“”Some would argue you don’t have to enter the [museum] to be Back in the BSSR. Streets in the capital are still named after Marx and Engels. A statue of Lenin dominates a city centre square. There’s even a bust of Felix Dzerzhinsky, the original Soviet secret policeman and the first statue toppled in Moscow when the Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991. A metro ride costs 20p. People smoke indoors. Almost no one has tattoos. This feels like a place that is at least one revolution behind the rest of us, maybe more.
|—Mark Rice-Oxley, The Guardian.|
The Republic of Belarus (Belarusian: Рэспубліка Беларусь; English: White Ruthenia), formerly called Byelorussia or Belorussia, and currently known as Europe's last dictatorship is a depressing post-Soviet country in Eastern Europe known for its historical status as a doormat for invading armies and its current dictatorship under Alexander Lukashenko. Its capital is Minsk, and about 48% of its population is Eastern Orthodox while 41% are atheist. The Belarusians are a Slavic nationality.
Belarus' history is full of invasions. Like, a lot. In the Middle Ages it was part of a Slavic state called the Kievan Rus until it got attacked by the Mongols. Then Lithuania moved in to pick up the pieces, and Belarus had to defend itself from invasions by the Russians who wanted it for themselves. After Lithuania came under the rule of Poland, Belarus was finally seized by Russia during that country's partition in 1795. The Russian Empire cracked down on the Belarusian nationality, trying to forcibly turn them into Russians. Then Napoleon Bonaparte launched a destructive invasion, although the Russians managed to fight it off.
The Belarusians launched several failed revolts against Russian rule until it was invaded by the German Empire in World War I. During the tumultuous Russian Civil War, it was invaded again by Poland from one side and Soviet Russia from the other. It remained divided between them until the outbreak of World War II, when Joseph Stalin reunited it with help from Nazi Germany. Stalinist oppression escalated, and Nazi Germany betrayed him and launched a horrifically genocidal invasion of their own. Belarus was the hardest-hit Soviet republic, seeing the vast majority of its cities razed to the ground.
The later Soviet period saw more attempts at cultural hegemony and a slow effort to rebuilt Belarus. In 1986, Belarus was invaded again, this time by radiation from Chernobyl. That disaster, combined with the uncovering of Soviet crimes against them, led the republic to join the other Soviet republics in declaring independence in 1991. The 1994 elections brought in the previously unknown Alexander Lukashenko, who promptly started ruling as an authoritarian dictator while dismissing the threat of lingering Chernobyl radiation. As of 2020, the country is experiencing a major protest movement inspired by disputed election results seen to have been rigged to ensure a sixth term for aging strongman Lukashenko.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Kievan Rus
- 1.2 Mongol invasion
- 1.3 Catholic rule
- 1.4 Russian rule
- 1.5 WWI German invasion
- 1.6 Polish-Soviet battleground and partition
- 1.7 World War II
- 1.8 Soviet rule
- 1.9 Lukashenko regime
- 2 Government and politics
- 3 Radiation problems and denialism
- 4 Human rights
- 5 Gallery
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Belarus as a concept emerged in the 9th century CE under the rule of the loosely-organized Kievan Rus, when the Medieval Slavic state divided its lands between various local nobles. Even before that, the Kievan Rus had been more a collection of allied principalities than a truly centralized state.
The regional economy was based on primitive shifting agriculture on burned-over forestland, as well as on honey collecting and fur hunting. Eventually, the region's income was supplemented by trade from outside sources, most notably the Byzantine Empire. Trade relations and eventual marriage ties helped Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread throughout the region.
Trade also helped early cities emerge in Belarus, like Polack in 862, Brest in 1019, and Minsk in 1067.
After smashing through the rest of Asia, the Mongol Empire under Ögedei Khan showed up in Eastern Europe in 1235 CE to continue their conquests. The Mongol war in Eastern Europe was particularly devastating on the region, and the Mongols destroyed any city that dared refuse them entry. The already decentralized Kievan Rus was totally unprepared to deal with this new threat. The Slavic weakness was only exacerbated when the Mongols stormed around destroying the cities of the various local rulers.
Some Slavic rulers accepted the Mongols as overlords and acted as their tax collectors, a phenomenon particularly common in northern Russia. Money talks. Kiev, the Slavic capital, fell to the Mongols in 1239 and the Mongols razed most of the city to the ground and slaughtered its inhabitants. As they did. Many Belarusian towns were also destroyed and looted during this era of chaos, leaving the region fucked to bits.
