| Guide to:|
|Ideas and policies|
Bernard "Bernie" Sanders (1941–) is the junior senator from Vermont. Polls show him as the most popular national politician in the United States.[note 1] This political independent has occasionally, for tactical reasons, run as a Democrat throughout his political career. Sanders was a candidate for the 2016 Democratic Party presidential nomination before he dropped out and endorsed Hillary Clinton for President. He announced his candidacy for the 2020 Democratic Party presidential nomination in February 2019.
Born in Brooklyn, New York, Sanders graduated from the University of Chicago with a degree in political science before entering politics. He was elected mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 1981, and was re-elected twice more before running for Congress. After spending decades in obscurity, since 2015 Sanders has become a powerful force in American politics, in and out of the Democratic Party, helping to change the sociopolitical narrative of the country and revitalize the left wing. Incidentally, he is actually related to Larry David, who plays him on the long-running sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live.
- 1 Political career
- 2 Political views and policy positions
- 2.1 Communist regimes
- 2.2 Energy
- 2.3 Financial and economic policies
- 2.4 Foreign affairs
- 2.5 Gun ownership
- 2.6 Immigration
- 2.7 LGBT rights
- 2.8 Military spending
- 2.9 Public health
- 2.10 Race
- 2.11 Telecommunications
- 2.12 Voting rights
- 2.13 Woo
- 3 2016 presidential bid
- 4 2020 Presidential bid
- 5 Notes
- 6 See also
- 7 External Links
- 8 References
In 1990, Sanders defeated the incumbent Republican for Vermont's only seat in the House of Representatives, after a failed attempt two years prior. In 2006, he won his Senate seat in a tight race against the richest person in Vermont and was re-elected in 2012 with 71% of the vote. That year, he also argued in vain for Obama to be challenged in the Democratic primaries.
As of 2018, Sanders was one of the least effective Senators by several metrics for the 115th Congress, if moving a bill — any bill — is the measure:
- He got his bills out of committee least often of all Senators.
- He received the fewest number of bipartisan sponsors on his bills.
- He was second last among Senators serving 10+ years for leadership as measured by cosponsorship of his bills.
- He was third last among Senators serving 10+ years for garnering influential cosponsors of his bills.
- He was tenth last among Senators serving 10+ years for introducing bills in 2018, and had no laws enacted.
During Sanders' entire career as Senator, he has only had 7 bills enacted into law in which he was a primary sponsor:
- S. 885 (113th): A bill to designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 35 Park Street in Danville, Vermont, as the “Thaddeus Stevens Post Office”.
- S. 2782 (113th): A bill to amend title 36, United States Code, to improve the Federal charter for the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, and for other ...
- S. 893 (113th): Veterans’ Compensation Cost-of-Living Adjustment Act of 2013
- H.R. 5245 (109th): To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1 Marble Street in Fair Haven, Vermont, as the “Matthew Lyon Post Office Building”.
- H.J.Res. 129 (104th): Granting the consent of Congress to the Vermont-New Hampshire Interstate Public Water Supply Compact.
- H.R. 1353 (102nd): Entitled the “Taconic Mountains Protection Act of 1991”.
- H.J.Res. 132 (102nd): To designate March 4, 1991, as “Vermont Bicentennial Day”.
Sanders did successfully amended bills 57 times in his first nine years. On a year-by-year basis, an average senator passed 7.4 amendments, but for Sanders that number is significantly below the mean, 6.3. However, Sanders did have a strong reputation as a bipartisan deal maker when he was Veterans Affairs Committee Chairman in 2014.
One view of Sanders' poor performance is that it is not surprising given that the duopoly has been moving far to Sanders' right for decades, at least since Reagan, and FDR could not get his program passed by today's centrist Democrats. Given Sanders' position as left of virtually everyone in Congress, and with Republicans often in a majority, amending bills was a sound strategy. According to Craig Volden at the University of Virginia:
“” "He could have either resigned himself to that fate [a minority member whose bills go nowhere], changed the nature of his legislation and coalition-building strategy, or offered amendments on the floor," Volden said. "He chose the third of these paths, making him more influential in shaping policy than if he had taken the first path. Why he did not take the second path is an open question — likely linked to his ideological views."
Another view is that Sanders is just poor at compromise and with building coalitions with colleagues. He has been described by his own staffers as "rude, short-tempered, and, occasionally, downright hostile", and as someone who frequently yelled at meetings.
Political views and policy positions
|—Bernie Sanders at the 2015 CNN Democratic debate in Las Vegas.|
Sanders runs as an independent, but caucuses with the Senate Democrats, describing himself as a "democratic socialist".[note 2] He agreed to vote with the party on all procedural matters in exchange for being assigned to committees as though a Democrat.
Sanders has been criticized for lavishing praise on the Sandinista and Castro governments in the 1980s. Regarding the former, Sanders said in a 1985 interview, "Now, obviously, I will be attacked by every editorial writer in the [Burlington] Free Press with being a dumb dupe. Maybe I am. I was impressed by their intelligence and by their sincerity. These are not political hacks. You don't fight and lose your family and get tortured and go to jail for years to be a hack. They have very deep convictions." When asked, while mayor of Burlington, whether he would condemn human rights abuses or curtailment of freedoms by left-wing regimes, Sanders responded by pointing out similar acts committed by the US government.
In late February 2019, there was a photograph on Facebook with the caption claiming that Sanders marched with Fidel Castro and Ché Guevara in Cuba in 1959. In reality, the man misidentified as Sanders was Osvaldo Dorticós, President of Cuba from 1959 until 1976. 1959 was the year Sanders graduated from his high school in Brooklyn. According to his spokesperson, the first time he got on a plane was in 1961 to attend the University of Chicago.
Bernie Sanders believes the U.S. should liberate herself from fossil fuels not only because they are not renewable but because they contribute to (anthropogenic) global warming and climate change. He has argued for aggressive investments not just in green energy, such as wind, solar and geothermal, but also in high-speed trains.[note 3] In 2011 (after the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster), he called for a moratorium on the licensing of new nuclear power plants and the re-licensing of those currently in operation. Indeed, Sanders made clear his belief that nuclear energy should play no role in a future energy policy of the United States, citing concerns about the operational costs of nuclear power plants and the radioactive wastes they create. He is also critical of the amount of money the U.S. government has invested in nuclear energy.
Now, of course, new reactors are more efficient and safer than their predecessors. What Sanders does not know is that nuclear recycling and reducing nuclear wastes are real possibilities, actively pursued by multiple countries, including the United States, at the moment. The U.S. could power itself for the next thousands of years using just the uranium it has already mined. Meanwhile, researchers and engineers continue to work on ever safer and more efficient designs for nuclear power plants, sometimes even testing completely new concepts. These could potentially replace the 100 nuclear power plants currently operational in the U.S., but which are scheduled for retirement in the 2030s. Completely replacing them with renewable energy instead may not be a workable strategy. Unlike nuclear energy, which is stable and efficient, the most popular forms of renewable energy, wind and solar, are inherently intermittent. The missing ingredient is thus a high-capacity and durable means of storing the electrical energy generated but not used. Unfortunately, the commonly used lithium-ion battery degrades far too quickly to be economically used for such large scales. Something better is in order. Until the suitable battery technologies become commercially available and possibly even after that, nuclear energy continues to have an important role to play in the shift away from fossil fuels, especially at a time when demand for energy is on the rise. In fact, due to growing awareness of the need to reduce greenhouse emissions and the promise of nuclear power, many young engineers and entrepreneurs nationwide are investing in the next generation of nuclear reactors, collectively known as Generation IV reactors. Some of these could run on depleted uranium, (low-level radioactive) leftovers from the uranium enrichment process. At present, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Kentucky, home to the biggest deposit of depleted uranium in the entire United States, has enough of this material to power the entire country for 750 years. Others are designed to consume thorium, which is safer, cheaper, and more abundant than uranium. After decades of a "nuclear winter" for the industry, a nuclear renaissance is just around the corner. It is wise not to derail this opportunity with anti-nuclear phobia.
A recently published analysis of well over 500 cities worldwide shows that over a hundred of them are at least 70% powered by renewable energy. One of them is Burlington, Vermont, which reached the 100% benchmark in 2015, the first American city to have done so. Since he was its mayor, he could certainly take advantage of that connection, reminding voters that a complete break from fossil fuels is anything but a pipe dream. Market analysis shows that the renewable energy sector has been growing steadily, despite the efforts of Donald Trump to curtail it in favor of "beautiful clean coal". In 2018, Georgetown, Texas, became the largest American city to be 100% powered by renewable energy. Given that its mayor is a Republican, the issue of transitioning to renewable energy needs not be partisan.
Financial and economic policies
Sanders continues to champion many of the same causes as he did in the 1970s and 1980s such as income inequality, anti-racism and LGBT rights. He currently holds a 100% approval rating with the NAACP and the NHLA (National Hispanic Leadership Agenda). He describes income inequality as the great economic, political and moral issue of our time, and He has argued in favor of the Nordic social welfare model and government-funded higher education at public universities. Commenting on Pope Francis' call for a "just economy," Sanders said:
That message is also important for those of us living in the United States, the wealthiest nation in the history of the world. Why do the top .1 percent of our population own almost as much wealth as the bottom 90 percent? Why are 20 percent of our children living in poverty, the highest rate of childhood poverty of any major industrialized country on earth? Why do 35 million Americans still lack health insurance, with many more underinsured? Why are 51 percent of African-American high school graduates unemployed or under-employed? Why do we have more people in jail than any other country on earth? Why are millions of Americans working two or three jobs just to survive economically?
