Ireland can refer either to the island of Ireland or the Republic of Ireland, which recognises the name "Éire or, in the English language, Ireland" in its constitution. The choice of name was demonstrably political, and some concern was voiced that Northern Ireland would choose the name Ireland, having as much right. In fact, Northern Ireland considered the name "Ulster" for a time. In the case of "Ulster", some of the territory of the province is located outside the jurisdiction of Northern Ireland. In the case of "Ireland", some of the territory (namely all of Northern Ireland) is located outside the Republic's jurisdiction.
Most natives of Northern Ireland refer to the country as "Southern Ireland", "the South" or "the Republic". It can cause significant confusion to refer to the Republic of Ireland as "Ireland". Especially with people foreign to Ireland. This, of course, was the intention.
Ireland is located in Europe, west from Great Britain across the Irish Sea. There are four historic provinces to Ireland; Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connacht, and thirty-two historic counties, six in Northern Ireland and twenty-six in the Republic. Leinster, Munster and Connacht are located in the Republic of Ireland, along with three of the nine counties of Ulster, the remaining six counties making up Northern Ireland, leading to Northern Ireland's unofficial title of "Ulster", as much of Ulster is located in Northern Ireland.
Until U.S. President Bill Clinton sent former Senator George Mitchell over to help with negotiations, instructing him not to come home until they stopped fighting, Ireland was the scene of ugly violence over the issue of Northern Ireland. The British Army acted as an occupation force, and the Irish Republican Army and "Loyalist" paramilitaries both engaged in terrorist attacks on civilians in various parts of Great Britain and Ireland. The Irish were also brutal to each other. The British Government claimed that the army prevented this violence and brutality from escalating further, despite actually murdering children and boy bands. This battle, essentially fought over whether to allow Northern Ireland to come under the control of the Republic of Ireland, was referred to colloquially as the "Troubles".
Amazingly, things have quieted down tremendously since the agreements were forged. This has led to a meteoric rise in tourism, since so many Irish emigrated over the last century or two with very few of them returning (Frank McCourt and his family were extremely unusual in this regard), and they are prime candidates for nostalgia and genealogy trips to the "Emerald Isle". Ireland's economy was growing at almost double-digit rates for many years after the blowing things up stopped.
Nationalism and Loyalism
To understand the conflict in Ireland, one must understand the political ideals of both sides and the history of British (and English) control in Ireland. The Nationalists believe that the whole of Ireland should be united and that the British government have no valid claim or ownership over Ulster. The Loyalists believe the exact opposite, that British control in Ireland is right. The Irish War of Independence ended in 1921 with what is now known as the Anglo-Irish Treaty. The treaty was what separated the island into two. The provinces of Connacht, Munster and Leinster were relinquished while most of Ulster remained under British control. Of course there were certain people who disagreed with this treaty which resulted in the Irish Civil War. Eventually the Irish managed to end this war and found their own Republic and the British had continued their oppression of the North. Catholics in Northern Ireland were perceived to have been treated like second class citizens and their votes had counted for less in certain local elections - this was largely due to the fact that the votes of landowners and landlords (the majority of whom were Protestant Unionists) held greater value in elections. The foundation of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (also known as the "Provos") occurred well before any of these grievances took place, and had been brewing for decades, and a Civil Rights Movement had also started. This was an extremely dark time for the North and both sides were guilty of killing civilians. The most infamous is Bloody Sunday where civil rights protesters were gunned down by British paratroopers without provocation in 1972 this particular event had provoked much controversy over the years as no arrests were made and the soldiers claimed that the protesters had weapons and fired first. This has been proven as a lie since, and the British Prime Minister David Cameron condemned the soldiers involved in the massacre.
In May 2015, The Republic voted by a large margin to modify the Irish constitution allowing same sex marriage on equal terms with heterosexual marriage. This happened despite opposition from the Irish Roman Catholic Church. Northern Ireland allows gay civil partnerships but does not call them marriage.
Abortion is illegal in Northern Ireland and in the Republic of Ireland, except under very restricted conditions where the woman's life is at serious risk. Women who need an abortion must travel to Great Britain or elsewhere (assuming they have the money) or get pills online or get an illegal back street abortion. This is expect to change in the Republic Of Ireland after a referendum to remove constitutional restrictions on abortion passed with strong public support in May 2018.
There are no snakes in Ireland. Legend has it that St. Patrick, the Patron Saint of Ireland, banished them. St Patrick was so efficient at this that not only did he banish the snakes from Ireland, but he also removed all paleontological evidence of them having ever been in Ireland in the first place. There is a popular legend the snakes are Pagans but St. Patrick's role in stopping Paganism is very exaggerated by Christians. and according to author P. Sufenas Virius Lupus "St. Patrick’s reputation as the one who Christianized Ireland is seriously over-rated and overstated, as there were others that came before him (and after him), and the process seemed to be well on its way at least a century before the “traditional” date given as his arrival, 432 CE."
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- It would be useful to have a report on your conversation with the Foreign Office. When informing the German Government of the change of the name of the State, you should not emphasise the Irish form. The change of name would not, of course, have the same political or national significance if 'Éire' were to be used by foreigners. As you are aware, it is the hope of everybody in this country that the use of 'Ireland' to describe the Twenty-six Counties will have a definite psychological effect in favour of the unity of this country on both Irish and foreign minds. National Archives of Ireland, document dated 2nd Dencember 1937.
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