Ultimately, the Mongol invasion resulted in the once semi-unified Slavic culture group being carved into a series of much smaller principalities unable to resist the overpowering strength of the Mongols. From then on, Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians developed separately and culturally diverged to a significant degree.
The Mongol devastation created a power vacuum in Eastern Europe which was filled by one of the only states left standing: Lithuania. Throughout the late 1200s and early 1300s, Lithuania conquered a surprisingly large swathe of Eastern European territory, incorporating most of the Belarusian territory in a manner which was probably peaceful due to Belarus' weakness and desire for protection. Lithuania was closely allied with Poland, an arrangement which resulted in Lithuania's conversion to Catholicism. The two allied nations together dominated much of Central and Eastern Europe.
By 1386, Poland and Lithuania had become such good pals that they married into each other's dynasties and finally formed a personal union beneath one king. The Poles were dominant in this arrangement, but the Lithuanian nobles had important powers to ensure that their "rights" would be protected against the Polish kings. This was successful enough that it was formalized in the 1586 Union of Lublin that created the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Under Polish rule, various incentives convinced Belarusian nobles to convert to Catholicism and start speaking Polish, but the peasantry kept their own religion and language. This arrangement proved to be acceptable to the Polish overlords, as they didn't really care much about the backwater Belarusian lands so long as they paid tax.
That changed in 1596 with the Union of Brest, which sought to unite Catholic and Orthodox doctrines by creating a "Uniate" church that would follow Orthodox traditions but teach Catholic doctrine. The peasantry generally opposed this idea and refused to participate, so authorities persecuted the Orthodox Christians in retaliation for defying a compromise state religion. Conditions deteriorated, and the Belarusians rose up in rebellion repeatedly as the Uniate church attempted to confiscate property and assets from the Orthodox. This was a contributing factor to the Commonwealth's decline. Once again, history demonstrates that religious intolerance is a bad policy. Over and over again.
The Russians attempted to crush Belarusian nationalism and force them to become Russian. To do this, they implemented policies like enforcing a return to Orthodox Christianity, banning the Belarusian language in schools, banning the Latin alphabet, and even banning the name "Belarus". The Russians also imposed heavy taxes, enforced serfdom, and required military service for twenty-five years. At this point, the Belarusians were missing the Poles. Shit.
Belarus was a major battlefield in 1812 as Napoleon attempted to invade Russia with his massive army to punish them for violating their alliance with him. Belarusians were active in guerrilla actions which played their part in bleeding the French conqueror's army as it pressed deeper into Russian land. The Russians also inflicted destruction of their own on Belarus, using scorched-earth tactics while retreating into Russia to deprive the French of supplies and food. Unfortunately, this deprived the Belarusian people of resources and food as well. Soldiers from Spain and Portugal who had been forced into the French army also tended to desert due to their personal enmity towards Napoleon, and they promptly became robbers and highwaymen who terrorized the Belarusian people even more.
After the total failure of Napoleon to win the war despite taking Moscow, the French had to retreat along the same path they had taken. The land was already stripped bare by the aforementioned activities, meaning that the French were starving the entire way. Cossacks and partisan fighters also harassed them on the way out. Winter had also set in, leaving the French exposed and freezing. In Belarus, Napoleon met with his worst defeat of all. In the Battle of Berezina, the Russian armies ambushed the French while crossing the river, inflicting enormous casualties. Some 25,000 of Napoleon's troops died in that one battle.
The French left a lot of corpses in Belarus, and many likely remain. As recently as 2007, the remains of 224 Napoleonic troops emerged near the River Berezina and were reburied at the request of the French government.
Nationalism and rebellion
“”From under the Russian gallows I am writing to you for the last time. It is sad to leave my native land and you, my dear people... As day and night do not reign together, so also true learning does not go together with Russian slavery. As long as this lies over us, we shall have nothing. There will be no truth, no riches, no learning. They will only drive us like cattle not to our well-being, but to our perdition... Go and fight with the whole people for your human and national rights, for your faith, for your native land. For I say to you from beneath the gallows, my people, you will only then live happily, when no Russian remains over you!
|—Kastuś Kalinoŭski, "Letters from Beneath the Gallows", 1864.|
Belarus went largely unrewarded for its role in saving Russia from Napoleon. Despite development from the Industrial Revolution benefiting Russia, Belarus still suffered from widespread unemployment and poverty as these benefits left it behind. Hundreds of thousands of Belarusians left the region for either other parts of Russia or even the United States.