He has a long history of opposing deregulation (such as opposing the repeal of the Glass Steagall Act) but did vote for the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 which prevented the SEC from regulating the credit default swaps that helped cause the credit crunch of 2008. He supports breaking up the big banks.
In 2018, Sanders introduced the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act, aimed at taxing the retail giant Amazon, which he claims is paying workers wages so low they have to rely on government assistance. (Jeff Bezos, Amazon's founder and CEO, is one the world's richest persons.) In response to pressure from people like Sanders and from their own workers, the company announced that its U.S. workers will be paid at least $15 an hour. Sanders commended Bezos for doing "the right thing" and urged other companies to follow his lead.[note 4]
He wants to assist workers in purchasing ownership of the businesses for which they work.
“”Today's US is becoming even more unequal than Pre-World War I Europe. The way out is stronger investment in skills, higher paying jobs and a more progressive tax system. Sen. Sanders' estate tax bill, including a 77% tax rate on estate values above $1 billion, is an important step in this direction.
In February 2018, he held rallies in the Midwest against Trump's new tax plan, which gives more tax cuts to the rich than the poor. In March, 2018, he hosted another town hall, this time on economic inequality, which attracted even more live viewers, about 1.7 million in total. In an opinion piece published on The Guardian, Sanders warns that the media's obsessions with Russia and Trump's private affairs are distracting people from the issues that are actually important, namely economic inequality, something he can never stress enough. Oddly, however, the Russians were supporting Sanders' campaign; could it be that Sanders was the distraction?
In late January 2019, Bernie Sanders unveiled a proposal to raise estate taxes on the wealthy who inherit assets worth $3.5 million or more. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, the limit for estate taxes is $11 million. Under the Sanders plan, assets whose values exceed $1 billion would be taxed at a rate of 77%. This plan would also eliminate the so-called "dynasty trusts," which enable wealthy people to transfer their wealth to their descendants without having to pay taxes, and other loopholes. However, estate taxes for family farms will be cut. This is intended to reduce the "obscene level of wealth inequality" and is yet another financing option for his single-payer universal healthcare proposal, dubbed Medicare for All. The senator's office estimated that this tax hike would bring in an additional trillion dollars in government revenue. His tax plan is endorsed by economists Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman (University of California, Berkeley)[note 5] and Thomas Picketty (Paris School of Economics).
While public support for higher taxes has fallen from in 77% 1992 down to 62% in 2018, according to a Gallup poll, there is rising support for tax hikes on the wealthy among liberal voters, with Democrats being twice as likely to support higher taxes on the wealthy. In contrast, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 is favored by only 8% of Democrats but about three quarters of Republicans and one third of Independents. Meanwhile, an NPR/PBS/Marist poll showed that although only 11% of voters in the 2018 midterm elections considered tax cuts to be an important issue, 60% wanted to reverse the tax cuts in order to fund Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security.
Bernie Sanders has voted against every single free trade agreement, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),[note 6] Permanent Normal Trade Relation (PNTR) with China,[note 7] and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP),[note 8] which he considers to be "disastrous." He said he did not want American workers to compete with their counterparts in countries such as Vietnam, where wages and standards of living are lower. He described this situation as a race to the bottom, one that benefits multinational corporations and low-wage foreign workers at the expense of the American working class. He wants to introduce policies that encourage American corporations to create jobs in the United States, not abroad.
Sanders has long criticized many aspects of US foreign policy, particularly the CIA's penchant for overthrowing the democratically elected leaders of other countries. Indeed, he once called for the agency to be abolished, but has demurred a bit on that during his presidential run. In the 1980s, Sanders held a town hall assembly on US foreign policy with Noam Chomsky, and traveled to Cuba to meet Fidel Castro, and to Nicaragua to meet Daniel Ortega, the Sandinistas' leader. He also sent a letter to Margaret Thatcher denouncing her refusal to grant IRA members prisoner-of-war status. In 1988 as Mayor of Burlington he tried to get it to be a sister city of Yaroslavl in the then-Soviet Union.
In the PBS debate there was once more a focus on foreign policy, where Sanders said he is deeply critical of Henry Kissinger, calling him "one of the most destructive secretaries of state in the modern [American] history" whereas Clinton counts him as a friend and adviser.
In late February, Sanders joined two other Senators, one Democrat and one Republican, in an attempt to end U.S. military involvement in the Yemeni Civil War using the War Powers Act of 1973.
Sanders believes that President Donald Trump meeting North Korean Chairman Kim Jong-un was "the right thing to do." He wants to persuade China and other nations in the Pacific Rim to put as much pressure on North Korea as possible in order to change their behavior.
Sanders supports a two-state solution where both Israel and Palestine have international recognition. He has consistently voted for military funding for the IDF, but — remarkably in US presidential election politics — has also repeatedly spoken out about the suffering of Palestinians. During a primary debate with Clinton in April 2016, Sanders described Israel's 2014 bombardment of Gaza as "disproportionate" and argued:
...if we are ever going to bring peace to that region, which has seen so much hatred and so much war, we are going to have to treat the Palestinian people with respect and dignity. Decimated houses, decimated health care, decimated schools. I believe the United States and the rest of the world have got to work together to help the Palestinian people. That does not make me anti-Israel. That paves the way, I think, to an approach that works in the Middle East.
As The New Yorker observed, such talk "represent[s] a striking departure from political orthodoxy" in a presidential campaign.
His views on gun control are a concern for many who support universally increased measures, as he supports gun control for urban areas but not rural areas. During the primaries, he quickly flipped his more pro-gun positions, which were more popular with his Vermont constituents. However, his pro-gun stance has been a consistent position that he held throughout his political career prior to running for president, also demonstrative of his civil libertarianism. Back in the 1980s and 1990s, Sanders was so pro-gun that the National Rifle Association (NRA) donated to his campaigns and, word for word, told its Vermont members to "vote for the socialist".
Clinton repeatedly criticized Bernie Sanders for voting in favor of PLCAA (The Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act) a 2005 law passed with the support of gun companies and the National Rifle Association that shields the gun industry from lawsuits when third parties "criminally or unlawfully misuse" their guns. Sanders has said he now supports repealing the law, but he continues to defend its key tenets. He also voted against the 1993 Brady Bill which imposed a mandatory five-day waiting period because he believed that the federal government was overstepping its power.
In 2009, Sanders, by then a senator, voted to allow firearms in checked baggage on Amtrak trains, as an amendment to the congressional budget. The amendment passed.
In March 2018, he voiced his support for sensible gun control legislation at a student protest in Washington, D.C., some weeks after a school shooting in Parkland, Florida. The crowd welcomed him enthusiastically.
Sanders favors instant background checks for gun purchases, removal of the gun-show loophole,[note 9] and a ban on assault rifles and on high-capacity magazines. He believes that states rather than the federal government should handle waiting periods for handgun purchases.
While he supports immigration reform (including using "parole in place" in order to bring back already deported immigrants) and detests xenophobia, his stance on open borders is that a huge volume of foreign workers would depress wages and threaten the welfare state and even the nation-state. He voted against Ted Kennedy's bipartisan immigration reform in 2007 and for bipartisan legislation that could have allowed indefinite detention for immigrants, though those bills are more nuanced than they appear, with various civil rights groups supporting and criticizing them. He has said that immigration to the United States is a result of global poverty and hinted at support for reform of the role and behavior of the IMF and similar institutions.
In 1972 and 1976, when Bernie first ran for office in Vermont, he was an outspoken ally of the LGBTQ community; as a plank of his platform, he proposed the abolishing of all discriminatory laws pertaining to sexuality. In 1983, after he was elected to be mayor of Burlington, Bernie backed the city's first-ever pride march, saying that "in the state of Vermont, people have the right to exercise their lifestyles." In light of Sanders' pro-gay record, the Human Rights Campaign gave him a 100% approval rating in the 113th Congress – an organisation which later supported Hillary Clinton for the Democratic nominee, and that Sanders later claimed (not without merit) was part of "the Establishment".
Sanders generally opposed measures to ban gay marriage. He voted against the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), one of only 57 people to vote against the measure in Congress – compared with 342 voting in favor in 1996. However, Sanders' reasoning for opposing DOMA does appear to have changed over the years: his reasoning at the time was that the bill imposed on states' rights, a contrast to his later support for same-sex marriage nationwide.
As both a congressman and later a junior senator from Vermont, he supported that state's 2000 civil union law and 2009 law legalizing same-sex marriage, the first time Sanders publicly spoke in favour of marriage equality for same-sex couples. In 2011, Sanders said to the Advocate that: "I hope the president and all Americans join in supporting marriage equality", alongside a number of Democratic senators.
In 2013, he co-sponsored the Uniting Families Act; this bill was primarily intended to allow LGBT residents and citizens of the United States to bring their partners into America, just as members of opposite sex couples are able to do. When the Supreme Court overturned DOMA in June 2015, Sanders praised the historic ruling that legalized same-sex marriage across the country.
