While Florida can be a pleasant place to live in, it also has its drawbacks. Alligators and hurricanesWikipedia are probably not expected in an earthly paradise — unless one assumes that the Flood changed everything.

Chapter XIII: The Castle of the Master of the World[edit]

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Sicily and King of Jerusalem was the Master of the World because some historians said so. He was probably "the most cultured, the most intelligent and the most independent monarch in human history". He was opposed to Christianity, to he point that he said things like "Moses, Jesus and Muhammad were impostors". He fought against the popes and some Christians called him "the Antichrist"; he even got excommunicated.

He invited many savants to his court and was fascinated about occultism, astrology and things like the Prophetiae Merlini (Prophecies of Merlin).

In 1228, in Acre, he chaired a reunion of the world chivalry: Knights Templar, Knights Hospitaller, Teutonic Order, Saracens, Turks, Order of Assassins… who got associated in an agreement (the Pactio Secreta) to establish a universal religion.

The Castel del Monte that he built in Italia is the proof that Frederick was an initiated person, because it is "uninhabitable", so it must have been an alchemical place where Frederick and his friends performed strange rituals.

Michael Scot, who worked at Frederick's court, was a powerful magician, as said by some legends. As an example, the Lay of the Last Minstrel says that he was able to make the bells of Notre-Dame de Paris ring, while being in Salamanca. It is also said that he was able to teleport foods on his table and he predicted his own death.

Although the Knights Templar got dissolved in 1307,its mission was taken up by the Freemasons and the Pactio Secreta inspired the events that remodeled the civilized world from 1789 on.
While it is true that Frederick II was somewhat skeptical towards Christianity, he remained quite religious and was buried in the Palermo Cathedral. What is not mentioned is that Frederick was at war with the Pope, who was thwarting his attempts to centralize his empire, so it is no wonder that the pope's fanbase was pissed at him. Also, remember that the Pope was a feudal landowner until 1870, so his quarrels were not only of religious issues but also keeping the serfs in line.[55] At a time when most of the West European population was Catholic, threatening his adversaries with excommunication (and, as a consequence of mass deprivation, damnation) was an efficient way for the Pope to enforce both his spiritual and temporal power; in 1590, Pope Urbain VII threatened to excommunicate whomever consumed tobacco inside of a church, yet most smokers are not Satan-worshipping occultists, and neither was Frederick II.

Charroux did not care to give any proof of the so-called "Pactio Secreta". It is true that Frederick II took part in a reunion in Acre in 1228, but that was to convince the Egyptian sultan Al-Kamil to give him back the city of Jerusalem — as Frederick, King of Jerusalem, did not have the military power to enforce his rule on his own kingdom. Indeed, the problem with nobility titles as a proof of someone's power is that, in most cases, nobility titles were not won by brute force, but inherited. Frederick was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily because he was born the son of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, and King of Jerusalem because he married the Queen of Jerusalem.

By the way, the Lay of the Last Minstrel is a poem by Walter Scott published in 1805; to the eyes of some people, a fictional work published 550 years after the death of his protagonists might not be a trustworthy source, but Charroux did not seem to care about source quality, as long as there was something to quote.

External links[edit]


  1. Buddhists consider that the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu is reincarnated in different bodies through time, thus remaining the same person.
  2. Nevermind that Gengis Khan died 400 years before the birth of the 1st Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
  3. This is the textbook definition of prehistory.
  4. It had one when this book was written.
  5. Louis Jacot will be more thoroughly dealt with in Chapter V.
  6. Persee.fr is run by the French ministry of Education. So much for coverup.
  7. There are also depictions of men with their penises dangling out of their flies. So much for sophisticated space civilization.
  8. Of course, diamonds naturally occur. But finding cut diamonds at an archeological site, without their gangue and far away from diamond-bearing strata, would be somewhat surprising.
  9. One may wonder: Why Mu? Was it more loosely fastened than the other continents?
  10. Answer: No. Multicellular organisms are split up in animals, plants and fungi based on their extracellular matrix. It is made of collagen in animals, cellulose in plants and chitin in fungi. A talking oak would be categorized as talking tree, but would remain a plant.
  11. Because the Flood actually happened! Haven't you ever read the Bible?
  12. Nowhere in Genesis 6:1-7 is it said that they came from the sky.
  13. Charroux even goes on saying "The Bible is positive about it." Bloody liar!
  14. Sheol is real, as Enoch traveled into it. Repent, sinners!
  15. Genesis 14:18, Genesis 14:19,Genesis 14:20
  16. Because it is utterly unthinkable that a character could get only three verses because he's an uninteresting secondary character. It's like saying that Harry Potter has been censored because it doesn't include 50 million pages of fan fiction.
  17. As an example from The Nag Hammadi Library (Egyptian Gnostics), see how many lines are missing.[43]
  18. Once you know that the Ogygian Flood is a mythical event, you can appreciate how desperate he must have been to employ such sources.
  19. I may be mistaking, but this is a simple and reasonable position for the maps orientation. Besides, Robert Charroux is probably misquoting or misunderstanding his source, so it should be interesting to do some research about those astronomical ceilings.
  20. Remember, Gobi wasn't a desert back then but a lush countryside with nukes stashed everywhere
  21. And we thought that there was nobody in North America!
  22. Because being backed by facts isn't a scientific criterion.
  23. So what about sumo women?
  24. Nevermind that the Old Testament is written from an Hebrew-centric point of view.
  25. Or just living for that matter. See "miscarriage" in any dictionary.
  26. Unless you insist on saying that humans are animals too, but then the debate is moot
  27. In a normal world, people with a Ph.D would be able to grasp that being stillborn is not a healthy way to perpetuate your species.
  28. The fact that Robert Charroux sees brainlessness as a perfectly viable condition is somehow telling.
  29. See the Wikipedia article on Anencephaly.
  30. Yes, the West of the North Pole
  31. This name literally means "Whitehorse"