Kastuś Kalinoŭski started covertly publishing Mużyckaja prauda (Commoner's truth), one of the first papers in Belarusian, arguing for the need to liberate Belarus and the other nationalities of the old Commonwealth from Russian rule. His writings helped inspire the 1863 uprising against Russia, one of the largest that pre-revolutionary Russia had ever faced. Mass public executions and deportations to Siberia eventually forced the rebels to give up their hopes of liberation. Kalinoŭski himself was hanged after writing one last call for revolution against Russia.
Although failed, the events inspired further nationalist sentiments against Russia, particularly in the tumultuous years following Russia's military defeat against Japan in 1905. More peasant uprisings from Belarus were also violently suppressed. Political activity also increased, noted by the formation of the Belarusian Socialist Party and its publication of more covert pamphlets.
WWI German invasion
Belarus was also one of the worst impacted parts of Europe during World War I. Russian forces clamped down fiercely on it with martial law and conscription, as it could not afford disloyalty from one of its main frontiers against the German Empire. Minorities in Belarus, particularly the Jews suffered during this period as well as Russia forcibly deported them into the Russian interior or outright massacred them. All of these factors got even worse with the Great Retreat of 1915, in which the Russian army gave up on Poland and started a fighting withdrawal into Belarus while using scorched-earth tactics. The retreat also forced Belarusians out of their homes as they fled from the oncoming German armies.
The Russian government's incompetent economic policies resulted in high food prices, shortages of goods, and many needless deaths. This inspired discontent among all nationalities of the Russian Empire. As the German and Austrian armies advanced through Belarus, they used chemical weapons and mass bombardments against Russian positions, and their soldiers also committed atrocities like murder and mass rape against Belarusian civilians. Very shitty.
Belarusian loyalty towards Russia was always fragile, and the harsh wartime conditions and general stupidity of the Tsarist government caused matters to break down. The February Revolution overtook the Russian capital of Petrograd, resulting in the Tsar's overthrow. State control over Belarus dissolved, and many deserting Belarusian soldiers became criminals and bandits. Due to political differences, no Belarusian government could form beyond a handful of local socialist councils.
After the October Revolution, Vladimir Lenin forced the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in which Russia surrendered most of Belarus to German occupation. Much of that territory became the German-administered Ober Ost territory, which was ruled under military occupation. The Germans almost ended up being nicer than the Russians, as they encouraged Belarusian nationalism and allowed schools to open. Unfortunately, the defeat and withdrawal of Germany caused more problems.
Polish-Soviet battleground and partition
After the liberation of Poland, it fought to resist the Bolshevik advance and expand its borders at the expense of Belarus. Belarus itself became a battleground between the two nations, as both sides fought to control its resources. Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks forcibly dissolved the nascent democratic Belorussian National Republic and instead created the Belarussian Soviet Socialist Republic. This was briefly interrupted by the Polish Operation Minsk, which captured Minsk from the Russians in 1919 after heavy fighting. Repeated Bolshevik crackdowns eroded Belarus' tolerance for them, and repeated attempts to rise up against the Soviets were met with overwhelming brutality from the Reds.
The war functionally ended in a stalemate over Belarus, with the territory being partitioned between Russia and Poland. Minsk became the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In Poland, the Belarusians were briefly able to experience living in a semi-free society before the Poles cracked down again in 1924. Under the excuse of fighting communism, Polish authorities shut down Belarusian schools and banned publications in the Belarusian language. Belarus just couldn't catch a fucking break. The whole part of Belarus became just a breadbasket for the rest of Poland, and anyone who wasn't farming was unemployed and shit out of luck. In 1926, Poland became a dictatorship under Marshal Józef Pilsudski, and Belarusians who protested were arrested or killed. Poland went so far as to open the Bereza-Kartuska facility in Byaroza to house Belarusian political prisoners, and conditions deteriorated to the point where it's now considered to have been a concentration camp. Poland also unilaterally withdrew from the League of Nations mandate on protecting minorities just so that they could exclude Belarusians from institutions.