“”[Same-sex marriage] is a victory for same-sex couples across our country as well as all those seeking to live in a nation where every citizen is afforded equal rights […] I am very glad the Court has finally caught up to the American people.
|—Sanders on the 2015 Supreme Court ruling legalising same-sex marriage.|
Sanders also voted against "Don't ask, don't tell" in 1993 and has been a vocal advocate for its repeal for a number of years, voting to repeal the policy in 2010. A video of Sanders defending people whom Republican Senator Duke Cunningham referred to as "homos in the military" has also gone viral.
In 2009, Sanders also voted against an amendment prohibiting same-sex couples from adopting children.
“”As somebody who has consistently voted to end discrimination in all forms — who voted against DOMA way back in the 1990s — I will do all that I can to continue our efforts to make this a nondiscriminatory society, whether those being discriminated against are transgender, gay, black or Hispanic.
Even though Bernie Sanders has frequently pointed out that Hillary Clinton is more hawkish than he is, he has a much more complex history with the military-industrial complex than it at first appears. Most notably, he is supporting the development of the F-35 fifth generation fighter jet which costs $1.2 trillion. Vermont is part of the production chain. During his 2012 reelection campaign, Sanders ran against a Republican who opposed the F-35 as a waste of resources. Sanders was all for it. When it has come time to choose between defense jobs and a dovish defense policy, Sanders has consistently chosen to stand with the arms-makers rather than the peace activists. In 1985, for example, protesters massed at the General Electric plant in Burlington, Vermont, where Sanders was serving as mayor. They were protesting the fact that the plant was manufacturing Gatling guns to fight socialists in Central America. Bernie had the cops go in and arrest the protesters.
Nevertheless, as mentioned above, Sanders favors a non-interventionist foreign policy.
Sanders supports cigarette taxes, but not soda taxes, and ponders the legality of tobacco cigarettes, but did not call explicitly for an outright ban. This is ironic because Eric Garner was killed during an arrest for ostensibly selling cigarettes on a street corner, a black market created by New York's cigarette tax which is so high it effectively constitutes prohibition. Sanders has also advocated for the decriminalization of marijuana.
In 1998, the House of Representatives approved a compact struck between Texas, Vermont and Maine that would allow Vermont and Maine to dump low-level nuclear waste at a designated site in Sierra Blanca, Texas. Sanders, at the time representing Vermont in the House, cosponsored the bill and actively ushered it through Congress. Located about 16 miles from the Mexican border, Sierra Blanca’s population is predominantly of Mexican ancestry. At the time, the community was about two-thirds Latino, and its residents had an average income of $8,000, although the low-level nuclear waste included "items such as scrap metal and worker’s gloves… as well as medical gloves used in radiation treatments at hospitals." However, supporters of the bill, which included Bill Clinton and most Democrats in Congress, were not intending to simply dump the waste at random; it would have an officially planned site separated from the community. In the end, however, the Sierra Blanca site was rejected by the Texas state legislature.
President Donald Trump is well aware of the fact that American patients are subsidizing the affordable healthcare enjoy by the citizens of many other countries, calling it "global freeloading". With this in mind, in January 2019, Sanders and like-minded Congressional representatives dared him to support their legislative proposal to cut prescription drug prices in the United States by (1) encouraging competition between generic drugs and brand-name drugs, (2) allowing Medicare to negotiate prices directly with pharmaceutical companies, and (3) enabling patients to import drugs from Canada, where prices are lower. Prices are deemed "excessive" if they are higher than the median in Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Japan. There was no immediate response from the White House.
Medicare for All
“”We remain the only major country on earth that allows chief executives and stockholders in the health care industry to get incredibly rich, while tens of millions of people suffer because they can't get the health care they need. This is not what the United States should be about.
|—Bernie Sanders in an op-ed for The New York Times|
Bernie Sanders considers the lack of affordable healthcare in the United States a moral issue and proposed "Medicare for All" to address it. As its name suggests, this legislation seeks to expand Medicare to cover what it currently does not (completely) cover, including vision and dental care. It even goes above and beyond what some private insurance plans currently cover. While private insurance is presently part of Medicare, that would no longer the case under Medicare for All; nor would there be co-pays and deductibles. Medicare for All is a single-payer universal healthcare system. In order to fund this generous welfare program, Sanders proposed a payroll tax on employers and various new taxes on wealthy Americans and corporations.
In late January, 2018, Sanders hosted a town hall on his signature universal healthcare proposal. It attracted a live audience of over a million people. Perhaps unsurprisingly, more and more Democrats are in favor of this proposal, signaling a significant shift. A poll conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan think tank, in March 2018 reveals that a majority of Americans support major reforms to the American healthcare system. Specifically, 59% support Sanders' Medicare-for-all proposal and 75% favor a public option or expansion of Medicare. Another conducted by Reuters in June and July 2018 shows that a vast majority of Americans, 70%, now support single-payer healthcare. However, support or disapproval depends sensitively on the way the question is asked, a poll conducted in January 2019 by the Kaiser Family Foundation reveals. While 71% of Americans agree that healthcare should be a human right, support for Medicare for All drops to 37% if it means higher taxes and 26% if it leads to longer wait times. One sees that political discourse on this proposal remains in its infancy; public opinion is not yet stable.
Medical service providers are also warming to the idea. Even though their payments may fall in the long-run, administrative costs and the amounts of paperwork will also decrease. What really matters to them is not reimbursement rates but net income. Healthcare spending could drop to Canadian levels. Sanders wants to phase Medicare for All in over a period of four years.
Whereas Sanders could not find any co-sponsor for the bill just a couple years ago, by July 2018, there were at least 60 Democrats coming out in favor of it. Growing support for the idea is sufficient for Trump's Medicare and Medicaid administrator to strongly criticize the proposal, arguing that it is "socialism" and will end up being "Medicare for none." In a delicious episode of irony, a study conducted at George Mason University, funded by the Koch Brothers, reveals that Medicare for all would actually save the American people two trillion dollars over a ten-year period. Sanders expressed his gratitude.[note 10] Estimates for the cost of the plan varies from $25 trillion to $35 trillion over a ten year period, according to various independent studies.
By 2019, Medicare for All has become a major political issue for Democrats in Congress, as well as in state and local governments. Many try to control costs and expand coverage, including for illegal immigrants. When Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi proposed a bill that would strengthen the Affordable Care Act, Sanders rejected it, saying that the only "incremental" health reform bill he would support is his own Medicare for All. He stood alone in this, as many Democrats from centrists and moderates to progressives, such as Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, support Pelosi's proposal.
Sanders was active in the civil rights movement and was one of 250,000 who participated in Martin Luther King's March on Washington. As the Chairman of the University of Chicago branch of CORE, he joined a sit-in against the University of Chicago and was arrested for resisting arrest.
He has been criticized for signing Bill Clinton's Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the single most influential piece of legislation on race issues he's been involved with to date, which heavily incarcerated racial minorities, but he did try to amend it and supported it because of its inclusion of the Violence Against Women Act.
Sanders' outreach to African American voters during the 2016 election has been described as disastrous, and it remains to be seen whether he can improve on this when he is now competing against two African American Senators in the 2020 primary, Kamala Harris and Cory Booker.
“”The information disclosed by Edward Snowden has been extremely important in allowing Congress and the American people to understand the degree to which the NSA has abused its authority and violated our constitutional rights…
Bernie Sanders voted with another Independent, 47 Democrats and three Republicans in the Senate to retain net neutrality, using a law that allowed Congress to overturn regulatory actions by a simple majority vote. Net neutrality rules ensure consumers have equal access to the Internet and prevent service providers from favoring certain contents over others. Polls show overwhelming public support for the Obama-era regulation.
Sanders believes that even incarcerated people should be able to vote.
“”The manner in which you bring up your daughter with regard to sexual attitudes may very well determine whether or not she will develope[sic] breast cancer, among other things.
|—Dr. Bernie Sanders in 1969.|
In terms of medicine, Sanders' views on vaccinations are clear and science-based. However, his stance on and promotion of alternative medicine, such as his 2013 sponsorship of a bill that would waste government dollars on totally ineffective and unsafe CAM are rather alarming. In letters the 28-year-old Sanders wrote to the Vermont Freeman, Dr. Sanders also believed that cultural forces were driving Americans to illness and that sexual repression caused cancer. However, it's fairly safe to say that Sanders has changed his mind in the 48 years since then...
Sanders rejects climate denial, but supports GMO labeling (despite believing GMOs do not cause health problems), something which some skeptics regard as a Trojan horse for the anti-GMO movement.
2016 presidential bid
“”It would be hypocritical of me to run as a Democrat because of the things I have said about the party.
|—Bernie Sanders in 1990|
On 30 April, 2015, Sanders announced that he would seek the Democratic Party's nomination for president, running against Hillary Clinton. On the first day of his primary campaign, he raised more than $1.5 million from 35,000 people, and had 100,000 people register as supporters. He pledged not to accept any money from super PACs or corporations, a pledge he kept.