  1. Le Livre des Secrets Trahis by Robert Charroux (1964) R. Laffont.
  2. Histoire Inconnue des Hommes Depuis Cent Mil Ans by Robert Charroux (1963) R. Laffont.
  3. Legacy of the Gods by Robert Charroux (1979) Sphere. ISBN 0722122705.
  4. Verratene Geheimnisse' by Robert Charroux (1979) Ullstein-Sachbuch. ISBN 3548344208.
  5. El Libro de los Secretos Descubiertos by Robert Charroux (1979) Plaza & Janes. ISBN 8401310938.
  6. Nieznana Historia Ludzkości: Księga Purpurowa by Robert Charroux (1996) Pandora. ISBN 8385884092.
  7. Cartea Secretelor Ttrădate by Robert Charroux (2003) Lucman. ISBN 9738372755.
  8. Palmyra as a Caravan City by Albert E. Dien, University of Washington.
  9. Karez Well (Updated: 2006-June-9 10:12:26) Xinjiang News (archived from June 27, 2008).
  10. Metropolitan Life on the Mississippi by Nathan Seppa (March 12 1997) The Washington Post.
  11. Serpent Mound The Highlands Nature Sanctuary (archived from February 21, 2011).
  12. Poverty Point National Park Service.
  13. Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Midcontinental and Eastern United States: A Modern Survey and Reference by Noel D. Justice (1995) Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253209854.
  14. http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/baja/sierra_de_san_francisco.php The Cave Paintings of Baja California: The Sierra de San Francisco] by Harry W. Crosby, Bradshaw Foundation.
  15. Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction by R. Dale Guthrie (2003) Nature 426:169–171. doi:10.1038/nature02098.
  16. New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions by R. Dale Guthrie (2006) Nature 441:207–209. doi:10.1038/nature04604.
  17. Variability of the Radio Source CTA-102 by G. B. Sholomitsky (1965) Information Bulletin on Variable Stars 83(1).
  18. How did the solar system form? by Nola Taylor Tillman (December 13, 2021) Space.com.
  19. CTA-102 by David Darling (2016).
  20. Quasar by David Darling (2016).
  21. See the Wikipedia article on Markarian 231.
  22. AGILE detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from CTA 102 by F. Lucarelli et al. (9 Dec 2017; 17:28 UT) The Astronomer's Telegram.
  23. CRTS-II Detection of Increased Optical Activity from CTA 102 by S. G. Djorgovski et al. (21 Dec 2017; 18:53 UT) The Astronomer's Telegram.
  24. Gravures à représentations d'humains du Magdalénien III by L. Péricard & S. Lwoff (1941) Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 38(7-8):145-161.
  25. See the Wikipedia article on Ötzi § Clothes and shoes.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Résumé des recherches effectuées à Glozel entre 1983 et 1990, sous l'égide du ministère de la culture by J.-P. Daugas et al. (1995) Revue archéologique du Centre de la France 34:251-259.
  27. Nouvelles données sur les ateliers de taille du silex du Néolithique final dans la région du Grand-Pressigny: présentation préliminaire du site de "Bergeresse" à Abilly (Indre-et-Loire, France) by Christian Verjux et al. (2011) Revue archéologique de Picardie 28:467-478.
  28. Un site préhistorique exceptionnel découvert au coeur d'Angoulême by Vincent Bordenave (Publié le 08/11/2018 à 18:39, Mis à jour le 09/11/2018 à 11:40) Le Figaro.
  29. Lead pollution in Greenland ice shows rise and fall of ancient European civilizations (May 14, 2018) Desert Research Institute.
  30. Traces of Roman-era pollution stored in the ice of Mont Blanc by François Maginiot (May 8, 2019) Desert Research Institute.
  31. Changes in natural lead, copper, zinc and cadmium concentrations in central Greenland ice from 8250 to 149,100 years ago: their association with climatic changes and resultant variations of dominant source contributions by SungminHong et al. (1996) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 143(1-4):233-244. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(96)00137-9.
  32. In the Cornucopia of the European Project of Ice Coring in Antarctica: the oldest Antarctic ice core (January 13, 2005) Alfred-Wegener-Institute.
  33. See the Wikipedia article on Iliad § Date and textual history.
  34. See the Wikipedia article on Auðumbla.
  35. See the Wikipedia article on Areop-Enap.
  36. See the Wikipedia article on Manusmriti.
  37. The Book of Enoch (Charles) Wikisource.
  38. The Book of Enoch (Charles): Chapter 22 Wikisource.
  39. The Book of Enoch (Charles): Chapter 4 Wikisource.
  40. The Book of Enoch (Charles): Chapter 6 Wikisource.
  41. The Book of Enoch (Charles): Chapter 7 Wikisource.
  42. https://www.biblicalcyclopedia.com/M/melchizedekians.html
  43. The Nag Hammadi Library: Melchizedek The Gnostic Society Library.
  44. The Book of Enoch (Charles): Chapter 106 Wikisource.
  45. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/1999RG900016
  46. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11542096
  47. https://www.researchgate.net/scientific-contributions/63458311_J_F_Watkins
  48. http://dinosoria.com/anencephale_vichy.htm
  49. Les Grandes Enigmes, France Loisirs, 1994, pp.236-237
  50. http://www.macroevolution.net/anencephale-de-vichy.html
  51. https://stuttgart.de/
  52. http://www.heraldicum.ru/turkmen/state1.htm
  53. http://www.ville-chevalblanc.fr/
  54. https://www.lower-saxony.de/startseite/
  55. See the Wikipedia article on Papal States.