Belarus also suffered greatly under the rule of Joseph Stalin, experiencing political repression, purges, and famine. Stalin also resumed Russia's policy of trying to forcibly assimilate Belarusian people into becoming Russian, although his methods tended to be more murderous.
World War II
Russia occupied the rest of Belarus after Nazi Germany invaded Poland and split it with Russia according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop agreement. Ignorant of, or disbelieving the existence of, mass persecutions under Stalin, most Belarusians welcomed the Red Army only to be hit with a face full of oppression. Stalin became even more brutal in his efforts to remodel the political culture of western Belarus. He deported some 300,000 into gulags between September 1939 and June 1941.
When the Nazis invaded in June 1941, the Belarusians greeted them as liberators in the hopes that the Nazis would be better than the Soviets. Instead, it soon became clear that the Nazis intended to destroy the Belarusian race in order to fill the land with Germans. The Nazi Holocaust was horrifically brutal and destructive in Belarus, as it was closest to the border with Nazi Germany and was thus the one of the places to be occupied by them for the longest. The Nazis killed one in five citizens of Belarus and 90% of its Jewish community.
Belarus was also a hotbed of resistance activity against the Germans. By the end of 1941, about 12,000 people, grouped into 230 partisan units, were fighting the Germans. That number increased to about 374,000 by 1944. Sadly, the country paid heavily for it. During the three years of occupation and resistance warfare, Belarus endured enormous devastation from guerrilla warfare, retaliatory burnings of entire villages by the Germans, mass executions of the Jewish population, and two movements of the front lines through the country.
In 1946, after the Nazis had lost, Belarus was still called "the most devastated territory in the world."
After reoccupying Belarus, Stalin decided to have his revenge on the republic since many of its citizens had tried to collaborate with the enemy. He ordered sweeping purges and mass deportations of those who had spent the war in slave labor and prison camps in Germany and had become "ideologically contaminated" in Stalin's view and also persecuted anyone accused of feeling Belarusian nationalism. Stalin then set about implementing an intensified policy of "Russification". He purged Belarusians from government positions and filled them all with Russians, then suppressed Belarusian culture and banned the language from use in institutions and schools. Basically the same old depressing-ass story.
The persecution continued under Khrushchev, who infamously stated, "The sooner we all start speaking Russian, the faster we shall build communism." Resistance to the program was met with arrests and official harassment.
“”The Nazis took three years to destroy 619 Belarusian villages during the Second World War; Chernobyl made 485 villages uninhabitable in hours.
|—Michael Harris, Dissent Magazine.|
In 1986, Belarus was hit by yet another disaster thanks to the Soviet authorities. The nuclear power plant that exploded thanks to Soviet incompetence did so in the far north of Ukraine, a scant six miles south of Belarus' southern border. 70% of the fallout from the disaster blew north into Belarus, contaminating at least one-fifth of its best farmland. Significant contamination was found in two-thirds of Belarus' land, containing huge numbers of people. Hundreds of thousands of them had to be evacuated.
Even worse was and is the Soviet regime's response to the crisis. Authorities told Belarusians to carry on as normal, and Mikhail Gorbachev downplayed the issue for weeks. Even then, government recognition of the disaster came under intense international scrutiny and involved as little response as possible. Schools and businesses stayed open despite the deadly threat of radioactive dust.
The consequences of the disaster lingered for a long time after and still haunt Belarus to this day. Food in the republic became extremely expensive since it had to be checked for contamination, and lingering radiation caused birth problems and cancers.
Finding mass graves
When Mikhail Gorbachev became premier of the Soviet Union and began his perestroika openness policy, he probably never imagined the problems it would cause in Belarus. First, the full extent of the Chernobyl disaster became apparent to the people, inspiring much higher levels of political consciousness from people who abruptly realized that government has consequences.
Then Belarusians found a bunch of literal dead bodies.
In 1988, Belarusian historians discovered a series of mass graves outside Minsk in a site called Kurapaty containing an estimated 250,000 corpses. It didn't take long for people to realize that these graves were filled with the victims of Joseph Stalin, who had been led into the woods near Minsk and shot in droves. This discover fueled anti-government sentiments, culminating in a rally of 10,000 people that had to be dispersed by riot police. These events inspired the formation of the Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), a political organization calling for independence from the Soviet Union.