Despite having successful and unconventional fundraising, Sanders' campaign spending was completely conventional, including large purchases of minimally effective advertising. Sanders' chief strategist, Tad Devine, was largely responsible for driving the ad purchases, resulting in a $10 million commission that was split between Devine's company (Devine Mulvey Longabaugh) and another consulting firm, Old Towne Media. Devine's previous major project before the Sanders campaign was advising Ukrainian autocrat Viktor Yanukovych and his political party.
The strength of Sanders' grassroots donor base was evident when a pro-Hillary super PAC ran a smear piece against him. In response, Sanders emailed his supporters to ask for a $3 donation. He raised more than a million dollars in two days. Sanders repeated the trick when his record on guns was attacked in an ad run by a Martin O'Malley super PAC. This time he raised $800,000.
His campaign message largely focused on economic inequality, the corrupting influence of money in politics, and his opposition to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). He has stated that Middle Eastern countries should be the main force against ISIS. He has thus far focused on domestic policy, leaving his foreign policy agenda murky beyond a few grand outlines, like his moderate pro-Israel stance and his moderate anti-war position.
Sanders defeated Clinton by a wide margin in the New Hampshire primary. On Super Tuesday, he won his home state of Vermont by over 70 points, as well as Minnesota, Colorado and Oklahoma. Clinton, however, crushed Sanders in the South, with decisive wins in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, and most notably, delegate-rich Texas.
Unlike most other candidates in the 2016 presidential race from both major parties (especially his Democratic rival, Hillary Clinton), Sanders did not have many endorsements from office-holding members of his party, largely due to his political affiliation as an independent. Only one other Senator and nine sitting members of the House endorsed him, including: Keith Ellison, Raul Grijalva, Tulsi Gabbard, Peter Welch, and Alan Grayson. It should be noted that in addition to the handful of federal officials, Sanders did enjoy some support from state representatives, primarily from Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine.
Sanders' supporters pointed to aggregate polling consistently showing he was the stronger candidate against Donald Trump and other potential Republican nominees, results that persisted through the primaries. However, he was also a largely untested candidate to the general public, who were far more familiar with Trump or Clinton. Due to his far-left positions by American standards, which have historically been unpopular, his poor debating skills, and the opposition research Republicans had against him, it is debatable whether his poll numbers would have held up. On the other hand, polls have also shown that a majority of Americans prefer a single-payer healthcare system over the Affordable Care Act (let alone no health plan at all). Not insignificantly, polls have also shown Bernie being the most favorably viewed politician in the United States, in contrast with Donald Trump, who was
one of the most unfavorably viewed presidential candidate in US history.
When the votes through Super Tuesday were tallied, Sanders was shown to be competitive or ahead with young people (of any race or gender), primarily those describing themselves as liberal or very liberal. He was, however, badly outpolled among both white and black voters in the South. Sanders' extremely poor performance among older minorities would ultimately seal his fate.
During the Democratic debate in Brooklyn, Sanders said: "Secretary Clinton cleaned our clock in the Deep South, no question about it, that is the most conservative part of this great country. But you know what, we’re out of the Deep South now. And we're moving up." Nate Silver at FiveThirtyEight criticised this line of thinking, though Sanders did, indeed, win many primaries outside of the South.
The Sanders campaign highlighted his endorsement of Jesse Jackson for president in 1988, and pointing to pictures of him chaining himself to a black protester and organizing Chicago sit-ins in 1962. His upset win in Michigan gave supporters hope that his civil rights record was beginning to resonate with the black community, but Clinton's 83%-16% win in Mississippi meant she gained delegates overall despite losing Michigan.
Sanders' loss in New York effectively ended the race. Exit polls indicated that, although he won comfortably with under-40s, he was unable to overcome Clinton's lead with older voters, both women and blacks. Sanders vowed to fight on, but finally announced he was "winding down" his campaign after losing the final primary in California by a wider than expected margin.
It's likely that many disaffected voters who wanted Elizabeth Warren to run flocked to Sanders. As Warren almost certainly would have done had she run, Sanders ran to the left of Hillary Clinton. Due to Clinton's deep unpopularity in some areas, especially the mountain states and West Virginia, Sanders also paradoxically picked up many more conservative Democrats, in many areas matching Obama's 2008 performance.
Nevertheless, and borrowing from Clinton's 2008 campaign playbook which slammed Obama supporters as "Obama Boys," some establishment Democrats and others such as Robinson Meyer, a writer for The Atlantic who coined the term, claimed neo-reactionary "Bernie Bros" were picking Bernie just because he wasn't a woman (Shillary). The Gawker-run blog site Jezebel has a write-up on this phenomenon, and the Sanders campaign's concerns about them. This tactic unsurprisingly infuriated some female Sanders supporters:
“”There are literally millions of women who support Sanders over Clinton. A new Iowa poll yesterday shows Sanders with a 15-point lead over Clinton among women under 45, while one-third of Iowa women over 45 support him. A USA Today/Rock the Vote poll from two weeks ago found Sanders nationally "with a 19-point lead over front-runner Hillary Clinton, 50 percent to 31 percent, among Democratic and independent women ages 18 to 34." One has to be willing to belittle the views and erase the existence of a huge number of American women to wield this "Bernie Bro" smear.
Some of the examples of "BernieBros" were women, including conservative women who weren't Clinton supporters. Female Sanders supporters on Twitter were accused of being "functional" "bros" and the like, to try to redeem the tactic. But as one writer put it:
“”Not all Sanders supporters are dicks. Not all Sanders supporters have dicks. The mainstream left-leaning press's attempts to insist otherwise are a shameful indictment of the fact that many of them are in the tank for Clinton — and they don't like being called on it.
The "Sanders Effect," moving the party left
The Sanders candidacy and the enthusiasm behind it forced Clinton to move somewhat leftward – or to at least speak that way – as the campaign season moved along. Sanders was allowed to appoint five members to the committee charged with forming the DNC Party Platform in 2016, appointing such folks as Keith Ellison and Cornel West (a staunch Obama critic).
The platform committee agreed to adopt many of Sanders' policies, and the Clinton camp offered several concessions: abolishing the death penalty, raising the minimum wage to $15 an hour, preserving and expanding Social Security, even reinstating an updated and modernized version of Glass-Steagall.  It did not include opposing the TPP, but it did include a caveat where any free trade deal would need to protect workers' rights and the environment if it hoped to pass with Democratic support. He was unable to get amendments that called for a policy imposing a tax on carbon and a national moratorium on fracking, and he could not get the committee to denounce illegal Israeli settlement building, but the committee agreed on supporting a two-state solution that guarantees Israel's security and Palestine's independence.
Once leaked emails showed that Debbie Wasserman Schultz had been biased against Sanders in the primary, she was forced to resign as head of the DNC. Finally, just before he was to make his speech at the DNC Convention, Sanders supporters and Clinton delegates agreed to strip the autonomy of two-thirds of superdelegates, forcing them to vote with how their states vote in the primary.
Sanders has become increasingly popular in the left wing of the Democratic Party, especially since a wingnut won against a liberal for the second time in the past five elections. Many find him to be the American parallel to Corbyn, moving the formerly center-left party which had moved to centrism in the 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s back to the center-left.
"Our Revolution" has also become massively popular among the left wing of the Democratic Party, as anti-establishment sentiment rises among Millennials and Zers on the left and right, in a sort of neo-Counterculture similar to that of the Baby Boomers.
Justice Democrats and Brand New Congress are also PACs formed by former Sanders supporters attempting to elect progressives to national office. They're working together with National Nurses United and other groups to continue grassroots activism throughout the country.
Endorsement of Clinton
“”Hillary Clinton understands that we must fix an economy in America that is rigged and that sends almost all new wealth and income to the top one percent. Hillary Clinton understands that if someone in America works 40 hours a week, that person should not be living in poverty. She believes that we should raise the minimum wage to a living wage. And she wants to create millions of new jobs by rebuilding our crumbling infrastructure — our roads, bridges, water systems and wastewater plants.
On July 12, 2016, Sanders reluctantly endorsed Hillary Clinton for President of the United States, knowing that it was better to unite against the then-presumptive GOP nominee Donald Trump, citing some of Clinton's left-wing credentials:
- Anti-poverty advocacy
- Support for universal health care
- Promises to raise the minimum wage and make higher education tuition-free.
- Campaigning against income inequality
- Support for renewable energy and concern about global warming and climate change
In return, Clinton admired Sanders for "[bringing] people off the sidelines and into the political process", as well as "energiz[ing] and inspir[ing] a generation of young people who care deeply about our country". For supporting Clinton, many Sanders supporters accused Bernie of being a sellout to the Democratic establishment (reviving the talk of Bernie Bros); Jill Stein from the Green Party accused Sanders of attempting to "have a revolutionary campaign [with]in a counter-revolutionary party", and Trump – who never sees a populist bandwagon he can't join – said that Sanders "has totally sold out to Crooked Hillary Clinton".
However, during the primary, Sanders repeatedly criticized Clinton for her somewhat more right-wing and hawkish views: Hillary had adopted a more hawkish attitude towards the War on Terror, with a particular emphasis on increased mass surveillance methods and longer terrorist watch lists to supposedly defeat terrorism. She has also:
- Called for more US forces to be deployed in Iraq and Syria to combat Daesh
- Voted in favor of the Iraq War
- Opposed breaking up big banks by opposing the reinstatement of the Glass-Steagall Act (repealed in 1999)
- Voted in favour of the PATRIOT Act
- Supported the use of capital punishment and harsh sentencing for prisoners
- Supported improved security along the US border
- Not taken a strong stand against the Keystone XL pipeline from its inception until 2015, originally stating she would be "inclined" to sign off on the project if it were in the national interest.