Unfortunately, even literal fucking dead bodies couldn't quite break the inertia of political apathy. It also didn't help that the year 1990 saw the Belarus Supreme Soviet get filled with even more crusty communist conservatives who were instinctively hostile to any hints of reform. The vast majority of the Belarusian population also voted to keep the Soviet Union in the March 1990 referendum on preserving the Soviet Union.
It was ultimately the Russian example that got things moving. Under the charismatic leadership of Russian Boris Yeltsin, the Russian SSR voted to establish its sovereignty in 1990, meaning that it would place its own interests above the Soviet Union's. Belarus reluctantly followed suit two weeks later, if only to ensure that they would be on the winning side of history.
A worker's strike movement in 1991 also broke the pall of political stagnation. The demands were mostly economic, calling for higher wages and cancellation of a new sales tax, but they broke Belarus' reputation as the Soviet republic most successfully stomped into silence.
Following the August 1991 coup by communist hardliners against Gorby and rapid declarations of independence by Estonia, Latvia, and Ukraine, the Supreme Soviet in Minsk followed suit after seeing that all the nails were in the USSR's coffin. The Supreme Soviet then forced the resignation of its own chairman, Mikalay Dzyemyantsyey, for siding with the coup leaders and replaced him with his deputy, Stanislaw Shushkyevich.
It was in Belarus itself that leaders from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus signed the Belovezha Accords that dissolved the Soviet Union.
The first elected leaders of the newly independent Belarus were ridiculously corrupt, leading to widespread discontent. The 1994 elections for the presidency of Belarus saw the dark horse candidate Alexander Lukashenko take power. While portraying himself as a nationalist and corruption fighter, he instead locked the republic in the past by retaining much of the old Soviet power structure. He transformed Belarus into his personal fiefdom by imprisoning or otherwise suppressing most of his potential rivals and maintaining strong state control of the economy and the media. Oh, and he has a secret police force called the KGB. No, really.
By halting economic reforms, Lukashenko ensured that Belarus would remain a Soviet-style economy. Such an economy could not develop much, and the real surprise was that it lasted. The main reason behind it was support from Russia, which propped up its Slavic brother by purchasing the cheaply made junk products from Belarus in much the same way any other rich country buys cheap junk from other places. Russia also provides cheap oil and natural gas to keep Belarus powered.
Inspired by a poor economy and the increasing evidence that Lukashenko has rigged elections to stay in power, a significant protest movement against him emerged in 2020 under the leadership of opposition figure Svetlana Tikhanovskaya who joined politics after Lukashenko had her husband jailed for blogging.
Oh, and Lukashenko responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by doing nothing, claiming that it was just a "psychosis" curable by vodka or a trip to the sauna. Then the dumb bitch caught it. Get fucked, Luka.
Government and politics
Rubber stamp legislature
With the exception of the new office of the president, Belarus' political structure has remained almost unchanged since the Soviet days. Legislative power is theoretically vested in the bicameral National Assembly of Belarus, the direct descendant of the Supreme Soviet. In reality, the body has almost no authority whatsoever due to the overwhelming power of the presidency, to the point where it doesn't even have any real say in state spending. The parliament has also been dominated by Lukashenko loyalists since the very beginning. Belarusian MPs have initiated only a handful of laws over the last twenty years, and the body has never rejected a draft law submitted by the president. In fact, not a single member of parliament has ever publicly criticized Lukashenko.
The judicial system in Belarus also works hard to maintain the Lukashenko dictatorship thanks to his having had a long time as president to stuff it with yes-men. As president Lukashenko also has the power to arbitrarily dismiss judges, directly control finances of the court system, and put political pressure on individual judges. All in all, there is no judicial independence in Belarus whatsoever.
The consequences of this are keenly felt whenever political opposition to Lukashenko dares to arise. Courts like to order people to appear before them on a ridiculously short notice and then jail them for failing to comply. Courts ignore or enable state violence against protesters. Lawyers in Belarus who dare represent opposition figures face strict persecution from the judiciary, being threatened with arbitrary disbarment, being given only a moment's notice for their cases, or being found in contempt and arrested for no good reason.