In spite of the fact of being behind in the pledged delegate count and mounting pressure for him to drop out, Sanders refused to concede for quite some time, using his remaining leverage to influence the Democratic Party on legislative agenda, arguing that defeating Trump should not be their only goal. However, Sanders later said that he would be willing to cooperate with Hillary Clinton in order to prevent a Trump presidency, a promise he has since made good on (as seen above).
Concerns had been risen about there being a large number of so-called Bernie-or-bust voters; polls seemed to show that these people were but a significant minority. Polling close to the election put the number of Sanders' core supporters who planned to vote for Clinton as high as 90%. Clinton's loss in the election and her narrow margins in Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Wisconsin, suggest the fears may have been right after all.
Would Bernie Have Won?
The unanticipated rise of Bernie Sanders' popularity can be seen as a continuation of a movement of social agitation that saw its first expression in Occupy Wall Street. This movement of politically active young adults is grossly dissatisfied with the Democratic Party's politics and is pushing the national political discussion further left than many Democrats have been willing to go.
Many see Hillary Clinton's loss to a deeply unpopular candidate like Trump as indicative of the Democrats' inability to turn out votes on any level, municipal, state or federal. After Clinton lost to Trump, the pundit Matt Yglesias declared the party "a smoking pile of rubble":
“”Republicans control the House, and they control the Senate....
In state government things are worse, if anything. The GOP now controls historical record number of governors’ mansions, including a majority of New England governorships. Tuesday’s election swapped around a few state legislative houses but left Democrats controlling a distinct minority. The same story applies further down ballot, where most elected attorneys general, insurance commissioners, secretaries of state, and so forth are Republicans....the story of the 21st-century Democratic Party looks to be overwhelmingly the story of failure. 
In June of 2016, when it was clear that Clinton had secured the nomination, Rolling Stone's Matt Taibbi observed about the Sanders phenomenon: "This was a barely quelled revolt that ought to have sent shock waves up and down the party, especially since the Vote of No Confidence overwhelmingly came from the next generation of voters."
“”They ought to be horrified to their marrow that the all-powerful Democratic Party ended up having to dig in for a furious rally to stave off a quirky Vermont socialist almost completely lacking big-dollar donors or institutional support....But to read the papers in the last two days is to imagine that we didn't just spend a year witnessing the growth of a massive grassroots movement fueled by loathing of the party establishment...
When Trump won the general election, angry Sanders supporters launched the meme "Bernie Would have Won," which went viral:
“”After the election, Sanders supporters raged against the DNC machine on Twitter, Tumblr and other social media sites. The "Bernie Would've Won" meme takes a myriad of forms, but all express the same idea: that Sanders, had he been given the chance, would have taken down Trump.
Sanders played some political capital at the Democratic Convention, and "was given unprecedented say over the Democratic Party platform,"  but the Congressional Black Caucus unanimously shot down his proposals for open primaries and the removal of superdelegates, a mechanism adopted by establishment Democrats to "protect" incumbents from the grassroots.[note 11] To what extent the Bernie contingent can effect desperately needed change in the party without these reforms remains to be seen. Democrats who want to win in the future, however, may have to accommodate the Bernie voters.
Poll after poll during the primaries indicated Sanders would have beaten Trump by wider margins than Hillary Clinton, which suggested that even though the polls predicting a Clinton win over Trump turned out to be wrong, that the larger margin of win Sanders consistently enjoyed would have meant victory. And indeed:
“”Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) would have beaten Donald Trump by a historic margin if he had been the Democratic nominee, according to a private pre-election poll provided to The Huffington Post. The national survey of more than 1,600 registered voters, conducted by Gravis Marketing two days before the general election, found that Sanders would have received 56 percent of the vote while Trump would have won 44 percent. The poll was commissioned and financed by outgoing Florida Congressman Alan Grayson, a Democrat who endorsed Sanders in the presidential primary. 
Unfortunately for Sanders, the Republicans had plenty of tricks up their sleeves for a Bernie nomination, which would have made for the most one-sided attack campaign since 1988:
“”Here are a few tastes of what was in store for Sanders, straight out of the Republican playbook: He thinks rape is A-OK. In 1972, when he was 31, Sanders wrote a fictitious essay in which he described a woman enjoying being raped by three men. Yes, there is an explanation for it—a long, complicated one, just like the one that would make clear why the Clinton emails story was nonsense. And we all know how well that worked out.
Other attacks, many dubious and trivial -- and debunked here -- included:
- The fact he was on unemployment until his mid-30s.
- Him being accused of stealing electricity from a neighbor when he couldn't afford it. [better source needed]
- His support of the Sandinistas and Castro, which could have cost him Florida.
- Him supposedly violating campaign finance laws. [better source needed]
- The failure of his proposed healthcare system when it was attempted in Vermont.
- His focus on college education, with fewer plans for non-college educated voters.
- His bill to send nuclear waste to a poor Hispanic community in Texas.
These factors could still put Sanders in a difficult position against Trump, perhaps still even lose. Though Trump himself had shrugged off several scandals, he was faced against someone else who was also perceived as dishonest and was covered in scandals, to be fair. Still, others have argued that it was Trump's anti-establishment rhetoric that helped him shrug off scandals to begin with, and that Bernie could more than match this:
“”So then, what undermines the power of right-wing populism? Progressive populism! By telling a more compelling story about the causes and culprits of working people’s economic woes, progressive populists like Bernie Sanders are able to seriously weaken one of the central pillars of the right-wing populist appeal. First of all, Bernie could equally wield the power of being an anti-establishment outsider candidate in a populist moment. As such Sanders was also uniquely positioned to go after Trump as a particularly scorn-worthy member of the billionaire class — to frame Trump as a poser who adorns himself with the superficial trappings of populism, while he enriches only himself.
According to political scientist Brian Schaffner’s analysis of the Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES), 12 percent of Sanders voters backed Trump, and 9 percent voted third party. In Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania, the three states that determined the outcome of the election, Schaffner estimated that 9%, 18%, and 16% of Sanders voters voted for Trump, respectively. However, an even greater number of Obama voters, close to 8 million, voted for Trump as well, so an even greater blame lies on Clinton for not keeping these voters. This was enough to cost Clinton the election. Had Sanders won the nomination, it is possible that he would have won all of Clinton's voters, plus the support of these “Bernie-or-Bust” voters, and win the electoral college as a result, and thus the presidency.
With so much debate over hypotheticals, you'd almost think whoever won would get to be President for real. But with no way to test their claims in an actual campaign setting, bloggers and pundits aren't likely to stop shouting at each other any time soon.
Although he prefers not to talk about the 2020 Presidential Election just yet, the most popular elected official in the United States is certainly making it look like he's ready for another run, and his supporters seem ready for it. His age is not an issue.[note 12] By late 2017, he made preparations by boosting his credentials, addressing weak spots (especially in foreign policy), working with his fellow Senators to craft policy (like Medicare For All), and engaging in productive conversations on various issues of genuine importance to voters. He has been visiting dozens of states across the country, especially those Trump won in 2016. He may need to talk to his natural ally Elizabeth Warren, Senator from Massachusetts, first to avoid having them both run for President in 2020.
Despite his defeat in the 2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination, support from the Sanders has become a valuable asset for ambitious Democrats seeking to run for political office in the 2018 midterm elections, and presumably the ones after that. Sanders recently announced that he will release a book titled Where We Go From Here, detailing his vision for the future of the progressive movement. However, his endorsement does not imply electoral success. Very few of the candidates he personally endorsed won their primaries. Nonetheless, Sanders and his ideas continue to gain traction among voters. He may be losing some battles now, but not the war, not least since his ideas continue to become more and more mainstream. This is especially true among younger voters, who are keenly aware of the economic inequalities facing the nation today.
While not everyone agrees with his ideas, as is expected in a democracy, public opposition against Sanders on the Internet is dramatically exaggerated. A recent fight on Twitter over Bernie Sanders reveals an entire network of fake accounts, using pictures and personal details of the dead or unknown living people.[note 13] Whether we like it or not, social media networks are playing an increasingly important role in political discourse, and so far, that their influence has not always been positive.
2020 Presidential bid
“”...I wish Bernie well. It'll be interesting to see how he does [in the 2020 Democratic Presidential nomination]... You got a lot of people running, but only one person is going to win.
|—Donald Trump, in response to Bernie Sanders announcing he was running for President in 2020.|
“”They're friends. They're good people. What we've got to show the world is that we can run a serious, primary process without trying to destroy each other, without character attacks.
|—Bernie Sanders on the vast Democratic field.|
On February 19, 2019, Bernie Sanders announced his second bid for the Presidency. His campaign claimed it raised a million dollars within three and a half hours of launching. His core policy positions—such as raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour and tuition-free college education—continue to capture the imagination of young voters. Indeed, they are no longer "radical" but are now the pillars of the left-wing of the Democratic Party. President Donald Trump wished Sanders good luck.
By April 2, 2019, his 2020 campaign has raised more than $18 million from individual contributions, more than all the other Democratic candidates. A poll conducted in March 2019 by Quinnipiac University showed that Bernie Sanders is one of the most popular contenders on the crowded Democratic platforms for registered Democrats and Democrat-leaning independents. Eager to have a candidate who stands a good chance to take on President Donald Trump, issues such as age, race, or gender take a backseat compared to electability and shared values.
In mid-April 2019, Sanders released ten years of his tax returns. Royalties and sales of his book, Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In, helped make him a millionaire. He paid an effective tax rate of 26% in 2018.
While President Trump publicly mocks Sanders by calling him "crazy Bernie," Trump privately respects and praises the Senator for his ability to draw huge crowds, and to quickly raise funds for his campaign. This reflects Trump's fondness for being a political outsider and a populist. Trump was disturbed by how Sanders performed at a town hall with Fox News. However, Trump does not consider Sanders to be a serious electoral threat, at least not yet. In a similarly surprising move, conservative commentator Ann Coulter said she might vote for Sanders if he retained his stance against illegal immigration, arguing that it would depress wages in America.
- For the curious, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell is the least popular.
- Various sources have disagreed as to what Sanders means by this: does Sanders mean that he is a "democratic socialist", or that he is a Democrat and a socialist? Either way, it's probably more accurate to say that Sanders is a social democrat, given his support for the Nordic model. This may seem pedantic, but it does actually make a difference, especially when comparing to European politics – the rise of Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, for instance, as Corbyn comes from a traditional Labourite/socialist background
"Bernie Is Not a Socialist and America Is Not Capitalist". The Atlantic. March 1, 2016.
On the other hand Bernie Sanders supports employee ownership and workplace democracy, which are standard positions amongst libertarian-minded socialists so it seems that he's somewhere between the mainstream left and the radical left
- There is an increased interest in high-speed trains in the United States.
- A note of caution is in order. Bezos was under no obligations to do this, given that the Stop BEZOS Act had a slim chance of passing Congress and being signed into law by President Trump. Furthermore, those who were being paid less than $15 an hour were low-skilled workers, and Amazon has been investing heavily in artificial intelligence and automation, including delivery drones.
- Saez and Zucman also analyzed and advised Elizabeth Warren's tax proposal.
- This deal was renegotiated by the Trump administration, and is now known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).
- The Trump administration has been waging a trade war with the Middle Kingdom and is in the process of negotiating a new trade deal.
- The Trump administration withdrew the United States from this deal.
- This allows people to buy guns at shows without having to pass a background check.
- Although this is the best case scenario, one can still expect significant savings thanks to the massive bargaining power afforded by government intervention and universal coverage.
- Debbie Wasserman Schultz, who would subsequently resign in disgrace as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee, told CNN's Jake Tapper: "Unpledged delegates exist really to make sure that party leaders and elected officials don't have to be in a position where they are running against grass-roots activists." We need more questions like this one from Jake Tapper to Debbie Wasserman Schultz
- He maintains an active and healthy lifestyle, unlike Donald Trump the incumbent President of the United States.
- China is using similar tactics as a new form of censorship. They may not delete or ban critical views outright, given that the people behind them maybe overseas, beyond Chinese jurisdiction, but they will swarm them with pro-government contents.
- Jeremy Corbyn, the current leader of the UK Labour Party who shares many similarities with Sanders.
- Tad Devine — the chief strategist for Sanders' 2016 presidential campaign
- Justice Democrats, a new political movement from after the 2016 US Presidential Election that seeks to infiltrate the Democratic Party and force out the "establishment." Many former Sanders campaign staff are part of the group, and it could be seen as the reformed Sanders movement. 
- Bernie Sanders' Huffington Post posts.
- Bernie Sanders' Medium posts.
- Bernie Sanders' OpEd News posts.
- Post-election interview: Bernie Sanders In A Candid Conversation With Sarah Silverman.
- Bernie Sanders on CNN: Medicare for All's time has come.
- Bernie Sanders on Saturday Night Live.
- Bernie Sanders thanking the Koch Brothers for funding a study that shows Medicare for all actually saves money.
- President Donald Trump on Bernie Sanders, February 19, 2019, on C-SPAN.
- How Bernie Sanders Became A Millionaire. CNBC. May 25, 2019.
- Why is Germany such an industrial leader? VisualPolitik EN. September 11, 2017. Pay particular attention to German vocational training and German trade unions.
- Bernie Sanders is the most popular politician in America, poll finds. The Independent. August 25, 2017.
- "Is Bernie Sanders a Democrat?".
- Mollie Reilly. (12 July 2016). "Bernie Sanders Endorses Hillary Clinton For President". The Huffington Post.
- Bernie Sanders announces second US presidential bid. BBC News. February 19, 2019. Accessed February 19, 2019.
- Who Is Bernie Sanders? Feelthebern.org.
- John Nichols (14 August 2011). "Bernie Sanders Talks Up Primary Challenge to Obama as ‘a Good Idea for Our Democracy and for the Democratic Party’". The Nation.
- George Zornick (19 February 2016). "Yes, Bernie Sanders Wanted Obama Primaried in 2012. Here’s Why.". The Nation.
- Sen. Bernard "Bernie" Sanders’s 2018 Report Card Govtrack.us
- Sen. Bernard "Bernie" Sanders Govtrack.us
- "Hillary Clinton was a more effective lawmaker than Bernie Sanders".
- "Congress’s only socialist becomes a bipartisan dealmaker by Suzy Khimm (06/12/14 08:05 AM—Updated 06/25/14 05:07 PM) MSNBC.
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- Negotiation Strategies: Bernie Sanders’ Pragmatic Approach to Negotiating in the Senate. The "grumpy" senator knows how to handle negotiation on Capitol Hill. by Katie Shonk (February 11th, 2019) Program on Negotiation, Harvard Law School — Blog.
- CNN, (13 October 2015). "(Democratic Debate) Bernie Sanders explains Democratic Socialism" – via YouTube.
- "Bernie Sanders confirms presidential run and damns America's inequities". The Guardian.
- "When Bernie Sanders Thought Castro and the Sandinistas Could Teach America a Lesson". The Daily Beast.
- "Sanders Siempre: What Bernie Learned in Nicaragua". Seven Days.
- "Burlington Mayor Bernie Sanders: Interview After His Trip to Besieged Nicaragua". 27 June 2015 — via YouTube.
- No, Bernie Sanders didn't march with Fidel Castro in Cuba. PolitiFact. March 5, 2019. Accessed March 7, 2019.
- Bernie Sanders on Energy Policy. Feelthebern.org. Accessed November 13, 2017.
- Bernie’s New Climate Change Plan Is an Environmentalist’s Dream, Except for This One Thing. Blogs. The Slate. December 7,2015.
- Safe, Secure and Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Energy and Global Security. Argonne National Laboratory. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.
- Doing the Impossible: Reducing Nuclear Waste. Argonne National Laboratory. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.
- Demand For Clean Energy Inspires New Generation to Innovate Nuclear Power. PBS Newshour. January 4, 2017.
- How Building A New Battery Could Change the Game for Renewable Energy. PBS Newshour. December 15, 2015.
- China Details Next-Gen Nuclear Reactor Program. MIT Technology Review. October 16, 2015.
- More than 100 cities now mostly powered by renewable energy, data shows. The Guardian. February 27, 2018.
- Trump Can't Derail Renewable Energy Push. Bloomberg. March 11, 2018.
- Is A Texan Town the Future of Renewable Energy?. Smithsonian Magazine. April, 2018.
- Ackerman, Seth. Give the People What They Want. Jacobin. June 29, 2015.
- "The Urgency of a Moral Economy: Reflections on the 25th Anniversary of Centesimus Annus". 15 April 2016.
- "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". The Huffington Post. 26 May 2013.
- "Actual socialist Bernie Sanders: No, Obama is not a socialist". rawstory.com.
- "Bernie Sanders: I annotated a speech by Pope Francis".
- Sanders backs big bank breakups, in contrast with Clinton. Politico. July 17, 2015. Accessed February 19, 2019.
- Bernie Sanders: Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Warren Buffett have more wealth than bottom half of U.S.. Politifact. July 19th, 2019.
- Amazon raises wages amid criticism. BBC News. October 2, 2018.
- Bernie Sanders praises Jeff Bezos on Amazon $15 minimum wage. CNN October 2, 2018. Accessed February 2, 2019.
- An Economic Agenda for America: 12 Steps Forward. The Huffington Post. December 1, 2014. Accessed February 19, 2019.
- New Sanders tax plan targets estates of the ultra-rich. CNN. January 31, 2019. Accessed March 7, 2019.
- "Sen. Bernie Sanders ends filibuster". Los Angeles Times.
- Sanders Will Hit Iowa, Michigan and Wisconsin to Slam Tax Cuts. CNN. February 15, 2018.
- Bernie Sanders' Economic Inequality Town Hall Draws 1.7 Million Live Viewers. Huffinton Post. March 20, 2018.
- Russia and Stormy Daniels Distract Us from the Real Problem of Inequality. The Guardian. March 20, 2018.