United States Republican Party members might want to look to Belarus to see what actual fraudulent elections look like. In the 2020 elections, opposition poll monitors and volunteer poll workers across Belarus reported systemic physical threats, firings, intimidation, and falsified documents all levied by the government to ensure that the vote came out in Lukashenko's favor. Government authorities also spent the weeks before the elections having major opposition members arrested and then arresting or brutalizing the many protesters who emerged in outrage. The Central Election Commission is in Lukashenko's pocket, as is the state media, and the only foreign election observers were from Russia, Azerbaijan, and a few similarly authoritarian regimes. It's no surprise then that Lukashenko was reported by the Central Election Commission to have won a ridiculous 80% of the vote. Fucking please.
The United States and the European Union both denounced the election results as fraudulent and refused to recognize Lukashenko as a legitimate leader. The usual suspects, Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping congratulated Lukashenko on winning the election, by which they meant successfully rigging it. Shitheads gotta stick together.
This wasn't the first time, of course. All previous elections involving Lukashenko were similarly rigged amid atmospheres of state persecution.
The State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian: Камітэт дзяржаўнай бяспекі) is more frequently known as the KGB. Back in the BSSR! Really. It's one of the few intelligence agencies in the world that kept its Soviet-era name after the downfall of the Soviet Union. It's a relic in more ways than one. The murderous Felix Dzerzhinsky, who founded the Cheka and carried out a state terror campaign during the Russian Civil War, was born in Belarus and is considered a symbol of the nation by Lukashenko. A bust of Dzerzhinsky even sits outside the KGB headquarters in Minsk.
The KGB is Belarus' primary intelligence agency, but like its forebear, its sights are turned inwards rather than outwards. It maintains a "terrorist" watch list that it uses to name and target notable political opponents, especially those who campaign for democracy. The KGB plays a key role in suppressing protest movements. KGB agents often detain and harshly interrogate activists, and they even go so far as to use blackmail to make people rat on other activists. For instance, activist Nasta Daškievič confessed that she had been forced sign a cooperation agreement in 2011 in exchange for the freedom of her husband Zmitser Daškievič, a former political prisoner. It's an old Soviet tactic, but it seems to work.
Another activist, Maria Kolesnikova, said she was detained by KGB agents who put a bag over her head and threatened to shoot her if she didn't flee the country.
The KGB remains a favorite of Lukashenko, who in August 2020, handed out medals to 300 KGB members for "impeccable service" in shutting down protests.
Anti-Western conspiracy theories
Lukashenko's core supporters tend to rely on conspiracy theories in order to justify their continued backing of him. Lukashenko has spent almost his entire reign blaming the democratic West for everything bad that happens in Belarus, including its economic decline. Belarusians interviewed by Euro News also expressed fear that Belarus would be contaminated by Western cultural values, leading to "transsexuals marching with their hands clasped in central Minsk." Oh no! Not that!
This only intensified amid the 2020 unrest over the rigged election. Amid anti-Lukashenko protests, Belarus's foreign minister, Vladimir Makei, accused western countries of attempting to sow "chaos and anarchy" in the backwater republic by criticizing Lukashenko. Apparently poor 'Lil Luka has such a thin skin that any mean words about him throw a whole country into bedlam. Who knew? What a bitch.
Radiation problems and denialism
“”There is no danger. How can you be afraid of radiation?
|—Nikolai Chubenok, dairy farmer for the Milkavita corporation, 2016.|
Belarus to this day feels the lingering effects of the Chernobyl catastrophe. 70% of the fallout from the disaster blew into Belarus, contaminating a huge amount of its territory. Even today, some 2,000,000 Belarussians, including 800,000 children, live in contaminated areas. At least 100,000 people live on land with a radiation level 1,480 times greater than the level typically found on a nuclear bomb test site. Between 1990 and 2000, cases of thyroid cancer in Belarusian adolescents increased by 1,600 percent. Not good.
And yet the radiation threat has been dismissed by the Lukashenko regime in much the same way they dismissed COVID-19. Lukashenko, himself a former collective farm manager, issued an order in 2005 that put most of Belarus' radioactive farmland back into use by state-owned farms. At the time, cattle could be slaughtered for beef, but it was still too dangerous to drink their milk. Prominent Belarusian research scientist Dr. Yuri Bandazhevsky criticized the move as irresponsible, but he was forced to leave the country after being prosecuted.
Not too many years later, the government authorized the sale and production of dairy products including milk and cheese. In 2016, the Associated Press tested milk samples from Belarus and found them to contain dangerous levels of the radioactive isotope strontium-90. The state-run Milkavita dairy company promptly sued the Associated Press on the basis that the story hurt the company's reputation, and Belarus' Supreme Court ruled in their favor and demanded that the Associated Press disavow the story. Utterly fucking insane.
Freedom of expression and assembly
A monstrously authoritarian regime, Belarus hosts one of the worst free speech environments in the world. Freedom House regularly condemns Belarus as a nation which routinely arrests journalists for arbitrary reasons and forces independent media organizations to operate as renegades.
Formalized by a 2008 law, the government has a total state monopoly over information about political, social, and economic affairs. Independent journalists are frequently persecuted under a variety of national laws. Belarus' criminal code, for instance, contains much language defending the "honor and dignity" of government officials. As if 'Lil Luka had either of those things. The government seems to have a special hatred for independent journalists. They frequently come under attack by police forces with rubber bullets and beatings, usually having their equipment smashed too.
The government also controls the only internet provider in the whole country in order to ensure censorship and restrict access to any and all information. Even schools and universities are subject to intense political pressure to toe the government line or else face fines and prosecutions. Protests are also illegal unless they happen with government consent. The government almost never gives consent. In fact, the government frequently likens protest actions to "terrorism" and threatens lethal force.
Police brutality and torture
Belarusian police have committed horrific acts of violence while suppressing protests and political opposition. Police forces meet protests in riot gear and use tear gas and stun grenades to disperse people while also arresting thousands to be tried and subjected to either heavy fines or imprisonment. That's only the usual violence, though. Police crimes have escalated significantly after the 2020 anti-Luka protests.
In November 2020, police responded to protests in Minsk by sending masked thugs to abduct people, resulting in at least one man being beaten to death. Random abductions in Minsk continued, including a case where a student was dragged into a van for using a cell phone and then had his nose broken before being threatened with rape by truncheon to reveal his phone password. Another young man asked officers not to beat him due to having recently undergone surgery, only to have the officers strip him to find the stitches and then punch him there until the wound reopened.
In prisons, Belarusian authorities have inflicted many horrible methods of torture on political prisoners, including beatings, prolonged stress positions, electric shocks, and even rape. Reported injuries from abuse included broken bones, cracked teeth, skin wounds, electrical burns, brain injuries, and kidney damage.
Belarus is a surveillance security state. Government-owned telecommunications companies by eavesdropping on email or phone conversations, tracking the locations of activists, or seizing private information to prosecute or blackmail people. People in Belarus are now afraid to use the phone or email services for fear that the government could be watching everything they say for signs of dissent. National law ensures that this user data is maintained for at least five years and can be accessed at will.
The backbone of the surveillance state is the System of Operative Investigative Measures (SORM), first developed by Russia and now used in Belarus to collect pretty much all telecommunications data in the country. SORM gives authorities direct, remote-control access to all user communications and associated data. By law, all telecom systems in Belarus must be compatible with SORM.
Activists are trying to fight back with help from US-based anti-censorship non-profits, but this effort was destroyed when Donald Trump arbitrarily cut funding to the program despite ongoing crackdowns in 2020. Again, shitheads gotta stick together.
Persecution of Roma
The Roma are significant minority in Belarus, but they face intense persecution under the Lukashenko regime. Belarusian cops across the country like to round up hundreds of Roma at a time and subject them to beatings, race-based insults, and intimidation without levying any charges. Authorities frequently and without evidence suspect Roma of violating laws against "minor hooliganism" based upon racist preconceptions.
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- Belarus: World War and Revolution. Country Studies.
- McMeekin, Sean (2017). The Russian Revolution: A New History. London: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-46503-990-6. p. 68.
- See the Wikipedia article on Great Retreat (Russian).
- Belarus. Encyclopedia of the First World War].
- See the Wikipedia article on Ober Ost.
- See the Wikipedia article on Operation Minsk.
- Belarus: Belorussian Territory under Poland. Country Studies.
- Misiuk, Andrzej (2007). "Police and Policing Under the Second Polish Republic, 1918–39". Policing Interwar Europe: Continuity, Change and Crisis, 1918–40. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 159–171. ISBN 978-0-230-59986-4.
- Marples, David (1999). Belarus: A Denationalized Nation. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 90-5702-343-1.