- United States of America v. Internet Research Agency et al. (Criminal No. 18 U.S.C. §§ 2, 371, 1349, 1028A) In the United States District Court for the District of Columbia (February 16, 2018)
- Sanders silent on claim that Russians backed him in 2016 by Gabriel Debenedetti (02/16/2018 03:46 PM EST) Politico.
- Sanders Unveils Estate Tax Plan, Joining Democrats Who Want to Tax the Rich. The New York Times. January 31, 2019. Accessed January 31, 2019.
- Bernie Sanders pitches new tax plan hitting ultra-wealthy. Associated Press. January 31, 2019. Accessed February 1, 2019.
- Why 2020 Democratic candidates are pushing more progressive tax proposals. PBS NewsHour. February 19, 2019. Accessed March 7, 2019.
- Bernie Sanders on Free Trade. On the Issues. Updated August 16, 2016. Accessed February 3, 2019.
- "Bernie Sanders once urged abolishing CIA - POLITICO". POLITICO.
- "Bernie Sanders + Noam Chomsky on Foreign Policy (5/20/1985)". 21 July 2015 – via YouTube.
- Clare Foran. "The Foreign Travels of Bernie Sanders". The Atlantic.
- Ishaan Tharoor (19 February 2016). "The angry letter Bernie Sanders wrote to Margaret Thatcher". Washington Post.
- "Burlington to get sister city". The Lewiston Journal. (Associated Press). August 23, 1988.
- Hattem, Julian (30 August 2015). "Sanders: I wouldn’t end drone program". thehill.com. Retrieved on 18 July 2016.
- "Henry Kissinger’s War Crimes Are Central to the Divide Between Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders". The Intercept.
- Zack Beauchamp (12 February 2016).
- Senators will try to pull U.S. from Yemen war. Reuters. February 28, 2018.
- 2020 candidate Sen. Bernie Sanders says he doesn't 'fault Trump' on North Korea ABC News. May 4, 2019. Accessed May 5, 2019.
- Bernie Sanders Lays Out His Foreign Policy Vision. NPR. September 21, 2017. Accessed May 5, 2019.
- CNN, Eugene Scott. "Sanders accuses Israel of 'disproportionate' response in Gaza".
- Cassidy, John (15 April 2016). "The Democratic Debate: A Surprising Exchange on Israel" – via The New Yorker.
- Matthew Rozsa. "The senator who won't shoot straight: What Bernie Sanders gets wrong about gun control". Salon.
- "Bernie Sanders on Gun Control". ontheissues.org.
- Beckett, Lois (14 April 2016). "'Small victory' for Sandy Hook families in battle to hold gunmakers to account". The Guardian.
- "Did Bernie Sanders vote against background checks and waiting periods for gun purchases?". politifact.com. Retrieved on 18 July 2016.
- "How the National Rifle Association helped get Bernie Sanders elected". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 3 July 2016.
- CNN, Dan Merica. "Where is Bernie Sanders' gun control plan?". CNN. Retrieved on 3 July 2016.
- "U.S. Senate: Roll Call Vote". senate.gov. Retrieved on 3 July 2016.
- Sanders cheers students protesting gun violence: 'We are very proud'. The Hill. March 14, 2018.
- Bernie Sanders on Gun Control. On the Issues. Updated August 18, 2016. Accessed February 19, 2019.
- "Bernie Sanders wants to bring back deported immigrants". usatoday.com. Retrieved on 18 July 2016.
- "Bernie Sanders on Immigrants: Silly, Tribal and Economically Illiterate". newsweek.com. 30 July 2015. Retrieved on 18 July 2016.
- "Sanders and immigration? It's complicated". POLITICO.
- "Hillary Clinton says Bernie Sanders supported Minutemen, indefinite detention for the undocumented". @politifact.
- "An Open Letter to Dolores Huerta". The Huffington Post. 24 March 2016.
- Vox, (29 July 2015). "Bernie Sanders: "Open borders? That's a Koch brothers proposal"". Retrieved on 18 July 2016 – via YouTube.
- Zaid Jilani. "Bernie Sanders Was for Full Gay Equality 40 Years Ago". (June 26, 2015). Alternet.
- Forgive him for the "lifestyles" comment: it was 1983!
Paul Heintz. "32 Years Before SCOTUS Decision, Sanders Backed Gay Pride March". (June 30, 2015). Seven Days (Vermont).
- "Bernie Sanders on LGBTQ rights", via FeelTheBern.Org.
- Charles Pulliam-Moore. Bernie Sanders is right: The Human Rights Campaign is definitely part of the 'establishment'. Fusion. (1/21/16, 9:26 AM).
- "Bernie Sanders Draws Distinction On Gay Rights". The Rachel Maddow Show (MSNBC: October 27, 2015) 10:58–16:48.
- Mark Hensch. "Sanders: I was ahead of the curve on gay rights". (06/27/15). The Hill.
- Jason Horowitz. "As Gay Rights Ally, Bernie Sanders Wasn’t Always in Vanguard". (November 27, 2015). The New York Times.
- Sam Frizell. "How Bernie Sanders Evolved on Gay Marriage" (October 28, 2015: Des Moines). TIME Magazine online.
- "Senators to Obama: Time to Evolve". (June 23, 2011). Advocate.
- "INSTANT VIEW 2-U.S. Supreme Court makes gay marriage the law of the land". (June 26, 2015) Reuters.
- "The Voter's Self Defense System".
- "Sanders Discusses Deficit Commission and 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' (WCAX)" 3:45–4:15.
- "Public Notes on 10-HR1283".
- Zach Carter. "Watch Bernie Sanders Demolish A Republican Over 'Homos In The Military'". (02/22/2016). The Huffington Post.
- "House Votes on 1999-346".
- "I am Senator Bernie Sanders, Democratic candidate for President of the United States — AMA" – via Reddit.
- AM, Jeff Stein On 2/1/16 at 6:00 (1 February 2016). "Is Bernie Sanders a Hawk on Foreign Policy?". newsweek.com. Retrieved on 18 July 2016.
- Mak, Tim (9 February 2016). "Bernie Sanders Loves This $1 Trillion War Machine". thedailybeast.com. Retrieved on 18 July 2016.
- Interview Meet the Press Politico
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- "Cruz, Sanders face off on Obamacare", CNN'.
- Liberals dare Trump to back their bills lowering drug prices. Associated Press. January 10, 2019.
- Here's What's In Bernie Sanders' 'Medicare For All' Bill. NPR. September 14, 2017. Accessed February 2, 2019.
- Sanders to host a 'Medicare for all' town hall. The Hill. January 11, 2018.
- Bernie Sanders' "Medicare For All" Online Town Hall Draws Over 1 Million Live Viewers. Huffington Post. January 24, 2018.
- Democrats March Toward Single-Payer Healthcare. The Hill. February 25, 2018.
- A New Poll Found That A Majority of Americans Support A Radical Change To the US Healthcare System Business Insider. March 28, 2018.
- Seventy Percent of Americans Support 'Medicare For All' In New Poll. The Hill. August 23, 2018.
- Poll: Support for 'Medicare-for-all' fluctuates with details. Associated Press. January 23, 2019. Accessed February 3, 2019.
- What Would Sanders’s ‘Medicare-for-all’ Plan Mean for Doctor Pay?. Washington Post. Wonkblog Analysis. August 27, 2018.
- Trump’s top Medicare official slams ‘Medicare for All’. Associated Press. July 25, 2018.
- Sanders Thanks Koch Brothers For Accidentally Making Argument For 'Medicare For All'. The Hill. July 31, 2018.
- Democrat-led cities and states move toward universal health care on their own terms. PBS NewsHour. February 13, 2019. Accessed February 13, 2019.
- . The New York Times. March 29, 2019. Accessed April 2, 2019.
- "Bernie Sanders on Martin Luther King Jr." 17 Jan 2016 – via YouTube.
- Chicago Tribune (22 February 2016). "Arrest photo of young activist Bernie Sanders emerges from Tribune archives". chicagotribune.com.
- "Here's What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement". Mother Jones.
- "Senator Sanders remarks on 1994 Crime Bill". Daily Kos.
- Black voters matter: Bernie Sanders' 2020 learning curve. After a disastrous performance in 2016, the potential presidential hopeful is taking a whole new approach to African-American voters. by Alex Seitz-Wald (Jan. 23, 2019, 1:29 AM PST / Updated Jan. 23, 2019, 5:03 AM PST) NBC News.
- "Snowden deserves leniency, Sanders says".
- Senate approves bill in bid to retain U.S. net neutrality. Reuters. May 16, 2018. Accessed March 9, 2019.
- Takeaways from Bernie Sanders' CNN town hall. CNN. April 22, 2019. Accessed April 22, 2019.
- Sam Frizell. "Bernie Sanders' Long History With Alternative Medicine," Time Magazine. March 6, 2016.
- Ben Jacobs. "Gridlocked D.C. Finds Common Ground on Vaccines and Measles". Daily Beast. February 4, 2015.
- S. 852 (113th): Veterans' Health Promotion Act of 2013, GovTrack.us
- "Senator Bernie Sanders: Climate Change Is Real, Senator Inhofe Is 'Dead Wrong' (VIDEO)". The Huffington Post. 31 July 2012.
- "Senate rejects GM food labeling amendment to farm bill". the Guardian.
- "bernie-sanders comments on I am Senator Bernie Sanders, Democratic candidate for President of the United States — AMA". reddit.
- "NeuroLogica Blog » Should There Be Mandatory GMO Labeling?". theness.com. Retrieved on 18 July 2016.
- Introducing Bernie Sanders the Hypocrite (August 15, 2015 · 6:50 AM PDT) Daily Kos.
- "Bernie Sanders on Twitter". Twitter.
- Bernie’s Fundraising Was Revolutionary. How He Spent His Money Was Not. What did $220 million buy? Ads, consultants, and a dispiritingly conventional campaign. by Eli Clifton and Joshua Holland (July 13 2016 3:16 PM) Slate.
- The deep cynicism of Bernie Sanders’s chief strategist by Dana Milbank (August 1, 2018) The Washington Post.
- "A Pro-Clinton Super PAC Is Going Negative On Bernie Sanders". The Huffington Post. 15 September 2015.
- Alex Seitz-Wald (17 September 2015). "Bernie Sanders raises $1 million off Clinton super PAC attack". MSNBC.
- "Bernie Sanders Raises $1.2 Million Off Of Attack By Clinton-Allied Group". The Huffington Post. 17 September 2015.
- Jason Easley. "Bernie Sanders Raises $800,000 Off Of Martin O’Malley Super PAC Ad Attacking Him". politicususa.com.
- "US election 2016: Trump and Sanders win New Hampshire". BBC News.
- "Super Tuesday election results 2016 updates". Washington Post.
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- "RealClearPolitics — Election 2016 — General Election: Trump vs. Sanders".
- "Sanders Beats All Top Republican Candidates In Latest Poll", HuffingtonPost, 2 December 2015
- "The Myths Democrats Swallowed That Cost Them the Election" Newsweek.
- "Americans overwhelmingly support Bernie Sanders’ economic policies — so how’d we end up here?".
- Poll chart
- "Bernie Sanders Is the Most Popular Politician in America, Poll Says".
- "Donald Trump is the most unpopular presidential candidate since the former head of the Ku Klux Klan". Washington Post
- Philip Elliott / Charleston, S.C.. "Why Bernie Sanders Is Struggling to Win Over Black Voters". TIME.com.
- Janell Ross (4 February 2016). "Bernie Sanders’s real problem with black and Hispanic voters". Washington Post.
- "Clinton Is Winning The States That Look Like The Democratic Party". 15 April 2016.
- "19 Examples of Bernie Sanders' Powerful Record on Civil and Human Rights Since the 1950s". Alternet.
- "Shaun King- Bernie Sanders: HE'S CHAINED To 2 Black Women As They Resist Arrest In A Chicago Protest". democraticunderground.com.
- Kim LaCapria (4 March 2016). "TRUE: Bernie Sanders Sit-in Photos From 1962". Snopes.
- Dan; Siddiqui, Sabrina; Gambino, Lauren (20 April 2016). "Hillary Clinton wins decisive victory over Bernie Sanders in New York primary", NBC: Huge Split Between Older and Younger Blacks in the Democratic Primary
- John Nichols (19 June 2015). "Ready for Warren Becomes Ready to Fight and Backs Bernie Sanders". The Nation.
- Obama boys, you see. Yes, she really did go there…
"WOW. Before the "Bernie Bro," Clinton supporters created the "Obama boy." No, seriously.". Daily Kos.
- Hess, Amanda (February 3, 2016). "Everyone Is Wrong About the Bernie Bros; How a necessary critique of leftist sexism deteriorated into a dumb flame war.". Slate.
- Meyer, Robinson (February 5, 2016). "It's Not Just Berniebros I coined the term—now I've come back to fix what I started.". The Atlantic.
- Andrews, Natalie (February 8, 2016). "Bernie Sanders on Sexist Commenters: I Don't Want That Support". Wall Street Journal.
- Joanna Rothkopf. "Bernie Sanders' Campaign Is Concerned About the 'Berniebro,' As They Maybe Should Be". The Slot.
- "The “Bernie Bros” Narrative: a Cheap Campaign Tactic Masquerading as Journalism and Social Activism". The Intercept.
- Clinton-Shilling Journalists Should Stop Slamming the Bernie Bros
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- "Has Clinton’s Move to the Left Backfired?".
- "Why Did Bernie Sanders Put an Obama-Hater on the Democratic Platform Committee?". 24 May 2016.
- "Democrats just approved a draft of their party platform, and Bernie Sanders' influence is clear".
- Dan Roberts in Philadelphia, Ben Jacobs in Washington and Alan Yuhas in New York (July 25, 2016). "Debbie Wasserman Schultz to resign as DNC chair as email scandal rocks Democrats". The Guardian.
- Bernie Sanders Endorses Hillary Clinton for President, The Wall Street Journal (full speech). Jul 12, 2016 11:35 am ET
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- (July 12, 2016). "'Bernie is a sellout': Sanders supporters blast him for endorsing Hillary Clinton". RT International.
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- Donald J. Trump (12 July 2016). "Tweet Number 752859250628648962". Twitter. "Bernie Sanders, who has lost most of his leverage, has totally sold out to Crooked Hillary Clinton. He will endorse her today - fans angry!"
- Kurtzleben, Danielle (June 13, 2016). "In Wake Of Orlando Shooting, Clinton Suggests Broader Terrorist Watch Lists". NPR.org.
- Roberts, Dan; Gambino, Lauren (November 19, 2015). "Hillary Clinton calls for more ground troops as part of hawkish Isis strategy". The Guardian.
- Golshan, Tara (July 18, 2016). "Trump on Pence's vote for the Iraq war: "He's entitled to make a mistake" On Clinton: "She's not"". Vox.
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- Sanders wins greater say in Democratic platform; names pro-Palestinian activist
- New Pre-Election Poll Suggests Bernie Sanders Could Have Trounced Donald Trump
- On Bernie Sanders' 1972 Essay by Melissa McEwan (May 29, 2015) Shakesville.
- Looking For Bernie, Part 1: Sanders '72 by Aphra Behn (July 14, 2015) Shakesville.
- Ansolabehere, Stephen; Schaffner, Brian F., 2017, "CCES Common Content, 2016", doi:10.7910/DVN/GDF6Z0, Harvard Dataverse, V3, UNF:6:Hacct7qJt1WXOGPb63A5Gg==
- Bernie Sanders stirs Texas crowd, is he running for something?. BBC News. March 10, 2018.
- Bernie makes moves pointing to 2020 run. Politico. November 27, 2017.
- Bernie Sanders is spending a lot of time in Trump country. Here's why. CNN. March 11, 2018.
- How Sanders and Warren Will Decide Which One Runs for President. The Atlantic. Accessed August 28, 2018.
- Bernie Sanders Wants to Be A Kingmaker in the Race for Congress. Mother Jones. February 24, 2018.
- Sanders To Publish Book, 'Where We Go From Here,' After Midterms. CNN. February 21, 2018.
- Bernie Sanders Is Losing Primary Battles, But Winning A War. NPR. June 8th, 2018.
- Bernie Sanders Socialism Moves to Democratic Mainstream. The Hill. August 17, 2018.
- How A Twitter Fight Over Bernie Sanders Revealed A Network Of Fake Accounts. Huffington Post. March 14, 2018.
- Word for Word: President Trump on Bernie Sanders. C-SPAN. February 19, 2019.
- 'I like Joe:' Bernie Sanders offers measured criticism of Biden in Iowa. CNN. May 6, 2019. Accessed May 7, 2019.
- Sanders Tops Democratic Fundraising, So Far, As Harris And Buttigieg Draw Big Sums. NPR. April 2, 2019. Accessed April 2, 2019.
- Poll: Biden, Bernie, Beto lead Democratic pack. Politico. Accessed April 2, 2019.
- Bernie Sanders releases 10 years of long-awaited tax returns. Associated Press. April 15, 2019. Accessed April 22, 2019.
- rump Calls Bernie Sanders Crazy, Praises Him in Private. The Daily Beast. April 22, 2019. Accessed April 22, 2019.
- Ann Coulter says she’d consider vote for Bernie Sanders. Fox News. April 18, 2019. Accessed April 22, 2019.
|United States 2016 presidential election articles on RationalWiki|
| Topics: Affordable Care Act - Citizens United v. FEC - DAESH - Gun control - Illegal immigration - Koch Industries - United States Electoral College - Trump's Wall
Parties: Democratic Party (primaries) - Green Party - Libertarian Party - Republican Party (primaries • Convention • Tea Party)
Candidates: Bush (R) - Carson (R) - Christie (R) - Clinton (D) - Cruz (R) - Huckabee (R) - Jindal (R) - Johnson (Lib) - Kasich (R) - Paul (R) - Perry (R) - Sanders (D) - Stein (Green) - Trump (R) - Walker (R) - Webb (D) • Running mates: Kaine (D) - Pence (R)
Winner: Donald Trump
|United States 2020 presidential election articles on RationalWiki|
| Topics: Abortion - Climate change - Illegal immigration - Gun control - LGBT rights - Marijuana - Taxes - United States Electoral College - Universal healthcare
Parties: Democratic Party (primaries) - Green Party - Libertarian Party - Republican Party (primaries)
Candidates: N/A (D) - Trump (R) • Running mates: Not declared