- Belarus: World War II. Country Studies.
- The Holocaust in Belarus. Facing History.
- The Partisan Movements in Belarus During World War II (Part One). Jamestown Foundation.
- Belorussia: Under Soviet Rule, 1917--1957. JSTOR.
- Belarus: Stalin and Russification. Country Studies.
- The Politicization of Chernobyl in Belarus. Dissent Magazine.
- Exploring Chernobyl’s Imprint on Neighboring Belarus. Atlas Obscura.
- Belarus cursed by Chernobyl. BBC News.
- In Belarus, Covid-19 is a modern-day Chernobyl. CNN.
- Belarus: Perestroika. Country Studies.
- See the Wikipedia article on Kurapaty.
- Independent Belarus. Country Studies.
- See the Wikipedia article on Belovezha Accords.
- Europe’s last dictator: The rise and (possible) fall of Alyaksandr Lukashenka. Atlantic Council.
- Belarusian leader Lukashenko replaces heads of KGB and security council: Belta. Reuters.
- Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko under fire. BBC News.
- Belarus President dismissed Covid-19 as 'psychosis.' Now he says he caught it. CNN.
- See the Wikipedia article on National Assembly of Belarus.
- Why Does Europe Engage With Belarus's Rubber Stamp Parliament? Belarus Digest.
- Judicial Sytem. Belarus in Focus.
- Belarusian authorities crank up pressure on opposition. Associated Press.
- Lawyers In Belarus Face Disbarment, Arrest Just For Representing Opponents Of Lukashenka. Radio Free Europe.
- Belarus poll workers describe fraud in Aug. 9 election. Associated Press.
- Who is making sure Belarus' presidential election is free and fair? Euro News.
- Belarus Says Longtime Leader Is Re-elected in Vote Critics Call Rigged. New York Times.
- Belarus President Is Secretly Inaugurated Weeks After Disputed Election. NPR.
- Battling protests, Lukashenko says Putin agreed to help security of Belarus. Reuters.
- Xi congratulates Lukashenko on re-election as Belarusian president. Xinhua Net.
- Why a stolen election in Belarus matters to America and the world. USA Today.
- Lukashenko's Belarus. New York Times.
- I often relive my scrape with the Belarus KGB. The Telegraph.
- Belarus KGB Puts Social-Media Channel Creators on Terrorist List. Bloomberg.
- The Belarusian KGB: recruiting from civil society. Belarus Digest.
- Maria Kolesnikova: Opposition leader says Belarus KGB put a bag over her head and threatened to kill her. Independent.
- Belarus president hints at fresh repression to keep grip on power. The Guardian.
- Belarus President Vows to Destroy Opposition. Voice of America.
- 'Tricks, truants and transsexuals': Lukashenko loyalists hit out over Belarus protests. Euro News.
- Belarus accuses western nations of sowing 'chaos and anarchy'. The Guardian.
- Belarus Resumes Farming in Chernobyl Radiation Zone. New York Times.
- Exiled scientist: 'Chernobyl is not finished, it has only just begun'. USA Today.
- Belarusian High Court Orders AP Reporter To Disavow Radioactive-Milk Story. Radio Free Europe.
- Belarus recognized as one of the worst countries in terms of freedom of speech. Human Rights House Foundation.
- Belarus. Freedom House.
- Belarus: Attacks on journalists mount amid protest crackdown. Amnesty International.
- Belarus's Interior Minister Hints At Use Of Lethal Force As Lukashenka Likens Protests To A 'Terrorist' Threat. Radio Free Europe.
- More Than 1,200 Detained In Belarus As Protesters Face Tear Gas, Stun Grenades. Radio Free Europe.
- EU Threatens Sanctions As Belarusian Reportedly Beaten To Death By Security Forces. Radio Free Europe.
- Police Abuse Continues in Belarus. Human Rights Watch.
- Belarus: Systematic Beatings, Torture of Protesters. Human Rights Watch.
- Mass surveillance makes encryption 'essential' for activists in Belarus. The Verge.
- Belarus as surveillance state. Right to privacy at risk – Amnesty International. Belsat EU.
- Democracy activists stranded after Trump admin pulls funding for anti-censorship tools. NBC.
- Belarus: Mass Roundups of Roma People Must Be Investigated. International Federation for Human Rights.